1960-1971 1980-1989

Turkey 1971-1980

Administration . When street fighting occurred during the administration of PM Süleyman Demirel in 1971, the army demanded 'strong government". Demirel resigned, and a new cabinet under PM Nihat Erim was formed (1971-1972), followed by one led by Ferit Melen (1972-1973), another one by Naim Talu 1973-1974. General elections were held in 1973, marking the return to civilian rule. The post of PM now was held by Bülent Ecevit (DSP) 1974, Sadi Irmak 1974-1975, Süleyman Demirel (DYP) 1975-1977, Bülent Ecevit (DSP) 1977, Süleyman Demirel (DYP) 1977-1978, Bülent Ecevit (DSP) 1978-1979, Süleyman Demirel (DYP) 1979-1980. General elections were held in 1973 and 1977.

Foreign Policy . Turkey remained a loyal member of NATO.
In 1971, Turkey and the PR China established diplomatic relations.
Relations with Greece had deteriorated since a military junta had taken power in Greece in 1967. While Greece returned to democratic rule in 1973, radical Greek Cypriots in 1974 staged a coup d'etat, the coupists demanding Enosis, annexation of the island by Greece. Within a week, Turkish forces invaded, occupying the northern part of the island. Since 1974 Cyprus is partitioned into a Turkish north and a Greek south.
Most countries condemned the Turkish invasion; the U.S. declared an arms sales embargo against Turkey, which was lifted in 1978.
In 1976 Turkey claimed a share in the Aegean continental shelf, rejected by Greece.

The Economy . Turkey produced 13.5 million metric tons of wheat in 1971, 16.5 million metric tons in 1980 (IHS p.203).
B.R. Mitchell, setting the consumer price level of 1985 as 100, established the price level of 1971 as 1.5, that of 1976 as 3.2, that of 1980 at 19.8 (IHS p.960), indicating inflation accelerating in the second half of the decade.
The development of artificial lakes on the headwaters of Euphrates and Tigris since 1965 by Turkey threatened Syria and Iraq, whose irrigation agriculture depends on these rivers.
While Turkey does produce a limited amount of oil, it does not export oil and was affected by the Oil Crisis of 1973-1981.

Social History . According to the census of 1970, Turkey had 35.6 million inhabitants, the census of 1975 counted 40.3 million, the census of 1980 44.7 million.
In 1971, Turkey had 44,900 unemployed, in 1980 256,000 unemployed (IHS pp.109-110). In 1975 the Federal Republic of Germany stopped the hiring of migrant workers from Turkey.

Ethnic Minorities . The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) conducted a terrorist campaign against the Turkish state from 1975 to 1986. In 1978 the (Marxist) Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) was founded; it was to begin a terrorist campaign against the Turkish state in 1984.

Cultural History . Turkish athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Munich 1972 and Montreal 1976. Turkey boycotted the Summer Games of Moscow 1980.

Articles Politics of Turkey, Süleyman Demirel, Nihat Erim, Ferit Melen, Naim Talu, 1971 Turkish Coup d'Etat, Economy of Turkey, Accession of Turkey to the EU, Elections in Turkey, Foreign Relations of Turkey, Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), ASALA, Turkey at the 1972 SummerOlympics, Turkey at the 1976 SummerOlympics, Greco-Turkish Relations, Aegean Dispute, from Wikipedia
Timeline, from BBC News
Water for Sustainable Development in the Euphrates-Tigris Basin, by A. Kibaroglu
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Turkey, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics : Turkey, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Turkey, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1971 pp.743-744, 1972 pp.697-698, 1973 p.698, 1974 pp.692-693, 1975 pp.698-699, 1976 pp.675-676, 1977 pp.679-680, 1978 pp.683-684, 1979 pp.681-682, 1980 pp.680-681 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1975-1976 pp.1376-1385, 1976-1977 pp.1374-1383, 1978-1979 pp.1185-1194, 1979-1980 pp.1194-1203, 1980-1981 pp.1190-1199 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.260-262, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.263-265 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Americana Annual 1971 pp.691-693, 1972 pp.690-691, 1973 pp.691-692, 1974 pp.605-606, 1976 pp.559-560 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1980 pp.215-219 (Frank Tachau) [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 12th 2002, last revised on June 18th 2007

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