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First posted on July 5th 2002, last revised on September 15th 2010







Today there are two lands called Azerbaijan : independent, formerly Soviet / Russian Azerbaijan, the object of this webpage, capital Baku, and the Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, capital Tabriz. The inhabitants, the Azeri, speak a Turkic language and adhere to Shia Islam.
In the 12th century, the territory of independent Azerbaijan was ruled in part by the Shirvanshahs, in part by the Atabegs of Azerbaijan. After 1225 the country came under the rule of Khwarizm Shah, then the Ilkhanate, followed by the Kara Koyunlu (capital Tabriz, 1375-1468) and the Ak Koyunlu (capital Tabriz, 1468-1508), followed by the Safavid Dynasty (early 1500s-1700s). The Safavids spread Shia Islam; during this period the process of Turkification intensified.
The death of Nadir Shah 1747 resulted in a number of local Khanates gain independence : Ganja, Baku, Quba, Shirvan, Nakhichevan, Karabakh. By 1805/1806 all except for Nakhichevan (1828) were annexed by the Russian Empire; Persia recognized this annexation in 1813, that of Nakhichevan in 1828.
Within the Russian Empire, the territory of independent Azerbaijan administratively came under Baku, Elizavetpol and Erevan Gubernias.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the country briefly formed the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918-1920, followed by the Azerbaijan SSR (1920-1991, from 1923 to 1936 part of the Transcaucasian SSR). With the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, Azerbaijan became independent.

Timelines : Azerbaijan since 1722
Historical Atlas : Western Asia Page








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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from Virtual Azerbaijan, from CIA World Factbook Country : Azerbaijan
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Azerbaijan; Encyclopedia of the Orient : Encyclopedia of the Orient; Azerbaijan Page, by Yusif
Historical F.A.M. von Bieberstein, Beschreibung der Länder zwischen den Flüssen Terek und Kur am Caspischen Meer, 1800, in German, GB
Description of the Countries between the Rivers Terek and Kur, on the Caspian Sea, pp.212-217 in vol.11 issue 1 of Monthly magazine and British register, 1801, GB
J. Reineggs, Allgemeine historisch-topographische Beschreibung des Kaukasus, vol.1, 1796, vol.2, 1797, in German, GB
J. Reineggs, F.A. von Bieberstein, A general, historical, and topographical description of Mount Caucasus, trsl. by Ch. Wilkinson, vol.1, 1807, vol.2, 1807, GB
Schirvan, pp.357-362 in A geographical memoir of the Persian empire: accompanied by a map, 1813, GB
J. von Klaproth, Beschreibung der Russischen Provinzen zwischen dem Kaspischen und Schwarzen Meere, 1814, in German, GB
M. Iskenderov, Azerbaijan - a Land in Bloom (1959), IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Virtual Library Caucasus
List of Azerbaijan-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Links on Azerbaijani, from SEELRC
on History from Virtual Azerbaijan
Organizations Institute of Archaeology and Etnography, The Institute of History named after A.Bakikhanov, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Azerbaijan Association of Medical Historians
Public Union of the Azerbaijan Historians, from Euroclio
History Teachers from Azerbaijan, from Euroclio
Azerbaijan National Committee of International Council of Museums
Historical Dictionaries Caucasian Knot Encyclopedia
A to Z of Azerbaijan
Timelines see here
from BBC News, from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Modern History of Azerbaijan, from Lonely Planet, from Regisseur, from Russian News Network
History of Azerbaijan, from Embassy of Azerbaijan in Romania
Article History of Azerbaijan, from Wikipedia
from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Historical L. Moser, The Caucasus and its people, with a brief history of their wars, 1856, GB
Specific Periods Audrey L. Altstadt, The Azerbaijani Turks: power and identity under Russian rule , 1992, GB
Articles : Khanates of the Caucasus, Shirvan Khanate 1748-1805, Baku Khanate 1720s-1806, Karabakh Khanate c.1750-1805, Khanate of Nakhichevan 1747-1828, Quba Khanate 1747-1806, Ganja Khanate 1747-1805, Shirvanshah 861-1538, Atabegs of Azerbaijan 1136-1225, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918-1920, Azerbaijan SSR 1920-1991, from Wikipedia
Entry Centro-Caspian Dictatorship, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Darab Kadjar, Qajar (Kadjar) Dynasty in Azerbaijan,
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Azerbaijan; Governments on the WWW : Azerbaijan
Category : Politics of Azerbaijan, from Wikipedia
General Article Politics of Azerbaijan, from Wikipedia
Azerbaijan Profile, from International Crisis Group
Foreign Policy, Relations
Military Article : Nagorno-Karabakh War, from Wikipedia
Nagorno-Karabakh, from Global Security
Human Rights Watch, Azerbaijan : Seven years of conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, 1994, GB
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Azerbaijan; Article Economy of Azerbaijan, from Wikipedia
Article Azerbaijani Manat, from Wikipedia
History of Azerbaijan's Oil Industry, by Mir Yusif Mir Babayev, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Azerbaijan 2006, Azerbaijan 2007
J. Hanway, An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea: with the Revolutions of Persia, vol.1 1753, vol.2 1753, vol.3 1753, vol.4 1753, GB
Travels in Russia : Commerce of the Caspian, pp.318-333 in W. Coxe, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark, 1802, GB
Robert W. Tolf, The Russian Rockefellers: the saga of the Nobel family and the Russian oil, 1976, GB
Ethnography Languages of Azerbaijan (14), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Azerbaijan - Armenians, Lezgins, Russians
Country Report Azerbaijan, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (1997-2005)
FMO Research Guide : Azerbaijan (2003), from FMO
Azerbaijan, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Azerbaijan
R.A. Mehdiyev, The Reality of Genocide of Azerbaijan People
Azerbaijan, pp.343-350 in vol.1A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Azerbaijan, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Azerbaijan, from Wikipedia
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
History of Regions History of Nakhchivan, from Azeri Vista
Rayons of Azerbaijan, from www.statoids.com
Article : Shirwan, from Wikipedia
Entry Karabakh, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Local History Baku Chronology, from Baku Pages; History of Baku, from Azeri Vista; from Wikipedia
History of Sheki, from Azeri Vista
History of Lankaran
Structures, Institutions Article Heydar Aliyev International Airport (Baku), from Wikipedia
Article Azeri TV Tower, from Wikipedia
Article Azerbaijan University of Languages, from Wikipedia
Azerbaijan, from Airline History
Culture & Science Article : Azerbaijan at the Olympics, Category : Sport in Azerbaijan, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Azerbaijanis, from Wikipedia
Chinese Ambassadors to Azerbaijan, from PRC MOFA
Others Disaster History by Country : Azerbaijan, from Relief Web
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Nagorno War and Armenian Deforestation, ICE Case Studies 1997
Michael Goulet, Azerbaijan and Oil, TED Case Study 2006

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); Regnal Chronologies : Caucasus
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders, from ZPC, including party leaders
Lists of Ambassadors Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy in Baku (since 1992), from MOFA Canada
Statistical Data Responsible Institution The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics, Azerbaijan, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Population of Cities : Azerbaijan, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics : Azerbaijan, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from Psephos (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide (since 1998)
Elections and Electoral Systems : Azerbaijan
Documents Historical Newspapers World History Archives : Armenia & Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Article Archives, from Keepmedia
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
East Site, Photos of historical tour to Azerbaijan Gallery No.1, Gallery No.2
Accidental Collections Category : Historical Images of Azerbaijan, from Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Azerbaijan
Wikimedia Commons
License plates from Azerbaijan, from Francoplaque; from License Plates of the World
Passport, from Passports of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Azerbaijan
Archival Deposits Documents by Country : Azerbaijan, from Council of Europe
Constitutions, Laws Internet Law Library : Azerbaijan; Constitution of 1995, from UNDP
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Azerbaijan, from ILO, 53 docs. since 1992
Treaties
Document Collections Artemii Araratski, Memoirs of the life of Artemi of Wagarschapat, near Mount Ararat, in Armenia, 1822, GB
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies : Azerbaijan : National Surveying and Mapping Service, Baku
collections Maps of Azerbaijan, from PCL, UTexas
The Caucasus, from Atlas of Ethnic Conflicts, Ideological Clashes and Border Disputes, has maps since 2000 B.C.
Azerbaijan : List of Maps, posted by Tabib Huseynov
Category : Old Maps of Azerbaijan, Maps of the History of Azerbaijan, Wikimedia Commons
Azerbaijan Maps, PCL, UTexas
U.S. Army Map Service, Topographical Maps Eastern Europe 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Topographical Maps Russia 1:250,000, PCL, UTexas
Azerbaijan, hindsight Map : Russian Empire, Caucasus Gubernias, from Wikipedia
Map : Caucasus Khanates 1801-1876, from Wikipedia
Map : Eastern Caucasus Khanates, 18th-19th C., from Wikipedia
Map : Transcaucasia, early 19th C., from Wikipedia
Caucasus 1919, 1921, 1943, 1957, 1991 in J. de Salas Vara del Rey, Historical and Political Maps of the USSR
Azerbaijan, contemporary
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Note : Articles "Azerbaijan" (spelling varieties) in pre-WW I encyclopedias relate to the Persian province by that name, not to 'Russian' Azerbaijan.
Article : Bakou, p.194 in vol.3 Encyclopaedia Perthensis 2nd ed., 1816, GB
Article : Bakou, p.341 in vol.3 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Article : Baku, pp.208-209 in vol.3 of The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, 1830, GB
Article : Georgia, pp.171-178 in vol.11 of Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 1838, GB; article covers all of Transcaucasian Russia
Article Kaukasien, Baku, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1889, in German
Article Baku, Caucasia, from EB 1911
Religious
Economic Schirwan, pp.23-24, Derbent pp.24-25 in vol.1 of Chr. Meiners, Betrachtungen über die Fruchtbarkeit, oder Unfruchtbarkeit, über den vormahligen und gegenwärtigen Zustand der vornehmsten Länder in Asien, 1795, in German, GB
Geographical Truchmenes, Schirwan, Derbent, Bakou pp.57-62 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, or A description of all the parts of the world, 1822, GB
The Province of Schirvan, pp.89-91 in vol.4 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1836, GB
Historical Derbent, pp.137-138 in vol.64 of G. Sale et al., An Universal history, from the earliest account of time, 1765, GB
Derbent, pp.6-7 in vol.37 of The modern part of an universal history, 1783, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Ch.25 : Of our Journey to Baku, and what Happened on the Road, pp.363-383 in J. Cook, Voyages and travels through the Russian empire, Tartary, and part of the Kingdom of Persia, 1770, GB
Travels in Russia : Commerce of the Caspian, pp.318-333 in W. Coxe, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark, 1802, GB
Schirwan und seine Hauptstadt Schemachi, pp.173-208, Baku und seine Feuer pp.209-261, Kuba und Derbend pp.262-318, in vol.3 of K.H.E. Koch, Wanderungen im Oriente, w?rend der Jahre 1843 und 1844, 1847, in German, GB
The Eternal Fires of Baku, No.446 of Chambers's Edinburgh journal, 1863, GB
Baku, pp.325-326 in J. Murray, Handbook for travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland 1868, GB
Ch.Th. Marvin, The region of the eternal fire; an account of a journey to the petroleum region of the Caspian in 1883 (1891), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Libraries in Azerbaijan, from LibDex, 3 entries
Voices from the Past. Treasures from Azerbaijan's Voice Recording Archive, from Azerbaijan International
Musea Historical museums and reserves, from Azerbaijan National Committee of International Council of Museums
The Azerbaijan History Museum
Azerbaijan Carpet Museum
Monuments List of historical and cultural monuments of tourist importance in the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, from Azerbaijan 24
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Azerbaijan), Tentative Lists : Azerbaijan
Libraries Azerbaijan National Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Azerbaijan, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coins of Late Caucasia and Transcaucasia, from Zeno
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Stamps Azerbaijan Stamps 1919-1923, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Azerbaijan survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Azerbaijan
Indiana University Bloomington, Azerbaijan : a select bibliography of post-Soviet English publications
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies University of Michigan, Three Bibliographies on Karabagh
serial publications
general bibliographies
Azerbaijan entries
American Research Institute of the South Caucasus, Bibliography
booksellers
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
Search MPRA for Azerbaijan
on Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Library, Digital Library
Presidential Library, Republic of Azerbaijan
Online Journals full text online The Caucasus and Globalization
Central Asia and the Caucasus
Central Eurasia Annual
International Caucasiological Research Institute, Amirani 1999-
Table of Contents
Online
Historiography
General Accounts
Specific Topics Chapter XXI : Across the Black Sea to the Caucasus, pp.425-449 in : John Gunther, Inside Russia Today, NY : Harper & Bros. (1957) 1958 [G]
Across the Black Sea to the Caucasus, pp.193-219 in : John Gunther, Meet Soviet Russia. I : Land, People, Sights, NY : Harper & Bros. 1962 [G]
Frank Huddle Jr., Azerbaidzhan and the Azerbaidzhanis, pp.189-210 in : Zev Katz et al. (ed.), Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities, NY : The Free Press 1975 [G]
Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russian Azerbaijan 1905-1920, Cambridge : UP (1985) 2004, KMLA Lib.Sign.947 54083 S975r
Historical Dictionary Articles : Artsakh pp.38-40, in : James Minahan, Nations without Sates, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Yearbooks Article : Azerbaijan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1993 pp.426-427, 557, 1994 pp.423-424, 557, 1995 pp.376, 557, 1996 pp.375, 557, 1997 pp.393-394, 555, 2002 pp.391, 551 [G]
Article USSR : Azerbaijan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1924 pp.1259-1260, 1925 p.1267, 1926 pp.1230-1231 [G]
Article USSR : Trans-Caucasian SSR : Azerbaijan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.1270-1271, 1929 pp.1246-1247, 1932 p.1267 [G]
Article USSR : Azerbaijan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 pp.1295-1296, 1943 pp.1249-1250 [G]
Article : Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : Azerbaijan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1421-1424, 1975-1976 pp.1426-1429, 1976-1977 pp.1425-1426, 1978-1979 pp.1244-1246, 1979-1980 pp.1253-1255, 1980-1981 pp.1249-1251, 1981-1982 pp.1257-1259, 1983-1984 pp.1253-1255, 1984-1985 pp.1250-1253, 1985-1986 pp.1251-1254, 1986-1987 pp.1250-1253, 1987-1988 pp.1254-1257, 1988-1989 pp.1258-1261, 1989-1990 pp.1264-1267, 1990-1991 pp.1268-1270, 1991-1992 pp.1267-1269 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Azerbaijan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.420-423, 1993-1994 pp.423-426, 1994-1995 pp.412-415, 1995-1996 pp.401-405 [G]
Article : Azerbaijan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997 pp.169-172, 1997-1998 pp.174-177, 1998-1999 pp.199-202, 2000 pp.248-252, 2001 pp.238-244, 2002 pp.247-252, 2003 pp.247-252, 2004 pp.249-254, 2005 pp.242-247, 2006 pp.239-244 [G]
Entry : Azerbaijan, Cabinet, p.8; Background Notes, pp.257-261, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Azerbaijan, pp.232-235 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Azerbaijan, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.84, 1928 p.74, 1930 p.89, 1931 p.89, 1932 pp.88-89, 1933 p.80, 1934 pp.76-77, 1935 p.80, 1936 p.74, 1937 p.61-62, 1938 p.65, 1939 p.71, 1940 p.57 [G]
Article : Azerbaijan SSR, in : Americana Annual 1943 p.84, 1944 pp.74-75 [G]
Article : Azerbaijan, in : New International Year Book 1920 p.76, 1921 pp.71-72, 1923 p.76, 1925 p.78, 1928 p.81, 1930 p.81, 1932 p.81, 1933 p.76
Article : Azerbaijan SSR, in : New International Year Book 1934 p.71, 1935 p.67, 1938 p.77, 1939 p.62 [G]
Article : Azerbaijan, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 p.89, 1933 p.70, 1934 p.76, 1935 p.72 [G]