1971-1980 1989-2002







Turkey 1980-1989


Administration . Reacting to the deterioration of Turkish politics to in-fighting of the leaders of the established political parties, Süleiman Demirel and Bülent Ecevit, the Turkish military staged a coup d'etat in 1980. Martial law was declared. A new constitution was promulgated in 1982, the administration transferred to civilian authorities in 1983. General elections were held in 1983 and 1987.
Bülend Ulusu held the office of PM from 1980 to 1983; he was succeeded by Turgut Özal (ANAP), who served from 1983 to 1989.

Foreign Policy . Turkey remained a loyal member of NATO. Turkey applied for full EU membership in 1987.
In 1981 Mehmet Ali Agca, a member of the Turkish extremist Grey Wolves, attempted to assassinate Pope John Paul II. In 1984 Turkey formally recognized the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. In 1984 the Kurdish separatist PKK began a terrorist campaign against Turkish rule over Turkish Kurdistan. The PKK enjoyed clandestine support of Syria and Greece.

The Economy . Turkey produced 16.5 million metric tons of wheat in 1980, 20.5 million metric tons in 1988 (IHS p.203).
B.R. Mitchell, setting the consumer price level of 1985 as 100, established the price level of 1980 as 19.8, that of 1989 as 310.4 (IHS p.960), indicating a strong inflation over the entire decade.
Istanbul Stock Exchange was established in 1986.

Social History . According to the census of 1980, Turkey had 44.7 million inhabitants, the census of 1985 counted 50.6 million, the census of 1990 56.4 million.
In 1980, Turkey had 256,000 unemployed, in 1989 1.8 million unemployed (IHS p.110).

Ethnic Minorities . The Kurdish PKK began an armed struggle for independence in 1984. The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) conducted a terrorist campaign against the Turkish state from 1975 to 1986. While the Turkish state undertook measures to defend itself, it diverted from repressive policies of the past. PM Turgut Özal (1983-1989) was a Kurd.

Cultural History . Turkish athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Los Angeles 1984 and Seoul 1988. Turkey boycotted the Summer Games of Moscow 1980.
In 1985 the historic centre of Istanbul, Göreme Nat'l Park and the rock sites of Cappadocia, and the Great Mosque of Divrigi were declared world heritage sites, followed by the ruins of the Hittite capital Hattusas (1986), Nemrut Dag (1987), Hierapolis - Pamukkale and Xanthos - Letoon in 1988.






EXTERNAL
FILES
Articles Politics of Turkey, Süleyman Demirel, Turgut Özal, Economy of Turkey, Accession of Turkey to the EU, Elections in Turkey, Foreign Relations of Turkey, Turkish-PKK Conflict, Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), Abdullah Öcalan, Mehmet Ali Agca, Grey Wolves, 1980 Turkish Coup d'Etat, ASALA, Turkey at the 1984 SummerOlympics, Turkey at the 1988 SummerOlympics, Istanbul Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
Timeline, from BBC News
List of World Heritage Sites, from UNESCO
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Turkey, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics : Turkey, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Turkey, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1980 pp.680-681, 1981 pp.674-675, 1982 pp.678-679, 1983 pp.677-678, 1984 pp.676-677, 1985 pp.497, 798, 1986 pp.492, 796, 1987 pp.462, 764, 1988 pp.419-420, 716, 1989 pp.419-420, 716, 1990 pp.436-437, 732 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1980-1981 pp.1190-1199, 1981-1982 pp.1197-1206, 1983-1984 pp.1195-1203, 1984-1985 pp.1192-1200, 1985-1986 pp.1193-1201, 1986-1987 pp.1192-1202, 1987-1988 pp.1196-1203, 1988-1989 pp.1200-1207, 1989-1990 pp.1206-1213 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : The World in Figures 4th ed. 1984 pp.263-265 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Americana Annual 1988 pp.533-534, 1989 pp.538-540, 1990 pp.528-529 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Encyclopedia Year Book 1983 p.415 [G]
Article : Turkey, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1980 pp.215-219 (Frank Tachau) [G]


This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 12th 2002, last revised on June 18th 2007

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