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Georgia Azerbaijan
First posted on July 5th 2002, last revised on September 13th 2010








Historical Armenia
The Kingdom of Armenia was established c.600 B.C. Its core lay in the region to the south of the Caucasus Mountains. A client state of the Persian Empire from 550 to 330 B.C., during Hellenism Armenia regained her independence. In 301 A.D. Tiridates III. declared Christianity state religion, Armenia being the first country in the world to have done so. Conquered by the Sasanid Empire in 428 A.D.
In the course of the establishment of the Caliphate, the Emirate/Principality of Armenia (established in 636) was able to maintain political autonomy. In 884 the Principality of Armenia gained independence. In the mid 11th century, the Principality saw several regions break away; Bagratid Armenia in 1045 was conquered by the Byzantine Empire. In 1071 Armenia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks.
Now Armenian nobles established the Principality, later Kingdom of Armenia in Cilicia, (1080) 1199-1345. In Historical Armenia, the Zakarid Dynasty (1201-1330) was able to establish political autonomy. Historical Armenia suffered from a series of invasions, by Khwarizm Shah, the Mongols; in 1331 the Kara Koyunlu (Azeri Turks) took the Armenian capital of Ani and made it their own.

Armenia between the Ottoman Empire and Persia, and the Armenian Diaspora
From the early 16th century to the early 19th century, Historical Armenia was located on the (contested) border of the Ottoman Empire and Persia. Both empires were Muslim. The Armenians held on to their Christian religion, were tolerated, maintained a degree of autonomy (Ottoman millet system).
The country was under the administration of Muslims; the Ottoman Empire was a kaleidoscope of ethnicities. While we have no statistical data for this period of time, it is safe to say that significant groups of non-Christian-Armenians lived in the Historical Armenia. On the other hand, Christian Armenians specializing in trade and moneylending settled in non-Armenian cities throughout the Ottoman Empire and Persia and beyond in cities of India, Central Asia, the Ukraine and Poland - the Armenian Diaspora.

Armenia between the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Russia
In the 19th century a new power began to establish itself in the region - Russia. It annexed the Khanates of Erivan and Karabakh from Persia. in 1813/1828, Kars and Ardahan from the Ottoman Empire in 1878.
As these parts of Historical Armenia now were under the rule of Christian Russia, the Ottoman Empire went through the period of Tanzimat Reforms (1839-1878), aiming at the modernization of the empire. Armenians, no longer discriminated against by state policy, made the most out of the opportunities offered by a modern education system and the need of state bureaucracy for qualified personnel. When Sultan Abdulhamid II. pursued the policy of Hamidism, undermining the bureaucracy and civil society created by the Tanzimat Reforms, he saw in the Armenians scapegoats and he stirred up anti-Armenian pogroms.
Meanwhile, an Armenian National Movement had emerged, thriving toward an Armenian nation state, and looking for the protection of Russia.
When the Young Turks took control of the Ottoman Empire in 1908, aiming to transform the multiethnic Ottoman Empire into a Turkish nation state, they regarded claims of rival movements, most importantly that of the Armenians, on Anatolian territory, as a threat. When the Ottoman Empire entered World War I, the administration regarded the Armenian population (in the regions where it was most concentrated, Historical Armenia and Lesser Armenia) as potential collaborators with the enemy, and ordered their resettlement, an event which culminated in the Armenian Genocide, a term disputed by Turkish historians. In 1915 Russian forces conquered much of Historical Armenia, but in 1916 lost most of it again.

Modern Armenia
The events of 1915-1923 - Forced Relocation / Genocide, World War I and Turkish War of Independence, have resulted in the cleansing of Armenians of those parts of Historical and Lesser Armenia which became part of the Republic of Turkey (in present-day Turkey, Armenian Christians only are allowed to live in Istanbul).
The term "Armenia" is applied to Russian Armenia (i.e. Erivan with Karabakh, as the USSR ceded Kars and Ardahan to Turkey).
Russian Armenia briefly was independent 1918-1922, then part of the Transcaucasian SSR (1922-1936), then a separate Armenian SSR (1936-1991). Upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, (Russian) Armenia became independent. Supported by the Red Army, Armenia fought a war with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabagh (1991-1994). Relations with Turkey continue to be strained over the historical evaluation of the resettlement / genocide of 1915-1923, with Azerbaijan over the Karabakh issue.

Modern Armenia is much smaller in size than Historical Armenia. For sources prior to 1918, the term Armenia has a much wider application than for sources using the name to describe Russian/Soviet/independent Armenia.

Caucasus 1914-1918
Armenia 1918-1922

Historical Atlas : Western Asia Page






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Armenia, from Wikipedia; from Nations Encyclopedia; CIA World Factbook : Armenia; BBC Country Profile : Armenia; World Reference Desk : Armenia; Library of Congress, Country Studies : Armenia
Historical K. Koch, Die kaukasischen Länder und Armenien, 1855, in German, GB
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Armenia, from Wikipedia
Search MPRA for Armenia
on History Internet Resources of Armenian Studies : History, from Slavweb, click history
Category : History of Armenia, from Wikipedia
Armenian Photo Gallery (Armenian Pages)
Organizations National Academy of Science, Republic of Armenia, Institute of History
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
Division of Armenology and Social Sciences, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
Armenian Institute, UK
Society for Armenian Studies, American Historical Association
National Association for Armenian Studies and Research (U.S.)
Union of Armenian History Educators
Historical Dictionaries Armeniapedia
Caucasian Knot Encyclopedia
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws; from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Modern Article : History of Armenia, from Wikipedia
History of Armenia, from armenian-history.com
Historical M. Chamich, History of Armenia: from B.C. 2247 to the year of Christ 1780 , 1827, GB; trsl. from the Armenian by J. Avdall
J. Saint-Martin, Memoires historiques et geographiques sur l'Armenie vol.1 1818, vol.2, 1819, in French, GB
V. von Schuberth, Kurze historische Darstellung des gegenw?tigen Zustandes des armenischen Volkes, 1831, in German, GB
Hovhannes V., Histoire d"Armenie, 1841, in French, GB
Moses of Khoren, Histoire d'Armenie, vol.2, 1841, in French, GB
P.E. le Vaillant de Florival, Mekhitaristes de Saint-Lazare, histoire d'Armenie, litt?ature armenienne, 1841, in French, GB
P.E. le Vaillant de Florival, Coup-d'oeil sur l'Armenie: ou, Geographie sommaire; precis de l'histoire d'Armenie, 1846, in French, GB
L. Moser, The Caucasus and its people, with a brief history of their wars, 1856, GB
Specific Periods Articles : Orontid Dynasty (6th to 1st Century B.C.), Kingdom of Armenia (190 B.C.-387/428 A.D.), Kingdom of Sophene, Kingdom of Commagene, Lesser Armenia, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1080/1199-1345), Artaxiad Dynasty, Roman Armenia, Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia (54-428 A.D.), Marzpanate Armenia (428-636), Byzantine Armenia (387/428- ), Arab Conquest of Armenia, Emirate of Armenia, Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia, Vaspurakan, Zakarid Armenia, Persian Armenia, Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, Russian Armenia, Armenian National Movement, Hamidian Massacres, Armenian Genocide, Democratic Republic of Armenia, Armenian SSR, from Wikipedia
Armenia during the Seljuk and Mongol Periods, The Turco-Mongol Invasions and the Lords of Armenia in the 13-14th Centuries, by R. Bedrosian
R.G. Hovannisian, The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918-1919 , n.d., GB
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Armenia; Governments on the WWW : Armenia; Category : Politics of Armenia, from Wikipedia
General Article Politics of Armenia, from Wikipedia
Historical Creation of First Armenian Parties (Armenakan, Hunchasks and Dashnaktsutiun), from armenian-history.com
L. Nalbandian, The Armenian Revolutionary Movement : the Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Nineteenth Century, 1963, GB
Foreign Policy, Relations Articles : Armenian-Greek Relations, Armenia-Turkey Relations, Armenia-Iran Relations, Armenian-Kurdish Relations, from Wikipedia
R. Bedrosian, China and the Chinese according to 5-13th Century Classical Armenian Sources
G. Moumdijan, Armenian Kurdish Relations in the Era of Kurdish National Movements (1830-1930)
Military Wars of Armenia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Article : Nagorno-Karabakh War, from Wikipedia
Nagorno-Karabakh, from Global Security
Ghewond, Histoire des guerres et des conquetes des Arabes en Armenie 1856, in French, GB
Economy & Finances Global Currency History : Armenia; Article Economy of Armenia, from Wikipedia; Category Economy of Armenia, from Wikipedia; Global Integrity Armenia : 2009, 2007, 2006
Ethnography Lamguages of Armenia (6), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Armenia
Armenia, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Assessment for Armenians in Azerbaijan, from Minorities at Risk
Article : Armenians, from Wikipedia
Alexander-Michael Hadjilyra, The Armenians of Cyprus, 2009, GB
D. Urquhart, Observations on the Armenians, pp.336-342; Instructions of General Paskevitch Erivanski to Colonel Lazarew, 1828 pp.343-348, Proclamation of Colonel Lazarew to the Armenians pp.349-351, in The Portfolio vol.4 1836, GB
K.F. Neumann, Geschichte der Uebersiedlung von vierzig tausend Armeniern: welche im Jahre 1828 aus der persischen Provinz Aserbeidschan nach Russland auswanderten, 1834, in German, GB
Armenia, pp.224-245 in vol.1A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Article : Armenian Apostolic Church, from Wikipedia; from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Category : Armenian Churches and Monasteries, from Armeniapedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Armenia, from Kirken i Norge
Russia, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy, scroll down for Armenian Rite
Armenia, from Jewish Virtual History Tour; Article : History of the Jews in Armenia, from Wikipedia; Armenia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
J.B. Emin, Recherches sur le paganisme arm?ien, 1864, in French, GB
F. Bodenstedt, Die Einführung des Christentums in Armenien, 1850, in German, GB
M. Veyssiere de Lacroze, Histoire de christianisme d'Ethiopie, et d'Armenie , 1739, in French, GB
E. Bost, Les Pauliciens d'Armenie, 1849, in French, GB
F. Neve, Quelques episodes de la persecution du christianisme en Armenie au XVe siecle, 1861, in French, GB
History of Regions of the Republic of Armenia Provinces of Armenia, from www.statoids.com
Entry Karabakh, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Article : Nagorno-Karabakh, History of Nagorno-Karabakh, Karabakh Khanate, from Wikipedia
Khanate of Erevan, from Wikipedia
outside of the Republic of Armenia Articles Kars Oblast, Kars Province, Ottoman Empire, Ardahan, Erzurum Vilayet, Van Vilayet, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Historic Capitals of Armenia, Ani, Dvin, Ejmiatsin, from Wikipedia
Article : Yerevan, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Armenia, from Airline History
Culture & Science Article : Armenia at the Olympics, Category : Sport in Armenia, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Armenians, from Wikipedia
Category : Armenian Saints, from Wikipedia
Others Disaster History by Country : Armenia, from Relief Web
Nagorno War and Armenian Deforestation, ICE Case Studies 1997; D.P. Boudjikanian, Armenian Independence and Deforestation, ICE Case Study 2006
Article : Wilsonian Armenia, from Wikipedia

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Armenia, by Ben Cahoon; Rulers : Armenia, by B. Schemmel; Regnal Chronologies : Caucasus
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Armenia, from Wikipedia; Ambassador of Russia to Armenia, from Wikipedia; Article : United States Ambassador to Armenia; Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Yerevan (since 1994), from MOFA Canada
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics, Armenia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Population of Cities : Armenia, from City Population
Election Results from Psephos (since 1997)
Armenia, from Political Resources
Armenia, from Elections around the World
Election Results, from Electoral Geography 2.0
Documents Historical Newspapers World History Archives : Armenia & Azerbaijan
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
The Classic Armenia Images (Soviet Armenia), from Armenian Pages
Armenian History, Historical Gallery
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Pictures from Historic Armenia, currently within Turkey, from Armenian Pages
Footprints Armenia : Images of Old Yerevan
East Site : Armenia: Pictures of The Holy City and the Church of St. Etchmiadzin
Armenian Genocide Recognition Struggle : Armenian Genocide Photos and Videos
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Armenia
Airline Timetable Images : Armenia
License plates from Armenia, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Very Old B&W Postcards, from Armenian Pages
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws National Labour Law Profile : Armenia, from Armenia
Internet Law Library : Armenia
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Armenia, from ILO, 7 docs. since 1992
Treaties Category : Treaties of Armenia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Treaty of Sevres 1920, Treaty of Lausanne 1923, Treaty of Kars 1923, from Wikipedia
Peace Treaty of Sevres, 1920, Treaty of Lausanne 1923, from WW I Document Archive
Treaty of Kars, from Armenian News Network
Treaty of Berlin 1878 (excerpt), from Armenian News Network
Document Collections Armenian Historical Sources of the 5-15th Centuries, links posted by R. Bedrosian
Artemii Araratski, Memoirs of the life of Artemi of Wagarschapat, near Mount Ararat, in Armenia, 1822, GB
V. Bahadouni, Armenian merchants of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries : English East India Company Sources, 1998, GB
V. Langlois, Le tresor des chartes d'Armenie: ou, Cartulaire de la chancellerie royale des Roupeniens, 1863, in French, GB
Vahram's Chronicle of the Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Time of the Crusades, 1831, GB
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Armenia : Institut Geodezii I Kartografi pri Pravitel'stve Respubliki Armenii (IGKA, Yerevan
collections The Caucasus, from Atlas of Ethnic Conflicts, Ideological Clashes and Border Disputes, has maps since 2000 B.C.
Links to Maps, compiled by R. Bedrosian
Historical Maps of Armenia, from armenian-history.com
Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, Iranian Languages from Titus
Category : Old Maps of Armenia, Maps of the History of Armenia, Wikimedia Commons
Armenia Maps, PCL, UTexas
U.S. Army Map Service, Topographical Maps Eastern Europe 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Topographical Maps Russia 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
Armenia, hindsight Map : Caucasus Khanates 1801-1876, from Wikipedia
Map : Transcaucasia, early 19th C., from Wikipedia
Caucasus 1919, 1921, 1943, 1957, 1991 in J. de Salas Vara del Rey, Historical and Political Maps of the USSR
Armenia, contemporary
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Georgia, pp.171-178 in vol.11 of Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 1838, GB; article covers all of Transcaucasian Russia
Article Armenia, from EB 1911
Religious Article : Armenische Christen, pp.107-108 in vol.1 of J.M. Mehlig, Historisches Kirchen- und Ketzer-Lexicon, 1758, in German, GB
Articles : Armenia, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Armenia, pp.65-69 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Economic
Geographical Entries : Turkish Empire in Asia : Armenia and Mesopotamia, pp.98-125, Persian Armenia, pp.258-262 in vol.2 C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Article : Armenie, pp.417-420 in vol.1 of Dictionnaire geographique universel, 1823, in French, GB
The Province of Aran, pp.91-92 in vol.4 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1836, GB
Historical Armenia, pp.254-259 in S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present time 1855, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues J.J. Morier, A journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople , 1816, GB
J. MacDonald Kinneir, Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan in the years 1813 and 1814, 1818, GB
P.A. Jaubert, Voyage en Armenie et en Perse : fait dans les annees 1805 et 1806 , 1821, in French, GB
H. Southgate, Narrative of a Tour Through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia and Mesopotamia, vol.2 1840, GB
M.F. Wagner, Reise nach dem Ararat und dem Hochland Armenien, 1846, in German, GB
R. Curzon Jr., Armenia : A Year at Erzeroom, and on the Frontiers of Russia, Turkey and Persia, 1854, GB
P. v. Tschihatscheff, P. v. Tschihatscheff's Reisen in Kleinasien und Armenien : 1847 - 1863, 1867, in German, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Armenia
Musea History Museum of Armenia
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
Museums in Armenia, from Armeniapedia
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Armenia), Tentative Lists : Armenia
Monuments, from Haykland
Libraries National Library of Armenia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthems, Armenia, from National Anthems, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Algeria Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Banknotes of Armenia, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Search Coin Archives for Armenia
V. Langlois, Numismatique de l'Armenie au moyen age, 1855, in French, GB
V. Langlois, Numismatique Generale de l'Armenie, 1859, in French, GB
Stamps Armenian Stamps 1919-1923, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Armenia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies I.A. Pratt e.a., Armenia and the Armenians; a list of references in the New York Public Library 1919, IA
Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Armenia
Indiana University Bloomington, Armenia : a select bibliography of post-Soviet English publications
V.M. Kurkjian, A History of Armenia - Bibliography, 1958
pp.387-426 in R.P. Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2002 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies G. Shihirinian, The Armenian Massacres of 1894-1897: A Bibliography
Books on Genocide and Related Topics in Turkish, Armenian, from Prevent Genocide
Zoryan Institute, Select Bibliography on the German Involvement in the Armenian Genocide, 2011
Zoryan Institute, Select Bibliography on Denial of the Armenian Genocide, 2011
Some Reference Works for the Study of the History of the Armenian Highlands, Prehistory to the 15th Century, links to publications compiled by R. Bedrosian
Armenian Studies Program, Arts of Armenia - Bibliography
Armenian Rugs Society : Bibliography
Bibliography of Works in English on Armenian Women
National Library of Armenia, Old Printed Books in Armenian and their Bibliography
Two bibliographies of Late Ancient and Medieval Armenia and Georgia
Armenians in Jerusalem and the Holy Land : Bibliography
M.A. Hazarabedian, A Bibliography of Armenian Folklore
S. Karayan, Bibliography : History of Armenian Communities in Turkey 1980
University of Michigan, Three Bibliographies on Karabagh
serial publications National Academy of Sciences, Institute of History, New Publications
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, Publications
History Museum of Armenia, Publications
general bibliographies
Armenia entries
American Research Institute of the South Caucasus, Bibliography
booksellers
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
on Armenia National Library of Armenia : Digital Library
Armenian House, an electronic library
Online Journals full text online Bulletin of Armenian Archives (Armenian, Russian)
The Caucasus and Globalization
Central Asia and the Caucasus
Central Eurasia Annual
International Caucasiological Research Institute, Amirani 1999-
Table of Contents
Online
Journal of Armenian Studies
Historiography
General Accounts
Specific Topics Chapter XXI : Across the Black Sea to the Caucasus, pp.425-449 in : John Gunther, Inside Russia Today, NY : Harper & Bros. (1957) 1958 [G]
Across the Black Sea to the Caucasus, pp.193-219 in : John Gunther, Meet Soviet Russia. I : Land, People, Sights, NY : Harper & Bros. 1962 [G]
Mary K. Matossian, Armenia and the Armenians, pp.143-160 in : Zev Katz et al. (ed.), Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities, NY : The Free Press 1975 [G]
Historical Dictionary R.P. Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2002 [G]
Yearbook Entriess Article Armenia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1993, pp. 425, 553, 1994, pp. 422-423, 553, 1995, pp. 371, 553 [G]
Article USSR : Armenia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1924 pp.1258-1259, 1925 p.1266, 1926 pp.1229-1230 [G]
Article USSR : Trans-Caucasian SSR : Armenia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.1267-1270, 1929 pp.1245-1246, 1932 p.1266 [G]
Article USSR : Armenia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 p.1298, 1943 pp.1251-1252 [G]
Article : Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : Armenia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1427-1429, 1975-1976 pp.1432-1433, 1978-1979 pp.1249-1251, 1980-1981 pp.1254-1256, 1983-1984 pp.1259-1260, 1984-1985 pp.1256-1258, 1985-1986 pp.1257-1259, 1987-1988 pp.1260-1262, 1988-1989 pp.1264-1266, 1989-1990 pp.1270-1272, 1990-1991 pp.1273-1275, 1991-1992 pp.1272-1274 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Armenia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.418-420, 1993-1994 pp.421-423, 1994-1995 pp.409-412, 1995-1996 pp.398-401, 1996-1997 pp.98-101 [G]
Article : Armenia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1997-1998 pp.103-106, 1998-1999 pp.126-129, 2000 pp.160-164, 2001 pp.160-163, 2002 pp.165-169, 2003 pp.167-171, 2004 pp.169-173, 2005 pp.166-170 [G]
Entry : Armenia, pp.212-215 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Armenia, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.59-60, 1928 p.62, 1930 p.71, 1931 pp.75-76, 1932 p.70, 1933 pp.63-64, 1934 pp.63-64, 1935 pp.68-69, 1936 p.63, 1937 p.53 [G]
Article : Armenian SSR, in : Americana Annual 1943 p.58, 1944 p.62 [G]