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Ottoman Empire Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo
First posted on December 2nd 2011







From 395 to 1071, Anatolia had been part of the Byzantine Empire. In the Battle of Mantzikert 1071, Seljuk forces decisively defeated the Byzantine Army and opened Anatolia up for Seljuk raids amd settlement.
The Seljuk Sultanate temporarily extended from the Chinese border to the Aegean Sea. It then broke apart; Anatolia came under the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077-1307, sometimes called Sultanate of Konya, after its capital).
The Seljuks were a federation of Muslim Turkic and Turkoman tribes, held together by a common dynasty of rulers. Tribal leaders nominally under the sovereignty of the Sultanate temporarily formed states of their own, fighting wars on their ownm issued their own coinage; one of the more important such dynasties were the Danishmends (1071-1178, capital Sivas). Meanwhile, the Byzantine Empire had held on to coastal regions and adjacent islands.
The conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204 resulted in the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire. The core now was held by the Latin Empire (1204-1261). In the northeast, the Empire of Trebizond (until 1468), in the Southeast the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (until 1375) gained political independence. The Empire of Nicaea was to liberate Constantinople in 1261 and to restore the Byzantine Empire.
In the Battle of Kose Dag 1243, the Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols and the Sultanate of Rum became a vassall of the Il-Khanate. In the 14th century, the Il-Khanate disintegrated, and so did the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Now Muslim Turkish/Turkoman beyliks emerged, in part as fragments of the Sultanate of Rum, such as Karaman and Germiyan, in part carved out of hitherto Byzantine territory, such as Karasi, Aydin, Menteshe, and the historically most important one - that of the Osmans, better known as the Ottoman Turks.
The Ottoman Turks began, by the means of conquest, to form an Empire on both sides of the Dardanelles. By 1380 they had conquered all of western and central Anatolia. Timur Lenk in 1402 destroyed the Ottoman Army in the Battle of Ankara; Ottoman Anatolia was again divided in beyliks. The Timurid Empire was of short duration. The Ottoman Empire, by 1430, had recovered much of her former territory in Anatolia. One beylik which held out for some time was Karaman (until 1483).
The Ottoman conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo in 1517 and of Eastern Anatolia (Safavid since 1508, before held by the Aq Qoyunlu) in the early 16th century completed the unification of Anatolia under Ottoman rule.







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Article : History of Anatolia, from Wikipedia
Historical
Links Category : Anatolian Beyliks, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World : Asia Minor (EHW)
Organizations Turkish Historical Society
Türk Nümismatik Dernegi (Turkish Numismatic Society)
Georgetown University, Institute of Turkish Studies
Centre for Asia Minor Studies, Athens
British Institute at Ankara (BIAA)
Nederlands Instituut in Turkije
Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology
American Research Institute in Turkey
Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul
Pontian Greek Society of Chicago
Timelines Timeline Anatolia and the Caucasus 1000-1400, 1400-1600, from Metropolitan Museum of Art
Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : History of Anatolia : After the Turkic Migration, from Wikipedia
History of Anatolia 1075-1318, from Mehmet Eti, Anatolian Coins, in Turkish
General, Historical
Specific Periods Sultanate of Rum Article : Sultanate of Rum, from Wikipedia
K. Branning, History of the Anatolian Seljuks, 2001
Article : The Saljuqs of Rum, from Encyclopaedia Iranica
Anatolian Beyliks Article : Anatolian Beyliks, from Wikipedia
Historiography Review of D. Gurpinar, The Seljuks of Rum in Turkish Republican Nationalist Historiography, 2004, from MEDIEVALISTS.NET
Military Wars of the Ottoman Empire : Anatolia, at WHKMLA
Economy & Finances M. Önge, Caravanserais as Symbols of Power in Seljuk Anatolia, 2007
Seljuk Tiles and Ceramics, from Turkish Cultural Foundation
Turkish Clothing : History, from Turkish Cultural Foundation
Anatolian Carpet, from Turkish Cultural Foundation
Trade, from K. Branning, The Seljuk Han of Anatolia
Social History
Ethnography 1300-1914 Appearance of Turks in Anatolia, in Article : Turkification, from Wikipedia
Article : Pontic Greeks, Laz People, from Wikipedia
Martin van Bruinessen,
Religion D. Zeidan, The Alevi of Anatolia, Meria 1999
Molly McAnailly Burke, Jewish History in Anatolia
Index for Abraham Galante's Jews of Turkey, from SephardicGen
Üzeyir Özyurt, The Language of Kilim in Anatolia
History of Regions Geographical Regions Cilicia/Cukurova William Burckhardt Barker, Lares and penates: or, Cilicia and its governors, being a short historical account of that province from the earliest times until the present day, 1853, GB
Christian States Armenian Kgd. of Cilicia Article : Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, from Wikipedia
Sirarpie Der Necessian, The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia 1962, IA
A. Vrtanesyan, A. Akopian, Armenian Cilicia, from Oriental Coin Database
Mehmet Eti, Coins of the Kingdom of Cilicia Armenia
G. Vandervort, Ancient Armenian Coins : The Cilician Kingdom
Medieval Cilicia, by Tom Oberhofer
Cilician Armenia, 11th-14th Century, from Armenian_History.com
R. Bedrosian, Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle, composed in Armenian Cilicia, covers 951-1272
Article : Catholicosate of Cilicia, from OrthodoxWiki
List of Monarchs of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, from Wikipedia
Knights Hospitaller The Knights Hospitaller held Smyrna in 1204 and from 1344 to 1402
Article : Izmir : Smyrna becomes Izmir, from Wikipedia
Empire of Trebizond Article : Empire of Trebizond, from Wikipedia
J.P. Fallmerayer, Geschichte des Kaiserthums von Trapezunt, 1827, in German, GB
Trebizond Empire Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
The Comnenian Empire of Trebizond, 1204-1468, from wegm.com (Coins)
Coat of Arms, from WappenWiki
Muslim States Ahis [c.1290-1354, 1361-1362] Article : Ahis, from Wikipedia
Ahlatshahs [1080-1207] Article : Ahlatshahs, from Wikipedia
Alaiye [1293-1471] Article : Alaiye, from Wikipedia
Alanya Amirs, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Alaiye Beyligi
Artuqids [1102-1231] Article : Artiqids, from Wikipedia
Artukids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Artriqids, from Anatolian Coins
Aydin [-1390, 1402-1425] Article : Aydinids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Aidin, p.758 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Aydin, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Aydinogullari
Aydinogullari 1308-1426, from Anatolian Coins, in Turkish
Canik [-1460] Article : Beyliks of Canik, from Wikipedia
Chobanid Beylik [-1309] Article : Chobanids, from Wikipedia
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Çobanogullari
Danishmend [1071-1178] Article : Danishmends, from Wikipedia
Oriental Coins Database : Danishmendid
Danishmendids, from Anatolian Coins
Dilmac [c.1120-c.1410] Article : Beylik of Dilmaç, from Wikipedia
Dulkadirids [1339-1521] Article : Dulkadirids, from Wikipedia
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Dulkadirogullari
Eretnids [1335-1381] Articles : Eretnids, Kadi Burhan-al-Din [-1399] from Wikipedia
Eretnids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Eretnabeyligi
Eshrefids [1280-1326] Article : Eshrefids, from Wikipedia
Esrefogullari 1280-1326, from Anatolian Coins, in Turkish
Erzincan [1380-1410] Article : Beylik of Erzincan, from Wikipedia
Germiyan [1380-1410] Article : Germiyanids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Kermian, p.759 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Germiyan, from J.R. Roberts, Medieval Islamic Coins
Germiyan Beylik, from Eron Coins, in Turkish
Germiyanogullari 1300-1429, from Anatolian Coins, in Turkish
Hamidids [1301-1423] Article : Hamidids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Hamid, p.759 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Hamidogullari
Beylik of Inal [c.1100] Article : Beylik of Inal, from Wikipedia
Inalids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Isfendiyarids [1291-1461] Article : Isfendiyarids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Kastamuni, pp.759-760 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Isfandiyarids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Karaman [1250-1487] F. Beaufort, Karamania, 1817, GB
Article : Karamanids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Karaman, p.759 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Karaman Museum, from Go Turkey
Qaramanids, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Karamanogullari
Karamanogullari 1256-1483, from Anatolian Coins, in Turkish
Karasids [1299-1361] Article : Karasids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Karasi, p.758 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Karesiogullari
Ladik [1261-1368] Article : Beylik of Ladik, from Wikipedia
Mengujekids [1080-1228] Article : Mengujekids, from Wikipedia
Mangujakids, from Anatolian Coins
Mentese [1260-1424] Article : Mentese, from Wikipedia
Entry : Mentesche, p.758 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Menteseogullari
Pervaneoglu [1261-1321] Article : Pervaneoglu, from Wikipedia
Ramazan [1352-1517] Article : Ramadanids, from Wikipedia
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Ramazanogullari
Sahib Ataids [c.1275-1341] Article : Sahib Ataids, from Wikipedia
Saltukids [1071-1202] Article : Saltukids, from Wikipedia
Salduqids of Erzurum, from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Salduqids, from Anatolian Coins
Sarukhanids [c.1300-1410] Article : Sarukhanids, from Wikipedia
Entry : Ssarukhan, p.758 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Eron Coins, in Turkish; click : Anadolu Beylikleri : Saruhanogullari
Teke [1321-1423] Article : Beylik of Teke, from Wikipedia
Entry : Tekieh or Tekke, pp.758-759 in vol.2 of A.L. Koeppen, The world in the Middle Ages: an historical geography, 1856, trsl. from the German, GB
Tzachas [1081-1095] Article : Tzachas, from Wikipedia
Local History Ankara, from Wikipedia, Article : Trabzon : Ancient and Medieval, from Wikipedia
Article : Adana : History, from Wikipedia
History of Ephesus : Turks in Ayasuluk, from Selçuk-Ephesus
Medieval Gordion, from Gordion : Historical Overview
Article : Izmir : Smyrna becomes Izmir, from Wikipedia
Article : Antalya : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Konya : Seljuk Era, from Wikipedia
Article : Erzerum : Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Article : Sivas : Ancient and Medieval, from Wikipedia
Article : Sinop : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions
Culture Islamic Art : The Seljuks of Rum, from The David Collection
Seljuk Decorative Art, from K. Branning, The Seljuk Han of Anatolia
The Art of the Seljuq Period in Anatolia (1081-1307), from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Article : Seljuk Architecture : Anatolian Seljuk Architecture , from Wikipedia
A. Kuran, Anatolian-Seljuk Architecture
B. Bakir, I. Basagaoglu, How Medical Functions Shaped Architecture in Anatolian Seljuk Darüssifas (hospitals) and especially in the Divrigi Turan Malik Darüssifa, 2006
Seljuk Architecture and Urbanism in Anatolia, from EAHN
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Documents Image Databanks Turkey, from Images of Asia
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections
Historical Maps Modern, Wider Context Euratlas Periodis : Europe in the Year 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500
Eastern Hemisphere Maps : 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1400 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Modern, on Anatolia Explore Byzantium : 1092, 1143, 1218, 1350, 1453
Maps : Anatolia 1097, Anatolia 1200, Anatolia 1300, Eastern Mediterranean 1450, from Wikipedia
Maps : Latin Empire (prior to 1225), Byzantine Empire 1265, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : Anatolian Beyliks, from Wikipedia (14th Century)
Map : Esrefogullari, from Wikipedia
Map : Seljuk Sultanate of Rum 1190, from Wikipedia
Modern, Detail Map : Cilician Armenia 1199-1375, from Wikipedia
Map : Kingdom of Kilikian Armenia, 1199-1375, from Armenica
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious Articles Smyrna, Angora, Trebizond, Adana, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Smyrne, pp.990-991 in Dictionnaire de Numismatique, vol.32 of Encyclopedie Theologique, 1832, in French, GB
Economic
Geographical
Historical Adena, p.114, Aidin, Aidinelli, p.186, Ancyre, p.411, in vol.1 : A, 1740, Erzerom, p.122 in vol.3 : Chei-E, 1740, Sinope, p.295, Trebisonde, p.206 in vol.8 : Seh-Z, 1740, of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, in French, GB
Asiatic Turkey, pp.102-176 in D. Ramsay, Universal history Americanised, 1819, GB
Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Karaman Museum, from Go Turkey
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Coats of Arms
Coins Oriental Coins Database : Seljuqs of Rum
Anatolian Beyliks, 14th c., from J.R. Roberts, Early Islamic Coins
Mehmet Eti, Anatolian Coins
Numismata : David Ruckser, Coins of Cilician Armenia

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general
on Anatolia Bibliography, from K. Branning, The Seljuk Han of Anatolia
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
on Anatolia
Online Journals full text online Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-1999, Persee
Oriental Herald 1-23, 1824-1829, GB
Cahiers de la Mediterranee 2001-
Table of Contents
Online
International Review of Turkish Studies
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.920-972 Article Turkey and Ancient Anatolia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Douglas A. Howard, The History of Turkey, Greenwood 2001, 272 pages; KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1 H848h (focusses of the history of Anatolia)
Halil Inalcik, An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Vol.I : 1300-1600, Cambridge : UP 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1015 135e v.1
Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert (ed.), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Vol.2 : 1600-1914, Cambridge : UP 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1015 135e v.2
Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth, Wissenschaftliche Länderkunden : Türkei (Country Studies : Turkey), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1982, in German [G]
Specific Topics