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Nejd Asir
First posted on June 14th 2007, last revised on November 27th 2011








Political History . The Hejaz is the historic nucleus of the Caliphate; however the capital of the Caliphate shifted to Damascus in 661 (Umayyad Caliphate), to Baghdad in 750 (Abbasid Caliphate). Hejaz became a region of central religious importance (pilgrimage to Mecca), and a region of marginal political importance. The authority of the Abbasid Caliphs from the 9th century onward was nominal; Hejaz became an annex to Egypt, a province of the Fatimid Dynasty (970-1171), the Ayyubid Dynasty 1171-1250 and then of the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo (1250-1517). Mamluk sovereignty over Hejaz was temporarily challenged by the Rasulid Dynasty ruling Yemen 1229-1450. In 1517 the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo was conquered and annexed by the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman rule, at first the Sharifate of Mecca enjoyed political autonomy (1517-1803). Then Hejaz came briefly under Wahhabid rule. From 1812 to 1841 the Hejaz was ruled as a province of Ottoman Egypt. Theoretically from 1803, in reality from 1841 to 1916, Hejaz was an Ottoman Elayet. In 1916 the Kingdom of Hejaz was established (Arab Revolt). In 1925 it was conquered by Ibn Saud, King of Nejd, who then called himself King of Hejaz and Nejd; the combined kingdom in 1932 was renamed Saudi Arabia.

Economic History . The cities of Mecca and Yathrib (Medina) had risen to importance because they controlled much of the caravan trade connecting the ports of Yemen with the ports such as Gaza on the Mediterranean. Hejaz produced little to export, depended heavily on the trade of foreign products. Trade routes shifted soon after the 7th century.
By the 15th century, the Red Sea was a Muslim lake; Portuguese traveller Pero de Covilhao had to disguise himself as a Muslim on his journey through Egypt to India. In the Portuguese-Mamluk war, the latter succeeded in holding on to the Red Sea; it remained a remote backwater until the 18th century. In 1798 Napoleon landed a French army in Egypt, planning to move it on to India; he recognized the strategic importance of the Red Sea. Soon after, agents of the East India Company explored options to establish a communication line through the Red Sea to British India. From the later 19th century onward, European travellers visited the Hejaz, European captains steered their ships into the Red Sea. Steamship technology would make this easier. The construction of the Suez Canal 1859-1869 then greatly increased the strategic importance of the region. Its economic importance (chief port Djeddah) was still rather limited, as Hejaz did not offer any export products and the population of Hejaz provided a limited market for European consumer goods.

Spelling Varieties : Hejaz, Hijaz, Hedjaz, Hidjaz, Hedschas

Hejaz 1916-1925

Timeline Hejaz


Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia (2009)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern from Wikipedia
Hejaz, from Old Countries
Historical Das Halbinselland Arabien. Pt.2.2 : Die Westseite der arabischen Halbinsel. Nord-Arabien, Hedschas und Nedschd, vol.XIII of C. Ritter, 1847, in German, GB
A. d'Avril, L'Arabie contemporaine: avec la description du p?erinage de La Mecque et une nouvelle carte g?graphique de Kiepert, 1868, in French, GB
Links
Organizations T.E. Lawrence Studies
Timelines
Accounts of History Modern Article : Hejaz : History, from Wikipedia
Historical L.A. Sedillot, Histoire des Arabes, 1854, in French, GB
Specific Periods Before 1517 D.M. Varisco, Texts and Pretexts : the Unity of the Rasulid State under al-Malik al-Muzaffar, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1993 Volume 67 Numero 67 pp.13-24, Persee
1517-1803 Article : Sharifate of Mecca, from Wikipedia
1803-1841 L.A.O. d Corancez, Histoire des Wahabis, depuis leur origine jusqu'?la fin de 1809, , 1810, in French, GB
1841-1918 Article : Hejaz Vilayet, from Wikipedia
1916-1925 Article : Kingdom of Hejaz, from Wikipedia
F.St. Maude, The king of Hedjaz and Arab independence, with a facsimile of the proclamation of June 27, 1916 (1917), IA
The Hejaz 1916-1917, from Roger's Study
since 1926 Article : Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz, from Wikipedia
Politics Foreign Relations Geschichte Österreichisch-Saudischer Beziehungen (History of Austrian-Saudi Arabian Diplomatic Relations), from Austrian Embassy, Riyadh, in German
Consulate General of the United States, Jeddah - History
N. Yesilyurt, Turning Point of Turkish-Arab Relations : A Case Study of the Hijaz Revolt
French Consulate in Djeddah, a 176 Year History, from Arab News July 14 2005
Military Wars of Saudi Arabia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Article : Arab Revolt, from Wikipedia; Jordan : The Great Arab Revolt
Medals : Kingdom of Hejaz, from Awards for Gallantry, Leadership & Service : The First Century, 1862-1961
Arabia (Yemen-Hejaz) Front Side, from Forsnet
Article : Ajyad Fortress, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Currency & Finances C. Kadafar, Les troubles monetaires de la fin du XVIe siecle et la prise de conscience ottomane du declin Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilisations Annee 1991 Volume 46 Numero 2 pp.381-400, Persee
Trade R. von Neimans, Das rothe Meer und die Küstenlaender im Jahre 1857 in handelspolitischer Beziehung beleuchtet nach eigener Anschauung waehrend d. Monate Juni - Nov. 1857 an der Küste v. Hedjaz 1858, in German, GB
G.F. Dassi, Notes on Sueis and its trade with the ports of the Red Sea (Suez) 1859, GB
Food is Power : Hedjaz, p.13 in J. MacIntyre, The influence of aristocracies on the revolutions of nations: considered in relation to the present circumstances of the British Empire 1843, GB
Notes on the Levant Trade : A New Market for British Cotton Manufacturers, pp.170-176 in vol.1 of The Exchange: a home and colonial monthly review of commerce 1862, GB
Y. Ragheb, Les marchands itinerants du monde musulman , Actes des congres de la Societe des historiens medievistes de l'enseignement superieur public Annee 1996 Volume 26 pp.177-215, Persee
H.A.S. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt vol.1 1819, vol.2 1819, GB
Ethnography Hejaz, pp.2595-2620 in vol.4A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Article Hajj, from Wikipedia
G. Veinstein, Les pelerins de La Mecque a travers quelques inventaires apres deces ottomans (XVIIe - XVIIIe siecles), Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1981 Volume 31 pp.63-71, Persee
Local History History of Jeddah, from Asia Rooms, from Ministry of Hajj, from Wikipedia, from Global Security
History of Ta'if, from Wikipedia
History of Medina, from Wikipedia
History of Mecca, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Saudi Arabia, search Lighthouse Explorer for Saudi Arabia
Article Hejaz Railway, from Wikipedia
Biographies Articles Sherif Husain bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, from Wikipedia
Others B.F.E. Keeling et al., Report on the Delimitation of the Turco-Egyptian Boundary, Between the Vilayet of the Hejaz (1908), posted on Internet Archive
A. le Chatelier, Les confreries musulmanes du Hedjaz (1887) in French, posted on Internet Archive
F. Wüstenfeld, Das Gebiet von Medina, nach Arabischen Geographen beschrieben (1873) in German, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), Regnal Chronologies : Hejaz
Other Arab Polities, from World Statesmen
I. Mladjov, Rulers of Hijaz and Jordan
Population Statistics Historical Statistical data : Saudi Arabia, Provinces, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Yearbooks Statesman's Year-Book, 1921, p.1348, IA
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
HiJazzey, Old Photos of the Hijaz
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on the Hejaz
Archive Deposits Nationaal Archief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van het Consulaat te Djeddah (Turkije / Saoedi-Arabie), 1873-1930, later Nederlands Gezantschap in Saoedi-Arabie (Djeddah), 1930-1950
Search Foreign Relations of the United States for Hejaz
Constitutions, Laws Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Hegiaz, 18 entries, in Italian
Treaties
Document Collections The Letters of T.E. Lawrence
Gertrude Bell Letter Archive, Univ. of Newcastle
British Intelligence Reports on the Creation of Saudi Arabia, published by IDC Publishers
A Collection of First World War Military Handbooks of Arabia, 1913-1917, from Archive Editions
Individual Documents Rapport de la Commission sanitaire ottomane du Hedjaz sur l'exploitation des ports de la mer Rouge, 1867, in French, GB
United States Department of State / Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1928 pp.62-68 : Hejaz and Nejd 1928
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Saudi Arabia : Aerial Survey Department Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Jiddah
collections Historical Maps of Saudi Arabia, from The Map Database
Historical and Political Maps of Arabia, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Saudi Arabia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Saudi Arabia, Maps of the History of Saudi Arabia, Wikimedia Commons
PBS, Global Connections : The Middle East : Maps
Mohammad al Kurbi Collection of Maps and Prints
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Arabia, Hejaz
Hejaz, hindsight
Hejaz, contemporary Arabia 1875, 1904, 1906, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
Map : Hejaz 1922, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Hejaz, Jidda, Mecca, Medina, from EB 1911
Article Hidschas, Dschidda, Medina, Mekka, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Arabia, from EB 1902
Religious Arabien, pp.700-705 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economical Entry : Djidda, in J.R. McCulloch, A dictionary, practical, theoretical, and historical, of commerce, 1840 ed. vol.2 p.568, 1850 ed. pp.490-491 GB
Trade of Arabia and Navigation on the Red Sea, pp.371-381 in J. MacGregor, Commercial statistics: A digest of the productive resources, commercial legislation, customs tariffs ... of all nations 1844, GB
Arabia : Hejaz, pp.24-25 in W. Waterston, A cyclopaedia of commerce, mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, and navigation 1846, GB
Entry : Djidda, pp.547-548 in vol.1 of I.S. Homans, A cyclopedia of commerce and commercial navigation 1859, GB
Arabia : Hejaz, pp.24-25 in W. Waterston, A cyclopaedia of commerce, mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, and navigation 1863, GB
Arabien, pp.374-376 in vol.1 of V.F. Klun, Allgemeine Handels-Geographie, 1868, in German, GB
Political Entry : Hejaz, pp.468-473 in vol.7 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations 1769, GB
G. Salame, Political Power and the Saudi State, pp.579-600 in A.H. Hourani, The Modern Middle East: a reader, 1993, GB; contains reference to the political structure of Hijaz at the time of the Saudi conquest
Geographical L'Arabie Heureuse, pp.63-66 in vol.4 of J. Hübner, La g?graphie universelle, 1746, in French, GB
Entry : Hejaz, pp.468-473 in vol.7 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of All Nations, 1769, GB
Die Landschaft al-Hedschas, pp.623-641 in Anton Fridrich Büschings Erdbeschreibung 1792, in German, GB
Hedjaz, pp.202-204 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography 1826, GB
El-Hejaz, pp.504-514 in W. Hughes, S. Maunder, The treasury of geography, physical, historical, descriptive, and political, 1860, GB
Arabia, pp.365-367 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Arabia pp.212-213 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnographic Article : Hedjaz, pp.578-581 in vol.3 of Encyclopedie des Gens du Monde 1840, in French, GB
Historical Entry : Hejaz, pp.359-364 from vol.18 of G. Sale, An Universal history, from the earliest account of time, 1748, GB
Entry : Kingdom of Hejaz, pp.134-135 in vol.9 of W.F. Mavor, Universal history, ancient and modern 1804, GB
Entry : Hedschas, pp.110-113 in vol.5 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1806, in German, GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Hejaz, p.294 in vol.2 of E.W. Whitaker, A Complete System of Universal History, 1821, GB
Hejaz, or the Holy Land of the Muslims, pp.191-231 in A. Crichton, The history of Arabia: Ancient and modern, 1833, GB
Hejaz, or the Holy Land of the Muslims, pp.168-204 in A. Crichton, The history of Arabia: Ancient and modern, 1845, GB
Ethnographical Arabie, pp.381-382 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides J. Conder, The Modern Traveller, Arabia, 1825 ed., GB, 1830 ed., GB
Travelogues 1250-1517 J.W. Jones, The travels of Ludovico di Varthema in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix, in Persia, India, and Ethiopia: A.D. 1503 to 1508 1863, GB; look for Hijaz, Mecca, Zida etc.
1517-1750
1750-1805 E. Yrwin, A series of adventures in the course of a voyage up the Red-Sea: on the coasts of Arabia and Egypt; and of a route through the desarts of Thebais, in the year 1777. With a supplement of a voyage from Venice to Latichea; and of a route through the desarts of Arabia, by Aleppo, Bagdad, and the Tygris to Busrah, in the years 1780 and 1781. In letters to a lady vol.1 1787, vol.2 1787, GB
H. Rooke, Travels to the coast of Arabia Felix, and from thence by the Red-Sea and Egypt, to Europe: Containing a short account of an expedition undertaken against the Cape of Good Hope : In a ser. of letters, 1783, GB
The travels of Ali Bey: in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, and Turkey, between the years 1803 and 1807 vol.2 1816, GB
1805-1841 M. Tamissier, Voyage en Arabie: s?our dans le Hedjaz, Campagne d'Assir vol.1 1811, vol.2 1811, GB
J.L. Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia; comprehending an account of those territories in Hedjaz which the Mohammedans regard as sacred (1829), IA
J.L. Burckhardt, Notes on the Bedouins and Wah?ys 1830, GB
J.R. Wellsted, Travels in Arabia, vol.1 1838, vol.2 1838, GB
Anon., Up the Red Sea and down the Nile, 1839, GB
1841-1869 R.F. Burton, Personal narrative of a pilgrimage to el Medinah and Meccah vol.2 1855, vol.1 1857, vol.2 1857, GB
J. Hamilton, Sinai, the Hedjaz, and Soudan: wanderings around the birth-place of the prophet, and across the .. (1857), IA
C. Didier, S?our chez le grand-ch?if de la Mekke, 1857, in French, GB
C. Didier, Cinquante jours au d?ert, 1857, in French, GB
H. von Maltzan, Meine Wallfahrt nach Mekka: Reise in der Küstengegend und im Innern von Hedschas (1865) in German, IA
1869-1917 J.F. Keane, Six Months in the Hejaz: An Account of the Mohammedan Pilgrimages to Meccah and Medinah (1887), IA
G.A. Khan, W. Sparroy, A. Vambery, With the pilgrims to Mecca; the great pilgrimage of A. II. 1319; A. D. 1902 (1905), IA
A. Ralli, Christians at Mecca (1909), IA
F. Irwin, The Road to Mecca (1916), IA
Institutions Archives Ottoman Archives (site in Turkish; see Wikipedia Article
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Saudi Arabia), Tentative Lists : Saudi Arabia
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Hejaz, from Numismondo
Search Coin Archives for Hejaz; Coin Catalogue of the Hejaz, from Numismaticon; Hejaz, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins; Hejaz and Nejd Counterstamps on Maria Theresia Thalers, from The Maria Theresia Thaler 1780
Coins of the Sharifs of Makkah, from Zeno
Stamps Encyclopedia of Postal History
Others Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Hejaz J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrang?es traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
Online Journals on Italy contents online Persee (Digital Library of Academic Journals, Maintained in France)
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-1999, Persee
History of Arabia, Saudi Arabia, Ottoman Arabia Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.833-841 Article Arabia : Saudi Arabia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge : UP 2002, KMLA Lib.Sign. 953.805 A459h
H.-J. Kornrumpf, Die osmanische Herrschaft auf der Arabischen Halbinsel im 19. Jahrhundert (1980), (Ottoman rule on the Arabian Peninsula in the 19th Century), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.39-50, in German [G]
Ritchie Ovendale, The Longman Companion to the Middle East since 1914, London etc.: Longman 1994 [G]
J. Hathaway, The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule 1516-1800, Harlow : Longman Pearson 2008 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 953.03 H363a
General Histories
Specific Topics H.-J. Kornrumpf, Die Hedschasbahn und Alois Musil (1995) (The Hejaz Railrod and Alois Musil), in : Analecta Isisiana LV, Istanbul : Isis 2001 pp.291-298, in German [G]
Historical Dictionaries J.E. Peterson, Historical Dictionary of Saudi Arabia, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1993 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article Arabia Kingdom of Nejd, Kingdom of Hejaz, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1925 pp.662-667 (data of 1923-1925) [G]
Article Arabia : Hejaz, in : New International Year Book 1919 p.50, 1920 p.48, 1921 p.49, 1922 p.49, 1923 p.50, 1925 p.46 [G]