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Anatolia Ottoman Empire
First posted on March 29th 2007, last revised on November 27th 2011






Before being conquered and annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, Syria was part of the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo (1250-1517). Ottoman Syria consisted of the Vilayets (provinces) of Syria (Damascus) and Beirut inclusively the Mutasarrifats of Beirut and Jerusalem; one might also include the Vilayets of Aleppo and Deir ez Zor, as they covered considerable parts of the territory of modern Syria. Ottoman Syria (the Vilayets of Syria and Beirut, Mutasarrifats of Beirut and Jerusalem) covered the territory of modern Lebanon, Israel/ Palestine and much of modern Jordan and Syria; if the Vilayets of Aleppo and Deir ez Zor are included, all of modern Syria as well as territory within modern Turkey and modern Iraq. In 1917 Ottoman Syria came under the occupation of British and French troops; in 1920/1922 it was partitioned into the French Mandates of Lebanon and Syria and the British Mandates of Palestine and Transjordan.



Timelines : Ottoman Syria
Regional Timelines : Alawite Territory / Latakia, Souaida / Druze Territory
Historical Encyclopedias on (Ottoman) Syria 1809-1909
Historical Atlas, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan
List of Wars : Ottoman Arabia


Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia (2009)









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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Article : Ottoman Syria, from Wikipedia
Historical Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, Des Osmanischen Reichs Staatsverfassung und Staatsverwaltung, vol.1, 1815, vol.2, 1815, in German, GB
J. Rennell, A treatise on the comparative geography of western Asia, 1831, GB
Armenië, Klein-Azië, vol.3 of N.G. van Campen, De Levant of Mohammedaansch Azie volgens de nieuwste Ontdekkingen, in Dutch, 1836, GB
G.M. Wortabet, Syria and the Syrians; or, Turkey in the dependencies (1856), IA
W.K. Kelly, Syria and the Holy Land: their scenery and their people, 1844, GB
H. Guys, Esquisse de l'état politique et commercial de la Syrie 1862, in French, GB
V. Quinet, Syrie, Liban et Palestine, géographie administrative, statistique, descriptive et raisonnée 1896, in French, IA
Links on History Category : Ottoman Syria, from Wikipedia
Organizations Institute for Palestine Studies
Ottoman and Near East Philatelic Society
Oriental Numismatic Society
Gibb Memorial Trust
International Ottoman History Society
Historical Dictionaries Habibullah's Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire and her times, online version, detailed
K.G. Mostras, Dictionnaire Geographique de l'Empire Ottoman (1873), posted on Internet Archive
B. d'Herbelot et al., Bibliotheque orientale : ou Dictionnaire universel contenant tout ce qui fait connoitre les Peuples d'Orient, vol.1 : A-E, 1777, vol.2 : F-M, 1778, vol.3 : N-Z, 1778, vol.4, 1779, in French, GB
Timelines click here for Syria since 1918, Ottoman Syria, at this site
from timelines.ws; from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General, Modern Articles Ottoman Syria, from Wikipedia
General, Historical Ottoman Historians : Database
H. Lammens, La Syrie, Precis historique, vol.1 1921, vol.2 1921, in French, IA
Specific Periods
16th century
17th century J. Besson, A. Carayon, La Syrie et la Terre Sainte au XVIIe siècle, 1862, in French, GB
18th century E.E.A.S. Lockroy, Ahmed le boucher: la Syrie et l'Egypte au XVIIIe siècle 1888, in French, IA
1798-1831
1831-1841 F. Perrier, C.H. Castille, La Syrie sous le gouvernement de Méhémet-Ali jusqu'en 1840 , 1842, in French, GB
A. Laurent, Relation historique des affaires de Syrie, depuis 1840 jusqu'en 1842 1846, in French, GB
1841-1861 G.N.B. de Salverte, La Syrie avant 1860, 1861, in French, GB
R. Edwards, La Syrie 1840-1862, 1862, in French, GB
J.L. Farley, The massacres in Syria 1861, GB
M. de Vogue, Les événements de Syrie 1861, in French, GB
La question de Syrie traite par un Syrien 1861, in French, GB
Jobin, La Syrie en 1860 et 1861, 1862, in French, GB
F. Lenormant, Histoire des massacres de Syrie en 1860, 1861, in French, GB
E. Poujade, Le Liban et la Syrie, 1845-1860 1860, in French, GB
1861-1917 J.E. Barker, The great problems of British statesmanship (1917), posted on Internet Archive, Ch. III : the Problem of Asiatic Turkey
H. Kayali, Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918 1997, University of California Press
Military Fortresses Articles : Citadel of Aleppo, Citadel of Damascus, Acre : Citadel of Acre, from Wikipedia
Acre Citadel, from Bible Walks
Military History
16th century
Article : Ottoman-Mamluk War 1516-1517, from Wikipedia
17th century
18th century
Napoleon's Campaign 1798-1801 Articles : French Campaign in Egypt and Syria 1798-1801, from Wikipedia
R.Th. Wilson, History of the British expedition to Egypt, vol.1, 1803, vol.2, 1803, GB
J.J. Ader, Expédition d'Egypte et de Syrie, 1826, in French, GB; Der Feldzug nach Aegypten und Syrien, in den Jahren 1798 bis 1801, 1827, in German, GB
F.D.A. Schneidawind, Geschichte der expedition der franzosen nach Aegypten und Syrien in den Jahren 1798 bis 1801, 1830, in German, GB
N. Bonaparte, Expédition de Syrie jusqu'à la prise de Jaffa, 1799, in French, GB
Egyptian-Ottoman War 1830-1831 Articles : First Turco-Egyptian War 1831-1833, from Wikipedia
E. de Cadalvene, E. Barrault, Histoire de la guerre de Méhémed-Ali contre la porte ottomane en Syrie et en Asie-mineure, 1831-1833 1837, in French, GB
Egyptian-Ottoman War 1839-1841 Articles : Egyptian-Ottoman War 1839-1841, from Wikipedia
Ch. Napier, The War in Syria (1842), vol.1, vol.2, IA
Acht Wochen in Syrien: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Feldzuges 1840, 1841, in German, GB
H. von Scholl, Abriss der Geschichte des Krieges 1840-41 in Syrien, 1866, in German, GB
Relation de la campagne de Syrie: spécialement des sièges de Jaffa et de Saint-Jean-d'Acre 1839, in French, GB
French Expedition 1860-1861 Articles : French Expedition in Syria 1860-1861, from Wikipedia
E. Louet, Expédition de Syrie: Beyrouth - le Liban - Jérusalem, 1860-1861, 1862, in French, GB
B. Poujoulat, La verite sur la Syrie et l'expedition française, 1861, in French, GB
C. de Rochemonteix, Le Liban et l'expédition française en Syrie, 1860-1861. Documents inédits du Général A. Ducrot, 1921, in French, GB
Other click here
L.A.F. Beaujour, Voyage militaire dans l'Empire Othoman vol.2, 1829, in French, GB; on Syria
H. Richard, La Syrie et la guerre, avec une carte 1916, in French, IA
Economy & Finances Currency & Finances Global Currency History : Syria
Trade Doumani, Beshara. Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus, 1700-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
A. Ruppin, Syria : an economic survey (1918), posted on IA
Alepine, Aleppo, Damask Entries, in N. Cox, K. Dannehl, Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820 2007, posted by British History Online
A. Martineau, Le commerce français dans le Levant 1902, in French, IA
P. Masson, Histoire du commerce français dans le Levant au XVIIIe siècle 1911, in French, IA
P. Masson, Histoire du commerce franc?ais dans le Levant au XVIIe sie`cle 1896, in French, IA
U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Flour and wheat trade in European countries and the Levant , 1909, IA
M. Epstein, The English Levant Company: Its Foundation and Its History to 1640 1908, IA
H.G. Rosedale, Queen Elizabeth and the Levant Company; a diplomatic and literary episode of the establishment of our trade with Turkey, 1904, IA
F.E.G. Saint-Priest, Memoires sur l'ambassade de France en Turquie et sur le commerce des Français dans le Levant 1877, in French, IA
F. Walsh, Account of the Levant Company, 1825, GB
F.V. de Forbonnais, Questions sur le commerce des François au Levant 1755, in French, GB
See Damask, Alepine, Aleppo, in N. Cox, K. Dannehl, Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820, 2007, posted by British History Online
B. Marino, Cafes et cafetiers de Damas aux XVIIIe et XIXe siecles, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1995 Volume 75 Numero 75-76 pp.275-294, Persee
E. Frangakis-Syrett, Trade practices in Aleppo in the middle of the 18th century : the case of a British merchant, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1991 Volume 62 Numero 62 pp.123-132, Persee
A. Raymond, Le deplacement des tanneries a Alep, au Caire et a Tunis a l'epoque ottomane : un "indicateur" de croissance urbaine, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1990 Volume 55 Numero 55-56 pp.34-43, Persee
D. Panzac, Commerce et commerçants des ports du Liban Sud et de Palestine (1756-1787), Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1990 Volume 55 Numero 55-56 pp.75-93, Persee
H.A.S. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt vol.1 1819, vol.2 1819, GB
Manufacturing : Steel Article : Damascus Steel, from Wikipedia
A. Bahnassi, Fabrication des épées de Damas , Syria Annee 1976 Volume 53 Numero 53-3-4 pp.281-294, Persee
Social History B. Marino, Cafes et cafetiers de Damas aux XVIIIe et XIXe siecles, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1995 Volume 75 Numero 75-76 pp.275-294, Persee
R. Dequilhem-Schoem, Idees françaises et enseignement ottoman. L'ecole secondaire Maktab'Anbar a Damas, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1989 Volume 52 Numero 52-53 pp.199-206, Persee
D. Chevalier, A Damas : production et societe a la fin du XIXe siecle, Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilisations Annee 1964 Volume 19 Numero 5 pp.966-972, Persee
A. Marcus, Poverty and poor relief in eighteenth century Aleppo, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1990 Volume 55 Numero 55-56 pp.171-179, Persee
A. Gangler, H. Gaube, A quarter of Aleppo in the 19th and 20th centuries. Some socio-economical and architectural aspects , Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1991 Volume 62 Numero 62 pp.159-168, Persee
A.K. Rafeq, Public Morality in the 18th Century ottoman Damascus, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1990 Volume 55 Numero 55-56 pp.180-196, Persee
A.N. Poliak, Feudalism in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the Lebanon, 1250-1900 1939, IA
Ethnography Article Circassians, from Wikipedia
Khater, Akram Fouad. Inventing Home: Emigration, Gender, and the Middle Class in Lebanon, 1870-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
G.W. Curtis, The Howadji in Syria, 1856, GB
A.A. Paton, The modern Syrians: or, Native society in Damascus, Aleppo, and the Mountain of the Druses, 1844, GB
Religion General Category : Religion of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Israel, from Wikipedia
F.J. Bliss, The Religions Of Modern Syria And Palestine (1912), IA
Islam Article Alawites, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Article : Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
St. Winter, The Shiites of Lebanon under Ottoman Rule, 1516-1788 , 2010, Cambridge Books Online
C. Estasblet, J.P. Pascual, Le logement des pelerins a Damas au début du XVIIIe siecle, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1995 Volume 77 Numero 77-78 pp.275-286, Persee
S. Lyde, The Ansyreeh and Ismaeleeh, a visit to the secret sects of northern Syria, 1853, GB
J.B.L.J. Rousseau, Mémoire sur les Ismaélis et les Nosaïris de Syrie, 1810, in French, GB
B.H. Springett, Secret Sects Of Syria And The Lebanon 1922, IA
Judaism Articles History of the Jews in Syria, Under Muslim Rule, from Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Syria, from Wikipedia; The Jews of Syria, from Jewish Virtual History Tour
G.W. Pieritz, Persecution of the Jews at Damascus: Statement of Mr. G. W. Pieritz, a Jewish Convert (1840), posted on Internet Archive
Druze Article Druze, from Wikipedia
Article Druses, from EB 1911
Article Les Druzes, from Wikipedia (French edition)
Article Druze, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
B.H. Springett, Secret Sects Of Syria And The Lebanon (1922), IA
W.H. von Dalberg, Mehaled and Sedli; or, The history of a Druse family, with some account of the Druses, an ancient people of Syria 2 vols., 1816, GB
J.G. Worbs, Geschichte und Beschreibung des Landes der Drusen in Syrien, 1799, in German, GB
Eastern Armenian Churches in Asia : Syria, from Armeniapedia
Armenian History : The Armenians in Syria. History of the Armenian Colony
J.F. Farley, The massacres in Syria, 1861, GB
List of Monasteries in Syria : Orthodox, from Wikipedia
Maalula Monasteries, Monastery of Mar Mousa al Habashi, from Sacred Destinations
Orthodox Monasteries : Syria, Lebanon, Israel
Catholic Article Melkite Greek Catholic Church, from Wikipedia
The Franciscans in Syria, from Christus Rex
List of Monasteries in Syria : Catholic, from Wikipedia
B. Heyberger, Les chretiens d'Alep (Syrie) a travers les recits des conversions des missionnaires Carmes Dechaux (1657-1681), Melanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes Annee 1988 Volume 100 Numero 100-1 pp.461-499, Persee
Protestant Article : Anglican-German Bishopric of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
S.L. Ollard, Bishopric in Jerusalem (1912), from Project Canterbury
History, from The Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem
History of Regions see History of Alawite Territory / Latakia, History of Jebel Druze, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine 1917-1948 at this site
Articles Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire, History of the Vilayet of Beirut, History of Vilayet/Province of Aleppo, Dayr az Zawr Province, from Wikipedia
Akarli, Engin. The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
A. Cohen, Ottoman Rule and the Re-Emergence of the Coast of Palestine ( 17th -18th centuries) , Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee 1985 pp.163-175, Persee
H. Guys, Statistique du pachalik d'Alep: topographie, climat, histoire naturelle , 1853, in French, GB
Sharaf Khan Bidlisi, Chèref-nameh: ou, Fastes de la nation Kourde, vol.1.1, 1868, GB trsl. into French by François-Bernard Charmoy; on Antakia, Alexandrette
Ellsworth Huntingdon, Palestine and its transformation 1911, IA
Local History Acre History of Acre, from Wikipedia
Aleppo History of Aleppo, from Wikipedia
A. Russell, The natural history of Aleppo, vol.1, 1794, GB
B. Masters, Power and society in Aleppo in the 18th and 19th centuries, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1991 Volume 62 Numero 62 pp.151-158, Persee
A. Raymond, Alep a l'epoque ottomane (XVIe-XIXe siecles), Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1991 Volume 62 Numero 62 pp.93-109, Persee
J.C. David, Les espaces publics a Alep depuis la fin du XIXe s. Urbanisme et pratiques des usagers , Geocarrefour Annee 2002 Volume 77 Numero 77-3 pp.235-244, Persee
E. Wirth, Alep dans la première moitie du XIXe siecle : un exemple de stabilite et de dynamique dans l'economie ottomane tardive, Revue du monde musulman et de la Mediterranee Annee 1991 Volume 62 Numero 62 pp.133-149, Persee
Alexandrette Article : Iskenderun : History, from Wikipedia
Amman History of Amman, from Wikipedia
Antioch History of Antioch (Antakia), from Wikipedia
Aqaba History of Aqaba, from Wikipedia
Beirut History of Beirut, from Wikipedia
Damascus History of Damascus, from Damascus Online, from Wikipedia
MacKintosh, Damascus and its People (1883), IA
Ph.S. Khoury, Urban notables and Arab nationalism The politics of Damascus 1860-1920, 2009, Cambridge Books Online
Gaza History of Gaza, from Wikipedia
Hama Article Hama, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Hebron History of Hebron, from Wikipedia
Homs Article Homs, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Jaffa History of Jaffa, from Wikipedia
Jerusalem History of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
Latakia Article Latakia, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Nablus History of Nablus, from Wikipedia
Doumani, Beshara. Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus, 1700-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Saida (Sidon) Article : Sidon : History, from Wikipedia
J. Lauffray, Les ports de Saida, Comptes-rendus des seances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres Annee 1948 Volume 92 Numero 3 pp.370-374, Persee
Institutions A Short History of Turkish Railways, by Trains of Turkey
Culture Online Books on the History of Syrian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
D. Schidorsky, Libraries in Late Ottoman Palestine between Orient and Occident, Libraries & Culture 33/3 1998
A Brief History of Ottoman Calligraphy
Biographies R. Mazza, Antonio de la Cierva y Levita : the Spanish Consul in Jerusalem 1914-1920, Palestine Studies
Others Leon Zeldis, Jewish and Arab Masons in the Holy Land

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen, Syria Page, scroll down for Walis of Damascus; Lebanon Page, has Emirs until 1840, Walis of Saida and Acre, Walis of Beirut, Mutasarrifs of Mt. Lebanon, Israel Page, has Mutasarrifs of Jerusalem
Lists of Consuls U.S. Consuls in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, from The Political Graveyard, incomplete lists
List of British Consuls General in Syria (Beirut) 1842-1909, from Your Archives
M.P. Pedani, Venetian Conculs in Egypt and Syria in the Ottoman Age
R. Dussaud, Georges Goyau. - Un precurseur : François Picquet, consul de Louis XIV en Alep et eveque de Babylone., Syria Annee 1944 Volume 24 Numero 24-3-4 pp.267-269, Persee
Lists of Patriarchs, Bishops List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch, from Wikipedia
List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch, from Wikipedia
List of Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchs of Antioch , from Wikipedia
List of Latin Patriarchs of Antioch, from Wikipedia
List of Patriarchs of Jerusalem, from OrthodoxWiki
List of Armenian Patriarchs of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
Anglican-German Bishopric of Jerusalem, from Wikipedia
Lists of Prices, Fees Article : List of Ottoman Postal Rates in Palestine
Documents Historical Yearbook Entries Alep et Alexandrette pp.470-471, Tripoli de Syrie pp.472-473, Saide et ses Dependances pp.473-474, in Annales Maritimes 1818, in French, GB
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Picture Gallery, from Ottoman Palestine
Postcards from the Holy Land. A Pictorial History of the Ottoman Era, 1880-1918
1908-1920, from Syrian History
Accidental Collections
Oriental Collections
Items on Ottoman Syria
Gertrude Bell Archive Photo Collection
Historic Camel Photos - Middle East
Universal Collections
Items on Ottoman Syria
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
New York State Archives, Global History and Geography : Syria, Photos; mostly on Palestine
Archival Deposits U.S. Department of State Jerusalem, Jaffa, and Haifa Consular Post Records, introduced by JewishGen
The Papers of Sir Mark Sykes 1879-1919, with special reference to the Sykes-Picot Agreement and the Middle East, Hull University Archives
Nationaalarchief (NL), Nederlandse Ambassade in Syrie (Damascus) [periode 1955-1974] en het Consulaat te Aleppo [periode 1904-1976] » Inventaris nr. 1
National Archives, UK, search for Aleppo, Beyrut, Damascus etc.
Search Foreign Relations of the United States for Palestine, Syria
Constitutions, Laws Ottoman Fermans, posted by the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Siria, 40 entries, in Italian
Albengo, Lois et coutumes suivies dans le pachalik de Jérusalem, 1860, in French, GB
Consular Reports Report on the Pachalik of Aleppo, doc.no.200 pp.46-52, in Public Documents Printed by Order of the Senate of the United States, 25th Congress 3rd Session 1838 vol.3, 1839, GB
Report on the commercial statistics of Syria, 1840, GB
Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, Beirut, vol.3 1854, 1857, pp.319-321, 1857, 1858, pp.159-163, Aleppo, 1858 1859 p.348, Latakia, 1862 pt.1, 1863, p.596, Beirut, Tripoli, Latakeea 1863, 1865, pp.503-511, Sidon, Damascus, Latakia, 1864, 1865, pp.647-651, Beirut, Sidon, 1865, 1866, pp.464-467, Damascus, Saida 1866, 1867, pp.429-432, Sidon, Jerusalem, Beirut 1867, 1868, pp.607-612, Beirut, Sidon 1868, 1869, pp.591-596, GB
Document Surveys Giuseppe Simone Assemani: Joseph Simonius Assemanns orientalische Bibliothek oder Nachrichten von syrischen Schriftstellern, (Bio-Bibliographie orientalischer Autoren) vol.1 1776, vol.2 1777, in German, GB
Document Collections Foreign Office (British) : Correspondence Respective to the Affairs of Persia 1845, posted on Internet Archive
Search Hansard for Syria
Palestine in Ottoman Archives, from Ottoman Palestine
Negociations de la France dans le Levant; ou, Correspondances, mémoires et actes diplomatiques des ambassadeurs de France a Constantinople et des ambassadeurs, envoyes ou residents a divers titres a Venise, Raguse, Rome, Malte et Jerusalem, en Turquie, Perse, Georgie, Crimee, Syrie, Egypte, etc., et dans les etats de Tunis, d'Alger et de Maroc, vol.1 : 1515-1546, 1848, GB, vol.2 : 1547-1566, 1850, IA, GB, vol.3 : 1567-1580, 1853, IA, GB vol.4 : 1581-1589, 1860, IA, GB
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Syria : Service Gographique de l'Arme (SGA), Dimashq
collections Atlas of Syria, from Wikimedia Commons
Historical and Political Maps of Arabia, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
PBS, Global Connections : The Middle East : Maps
Mohammad al Kurbi Collection of Maps and Prints
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Arabia
Category : Old Maps of Syria, Maps of the History of Syria, from Wikimedia Commons
Ottoman Syria, hindsight Geocurrents, Administrative Divisions of Ottoman Syria
Zionism-Israel, Map of Ottoman Levant
Unimaps, Syria 1914
Ottoman Syria 1900, Wikipedia
Ottoman Syria, contemporary H. Maundrelli, Conspectus Libani atque Antilibani, n.d. (1710s), Gallica
d'Anville, Syrie ety Palestine 1750, Gallica
Libaux, La Syrie moderne, n.d. (18th c.), Gallica
De Berey, Carte de la Syrie, n.d., 18th c., Gallica
Thuillier, Carte de Palestine et du Liban 1883, Gallica
Arabia 1875, 1904, 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
Syria 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Jerusalem
Croisey, Plan de Tripoli de Syrie 1764, Plan de Seide en Syrie 1764, Plan de la Rade de Sour en Syrie 1764, Gallica
d'Anville, Carte manuscrite de l'ile de Said, n.d., 18th c., Carte manuscrite des iles au devant de Tripoli, n.d., 18th c., Carte manuscrite des iles au devant de Sour ou Tyr, n.d., 18th c., Gallica
Anon., Tripolis, vicinarum terrarum descriptio, n.d., 16th c., Gallica
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Acre, p.93, Aleppo, p.263, Antioch pp.767-769 in vol.1 of Encyclopaedia Londinensis, 1810, GB
Articles Syria, Palestine, Aleppo, Deir ez Zor, Damascus, Beirut, Latakia, Tripoli, Acre, Shechem (Nablus), Jerusalem, Homs, Lebanon, Antakia, Hejaz Railway, Druses, Maronites, from EB 1911
Articles Syrien, Libanon, Palästina, Aleppo, Antiochia (Antakia), Ladikieh (Latakia), Homs, Hama, Damaskus, Hauran, Tarabulus (Tripoli), Beirut, Akka (Acre), Jafa, Gaza, Jerusalem (das jetzige / the present) Nabulus, Hebron, Drusen, Maroniten, Melchiten, Nestorianer, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Syria, Lebanon, Aleppo, Antioch, Damascus, Beirut, Acre, Jaffa, Gaza, Tripolis, Emesa (Homs), Hebron, Sichem (Nablus), Jerusalem after 1291, Melchites, Maronites, Druzes, West Syrian Rite (Jacobites), from Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1912)
Articles Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Aleppo, Damascus, Beirut, Jerusalem, Acre, Jaffa, Gaza, Shechem (Nablus), Hebron, from Jewish Encyclopedia (1901-1906)
Economic Du commerce d'Alexandrette et d'Alep, de Saide et de Chypre, pp.612-615 in vol. 1 of J.S. de Bruslons, Le Parfait Negociant, 1726, in French, GB
Of Aleppo pp.213-214, of Alexandretta or Scanderoon p.214, of Seyda p.215 J. Hewitt, A frontline upon money, coins, and exchange, 1755, GB
Commerce de Turquie et du Levant : Sirie, pp.1012-1028 in vol.5 of J.S. de Brulons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1765, in French, GB
Of the Levant Trade and that of Barbary, pp.614-619 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva: or, The merchant's directory, 6th ed. 1773, GB
Acre, p.17, Alep, pp.19-20, Damas, pp.82-83, Saide, p.236, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Syrie, pp.297-313 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Entry : Syrien, pp.632-643 in : J.F. Lange et al., Übersicht und Berechnung aller Münzen, Ellenmaasse und Handelsgewichte von allen Welttheilen, 1804, in German, GB
Acre p.2, Aleppo, pp.3-4, Damascus p.109, Sayde, p.380, in : P. Kelly, Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Damascus, pp.78-79, in W. Dickinson, Universal commerce 1818, GB; see also Acre pp.1-2
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Akka, Aleppo, Damaskus, posted by DTBSWS
Die asiatische Türkei, pp.44-45 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1842, in German, GB
Syria and Palestine, pp.125-156 in vol.2 of J. McGregor, Commercial Statistics. A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Shipping, Imports and Exports and the Monies, Weights and Measures of all Nations, 1844, GB
Die asiatische Türkei, pp.44-45 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1848, in German, GB
Political The Government of Scham/Damascus, pp.96, of Halep/Aleppo p.97, of Tarabolos/Scham p.98 in P. Rycaut, The history of the present state of the Ottoman Empire 1686, GB
Geographical Asiatic Turkey : Syria, pp.363-364 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Asiatic Turkey : Syria pp.210-211 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Historical Scanderoo, Antioch, Jebilee, Sayd, Acre, Damascus, Lebanon, Palmyra, Jerusalem, pp.453-469 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Syria, pp.35-62 in vol.43 of G. Sale et al., An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, 1765, GB
Tour Guides J. Conder, The Modern Traveller : Syria and Asia Minor, vol.1 1824, vol.2 1824, GB, vol.1 1830, GB
Quetin, Guide en Orient, 1851, in French, GB
(J. Murray) J.L. Porter, A handbook for travellers in Syria and Palestine vol.1 1858, vol.2 1868, GB
M. Busch, Die Türkei; Reisehandbuch für Rumelien, die untere Donau, Anatolien, Syrien, Palästina, Rhodus und Cypern (1870) in German, IA
Cook's tourists' handbook for Palestine and Syria 1876, IA, 1907, IA,
K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria: Handbook for Travellers (1894), IA
W. Ball, Syria : a historical and architectural guide 1907, IA
Travelogues Early voyages and travels in the Levant 1893, IA; travels by T. Dallam, J. Covel, 17th century
P. Lucas, Reise in die Türckey, Syrien, das Gelobte Land ..., vol.1, 1721, in German, GB
J. Green, A Journey from Aleppo to Damascus, 1736, GB
J. Pitton de Tournefort, A voyage into the Levant , 1741, GB
Ch. Thompson, Travels through Turkey in Asia, the Holy Land, Arabia, Egypt and other parts, 1767, GB
C.F. Volney, Travels through Syria and Egypt, in the years 1783, 1784, and 1785, vol.1, 3rd ed. 1805, vol.2, 3rd ed. 1805, GB
William Wittman, Sir Richard Phillips, Travels in Turkey, Asia Minor, Syria: and across the desert into Egypt, 1803, GB
R. Walpole, Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, and other countries of the East (1818), IA
J.M. Tancoigne, A narrative of a journey into Persia, and residence at Teheran, 1820, GB ; crosses Asia Minor from Constantinople
R. Walpole, Travels in various countries of the East, 1820, GB
J.H. Mayr, Johann Heinrich Mayr's Reise nach Konstantinopel, Aegypten, Jerusalem, und auf den Libanon, 1820, in German, GB ; crosses Asia Minor from Constantinople
J.L. Burckhardt, Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, 1822, GB
W.M. Leake, Journal of a tour in Asia Minor, 1824, GB
Syria and Asia Minor, vol.3 of J. Conder, The Modern Traveller, 1830, GB; here 1824 edition
J.S. Buckingham, Travels among the Arab tribes inhabiting the countries East of Syria and Palestine, 1825, GB
V. Monro, A summer ramble in Syria: with a Tartar trip from Aleppo to Stamboul, vol.1, 1835, vol.2, 1835, GB
E. Hogg, Visit to Alexandria, Damascus, and Jerusalem, vol.1, 1835, vol.2, 1835, GB
G. Jones, Excursions to Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus, and Balbec from the United States , 1836, GB
G. Robinson, Travels in Palestine and Syria, vol.1, 1837, vol.2, 1837, GB
J.G. Kinnear, Cairo, Petra, and Damascus in 1839, 1841, GB
F.W.R. Stewart Londonderry, A Journey to Damascus: through Egypt, Nubia, Arabia Petraea, Palestine and Syria, vol.1, 1847, vol.2, 1847, GB
G.W. Curtis, The wanderer in Syria, 1852, GB
J.L. Farley, Egypt, Cyprus and Asiatic-Turkey (1878), IA
G. Geary, Through Asiatic Turkey: Narrative of a Journey from Bombay to the Bosphorus (1878), IA
M. Sykes, Dar-ul-Islam; a record of a journey through ten of the Asiatic provinces of Turkey (1904), IA
Residence Memoires J.L. Porter, Five Years in Damascus (1855), vol.1, vol.2 posted on Internet Archive
J.L. Farley, Two years in Syria, 1858, GB
S.B. Johnson, Hadji in Syria: or, Three years in Jerusalem, 1858, GB
F.A. Neale, Eight years in Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor: from 1842 to 1850 vol.1 1851, vol.2 1851, GB
H.H. Jessup, Fifty-Three Years in Syria, vol.1 1910, vol.2 1910, IA
Institutions Archives Ottoman Archives (site in Turkish; see Wikipedia Article
Centre des Archives Nationales, Beirut, Lebanon
Musea
Monuments
Libraries Al Assad National Library
Official Symbols Coins Coins of Islamic Dynasties, from Zeno, click Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, Ayyubid, Mameluk, Ottoman etc.
Ottoman Coins, commercial site with informative articles

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on the Ottoman Empire Selected Works on the Ottoman Empire, from Ataturk Institute for Modern Turkish History
Bibliography Turkey and the Ottoman Empire, from Mideast Web
Bibliography : Ottoman History to 1808, by St.J. Shaw, Cambridge ebooks
Syriac Orthidox Church, Books and Publications
Bibliography Israel and Palestine before 1918, from Mideast Web
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangères traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on the Ottoman Empire
Online Journals full text online Persee (Digital Library of Academic Journals, Maintained in France)
Syria. Archéologie, Art et histoire 1920-, Persee
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-1999, Persee
Asiatic Annual Register 1-12, 1801-1812, GB
Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register 6-40, 1818-1843, GB
Oriental Herald 1-23, 1824-1829, GB
Table of Contents
Online
Journal of Palestine Studies 1971-
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts J. Hathaway, The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule 1516-1800, Harlow : Longman Pearson 2008 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 953.03 H363a
Ilan Pappe, A History of Modern Palestine, Cambridge : UP 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 956.9405 P218h
Kamal Salibi, A House of Many Mansions, The History of Lebanon reconsidered, Berkeley : Univ. of California Press 1988, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 956.92 S165h
Philip Robins, A History of Jordan, Cambridge : UP 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 956.9504 R657h
Arnold Blumberg, The History of Israel, Westport CT : Greenwood 1998, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 956.94 B658h
Economic History
Specific Topics David Dean Commins, Islamic Reform. Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria. Oxford : UP 1990 [G]
Daniel Pipes, Greater Syria. The History of an Ambition, Oxford : UP 1990, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956 P665g
Chapter 5 : The Arab Struggle for Independence, pp.70-91; 6 : The Second World War, pp.92-104, 7 : Post-War Unsettlement, pp.105-113, in : Peter Mansfield, The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, London : MacMillan (1973) 1976 [G]
Kais M. Firro, A History of the Druzes, Handbuch der Orientalistik (Handbook of Oriental Studies), supplemental volume no.9, Leiden : Brill 1992, in English [G]
Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands, A History and Source Book, Philadelphia : Jewish Publication Society of America 1979, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 909.04 S857j
Historical Dictionaries David Commins, Historical Dictionary of Syria, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1996, 299 pp. [G]
Bernard Reich, Historical Dictionary of Israel, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1992 [G]
Philip Mattar, Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, NY : Facts on File 2000 [G]


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