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Lebanon Turkey
First posted on July 5th 2002; last revised on February 14th 2009

Syria since 1990
Syria 1970-1990
Syria 1961-1970
Syria 1958-1961
Syria 1946-1958
Syria 1939-1946
Syria 1920-1939

for earlier history see History of Ottoman Syria

Timelines : Ottoman Syria, Syria
Regional Timelines : Alawite Territory / Latakia, Souaida / Druze Territory
Historical Atlas, Syria Page
List of Wars : Syria

Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia (2009)

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia French edition, from CIA World Factbook, countries - Syria
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Syria
Encyclopedia of the Orient : Syria
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from Hejleh
Category : Syria, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Syrie, from Wikipedia French edition
Links, on History from Virtual Library History
Category : History of Syria, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Histoire de la Syrie, from Wikipedia French edition
Historical Dictionaries Syrian Encyclopedia, from Damascus Online
Timelines click here for Syria since 1918, Ottoman Syria, at this site
from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Article History of Syria, from Wikipedia; Histoire de la Syrie, from Wikipedia French edition; from Global Security
from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Brief History of Modern Syria, from Damascus Online
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Syria; Governments on the WWW : Syria; Article Politics of Syria, from Wikipedia; Syria Profile, from International Crisis Group
Military click here
Article L'Armee d l'Air Syrienne, Campagne de Moyen-Orient, Massacre de Hama, from Encyclopedia Française
Article Military History of Syria, from Wikipedia
Syria's Nuclear Program (2007), Syria - Overview, Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Air Force, from Global Security
Orders, Decorations and Medals : Syria, from World Medals, by Jean Paul Leblanc
Economy & Finances Global Currency History : Syria
Article Economy of Syria, from Wikipedia; Syria - Economy, from Global Security
Syria's Oil Industry, from Source Watch
Ethnography Languages of Syria (15), from Ethnologue
Worldwide Refugee Information : Syria, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Forced Migration Online Research Guides : Palestinian Refugees in Syria
Syria, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Syria
Circassians in Syria, from Adyghe Ektob
Article Langue de Turoyo, from Encyclopedie Française
Article Syrian Turkmen, Armenians in Syria, Kurds in Syria, Greeks in Syria, Iraqis in Syria, from Wikipedia
History of Immigration from Syria, from Origins. Immigration Communities in Victoria
Syria, pp.4861-4878 in vol.7A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Syria, from Kirken i Norge (article missing)
Overview of Religious History of Syria, from EWTH
Article Alawites, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
The Franciscans in Syria, from Christus Rex
Article Melkite Greek Catholic Church, from Wikipedia
Armenian Churches in Asia : Syria, from Armeniapedia
Article Druze, from Wikipedia
Article Les Druzes, from Wikipedia (French edition)
Article Druze, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Syria, from U.S. Department of State
History of the Jews in Syria, from Wikipedia; The Jews of Syria, from Jewish Virtual History Tour
Armenian History : The Armenians in Syria. History of the Armenian Colony
History of Regions see History of Alawite Territory / Latakia, History of Jebel Druze at this site
Article : Levant, from Encyclopedie Française
Provinces of Syria, from www.statoids.com
Article Hauran, from Wikipedia
History of Cities History of Damascus, from Damascus Online, from Wikipedia
History of Aleppo, from Wikipedia
Article Homs, from Encyclopedia of theOrient
Article Hama, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Article Latakia, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Institutions History of Damascus University, from Damascus Online
Syria, from Airline History
Category : Rail Transport in Syria, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Syria; search Lighthouse Explorer for Syria
Bibliographies Search ISBN Database for Syria
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keywords Syrien, Syria (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Search RHS Bibliography for Syria
Search UK National Archive Online Library for Syria
Biographies List of Syrians, from Wikipedia
Liste des Syriens, from Encyclopedie Française
Executions Today : Syria
Culture Online Books on the History of Syrian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Syria
Syria, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Disaster History by Country : Syria, fromRelief Web
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Article Syria at the Olympics, from Wikipedia

Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Liste des Presidents de la Syrie, Liste des Premiers Ministres de la Syrie, from Encyclopedia Française
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Syria, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Syria, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Syria, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Damaskus (Syrien), from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Bureau of Statistics, Syria
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics, Syria, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Syria, from City Population
Election Results from Psephos; from IFES Election Guide (since 1998)
Elections and Electoral Systems around the world : Syria, from Area Studies, at Keele
Online Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Image Databank : Syrian History
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Oriental Collections
Items on Syria
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Universal Collections
Items on Syria
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Syria
Documents Documents on Syria (1916-), from Damascus Online
Records of Syria 1918-1973, published by Archive Editions
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Syria, from ILO, 47 docs. since 1947
Internet Law Library : Syria; Constitution, from ICL
Siria, from Archivio delle Costituzioni Storiche (1930 French language)
Souvenirs d'un carriere militaire, celle de Louis Eugene Coustilliere (Memoirs of a Military Career, that of L.E. Coustilliere), in French, contains documents 1919-1930, mainly on 1926
Medaille Commemoratif de Syrie Cilicie, from Medaille Decoration, text in French
Damascus Post Archive, from World News Network
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Syria, from United States Institute of Peace
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Siria, 40 entries, in Italian
Syria Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Search Hansard for Syria
Search CIA Released Documents for Syria
Nationaalarchief (NL), Nederlandse Ambassade in Syrie (Damascus) [periode 1955-1974] en het Consulaat te Aleppo [periode 1904-1976] ?Inventaris nr. 1
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Syria : Service Gographique de l'Arme (SGA), Dimashq
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas Syria page
Atlas of Syria, from Wikimedia Commons
Historical and Political Maps of Arabia, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Syria Maps, PCL, UTexas
PBS, Global Connections : The Middle East : Maps
Mohammad al Kurbi Collection of Maps and Prints
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Arabia
U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Syria 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Syria, Maps of the History of Syria, from Wikimedia Commons
Syria, hindsight
Syria, contemporary Arabia 1875, 1904, 1906, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
Syria 1906, 1922, 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary Damascus 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Entries Articles Syria, Aleppo, Deir ez Zor, Damascus, Latakia, Homs, Hejaz Railway, Druses, Maronites, from EB 1911
Articles Syria, Aleppo, Damascus, Emesa (Homs), Melchites, Maronites, Druzes, West Syrian Rite (Jacobites), from Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1912)
Articles Syria, Aleppo, Damascus, from Jewish Encyclopedia (1901-1906)
Articles Syrien, Aleppo, Ladikieh (Latakia), Homs, Hama, Damaskus, Hauran, Drusen, Maroniten, Melchiten, Nestorianer, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Aleppo, Damaskus, posted by DTBSWS
Archives, Musea, Libraries Al Assad National Library
Search U.K. National Archives for Syria
Search Cambridge Archive Editions for Syria
National Symbols Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Syria, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coins ofIslamic Dynasties, from Zeno, click Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, Ayyubid, Mameluk, Ottoman etc.
Coin Catalog of Syria, from Numismaticon; Coins from Syria, from World Coin Gallery; Syria, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Syria Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Fr. Levant 1885-, Ile Rouad, Syria Stamps 1919; Alexandrette, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Syria survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.231-299 in D. Commins, Historical Dictionary of Syria, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Syria
Bibliografie Syrie, from Clio Voyages Culturels
I.J. Seccombe, World Bibliographical Series 73 : Syria, Oxford : Clio 1987 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies C. Roussel, Les Druzes de Syrie, Bibliografie, IFPO
Bibliography of the cuneiform texts and inscriptions kept in Syrian Museums
Syriac Orthodox Resources : Books and Publications
serial publications
general bibliographies
Syria entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrang?es traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Schnurrer/Chauvin, Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux Arabes: publies dans l'Europe chretienne de 1810 a 1885 vol.3, vol.4, vol.5, vol.6, vol.7, vol.9, vol.10, vol.11, vol.12, 1892-1922, IA
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Syria
Online Journals full text online Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-2008, Persee
Syria. Archeologie, Art et histoire 1920-2005, Persee
Table of Contents
Historiography Article : Arabic Historiography, by E.M. Choueiri, pp.40-42 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
On the Middle East Ritchie Ovendale, The Longman Companion to the Middle East since 1914, London etc.: Longman 1994 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.361-374 Article Syria. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Ph.K. Hitti, Syria A Short History (1959), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods David Dean Commins, Islamic Reform. Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria. Oxford : UP 1990 [G]
Chapter 5 : The Arab Struggle for Independence, pp.70-91; 6 : The Second World War, pp.92-104, 7 : Post-War Unsettlement, pp.105-113, in : Peter Mansfield, The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, London : MacMillan (1973) 1976 [G]
Daniel Pipes, Greater Syria. The History of an Ambition, Oxford : UP 1990, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956 P665g
A. Ruppin, Syria : an economic survey (1918), posted on Internet Archive
Ch. Napier, The War in Syria (1842), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
U.S. Army, A short guide to Syria (1943), posted on Internet Archive
H. Belloc, The Battleground, Syria and Palestine (1936), posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria: Handbook for Travellers (1894), posted on Internet Archive
G.M. Wortabet, Syria and the Syrians; or, Turkey in the dependencies (1856), posted on Internet Archive
Minorities Kais M. Firro, A History of the Druzes, Handbuch der Orientalistik (Handbook of Oriental Studies), supplemental volume no.9, Leiden : Brill 1992, in English [G]
F.J. Bliss, The Religions Of Modern Syria And Palestine (1912), posted on Internet Archive
B.H. Springett, Secret Sects Of Syria And The Lebanon (1922), posted on Internet Archive
Historical Dictionaries David Commins, Historical Dictionary of Syria, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1996, 299 pp. [G]
Articles : Assyria pp.47-50, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]

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