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Ottoman Rumelia Ottoman Empire
First posted on July 11th 2005, last revised on October 15th 2010

As the Ottoman Empire covered a large geographical area changing much over time, this page is to focus on the history of the Asiatic territory of the modern Republic of Turkey under Ottoman rule.
In historical sources, this territory may be referred to as Asiatic Turkey, Asia Minor, the Levant, Anatolia (Natolia), parts of it as Caramania, Pontus, Turkish Armenia, Cilicia and so on. Users of the sources below should be aware that some of these terms do not precisely coincide with Anatolia defined as the Asiatic territory of the Republic of Turkey, but include other territory as well (Asiatic Turkey : Ottoman Syria, Ottoman Iraq, Hejaz), while others, f.ex. Caramania, cover only part of it.
Click here for the history of Anatolia 1071-1517.
Users should also beware that 18th and 19th century western authors in their observations of Ottoman Anatolia were biased as they displayed a special interest in the ancient history of the region and in the area's Christian population. The considerable variety in the spelling of locations, following either the names of Greek antiquity or of Turkish modernity, as well as the transcription by individual authors, provides difficulty in the search for such sources for users of search engines.

For sources covering not only Ottoman Anatolia, but the entire Ottoman Empire, see the page on that entity.

Military History
Administrative History
Economic History
Demographic History
Cultural History

Timeline : Ottoman Anatolia
Documents : Ottoman Empire posted on partner-site psm-data
Historical Atlas : Ottoman Anatolia Page, Ottoman Empire Page
Wars of Ottoman Anatolia

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Country Profiles Historical Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, Des Osmanischen Reichs Staatsverfassung und Staatsverwaltung, vol.1, 1815, vol.2, 1815, in German, GB
J. Rennell, A treatise on the comparative geography of western Asia, 1831, GB
Armenië, Klein-Azië, vol.3 of N.G. van Campen, De Levant of Mohammedaansch Azie volgens de nieuwste Ontdekkingen, in Dutch, 1836, GB
L.V. de Saint-Martin, Description historique et g?graphique de l'Asie Mineure, 1852, in French, GB
Links Category : Ottoman Empire, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries Habibullah's Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire and her times, online version, detailed
K.G. Mostras, Dictionnaire Geographique de l'Empire Ottoman (1873), posted on Internet Archive
B. d'Herbelot et al., Bibliotheque orientale : ou Dictionnaire universel contenant tout ce qui fait connoitre les Peuples d'Orient, vol.1 : A-E, 1777, vol.2 : F-M, 1778, vol.3 : N-Z, 1778, vol.4, 1779, in French, GB
Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World : Asia Minor (EHW)
Organizations Turkish Historical Society
Georgetown University, Institute of Turkish Studies
Centre for Asia Minor Studies, Athens
British Institute at Ankara (BIAA)
Nederlands Instituut in Turkije
Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology
American Research Institute in Turkey
Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul
Centre for Asia Minor Studies, Athens
Türk Nümismatik Dernegi (Turkish Numismatic Society)
Pontian Greek Society of Chicago
Timelines Wikipedia (since 1813)
Timeline Anatolia and the Caucasus 1000-1400, 1400-1600, 1600-1800, 1800-1900, 1900 to present, from Metropolitan Museum of Art
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : History of Anatolia, from Wikipedia
General, Historical Ottoman Historians : Database
Specific Periods J.E. Barker, The great problems of British statesmanship (1917), posted on Internet Archive, Ch. III : the Problem of Asiatic Turkey
Military Wars of the Ottoman Empire : Anatolia, at WHKMLA
Ugur Umit Ungor, Case Studies : Diyarbekir (1915-1916): Young Turk Mass Killings at the Provincial Level , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Raymond Kevorkian, Chronological Index : The Extermination of Ottoman Armenians by the Young Turk Regime (1915-1916) , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
A. Jochmus, The Syrian War and the Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1840-1848 (1883), posted on Internet Archive
Aleksandr Kleonakovich Ushakov, Geschichte der Feldzüge in der asiatischen Türkei während der Jahre 1828 und 1829, 1838, in German, GB
Armenian Uprising - Ottoman Empire (1915-1916), from NZ History Online
Campaign in Asiatic Turkey in 1854, pp.127-140 in Pictorial history of the Russian war 1854-5-6, 1856, GB
F.R. Chesnay, The Russo-Turkish campaigns of 1828 and 1829, 1854, GB
H. Sandwith, A narrative of the siege of Kars: and of the six months' resistance by the Turkish Garrison under Colonel Williams to the Russian Army, 1856, GB
G. Kmety, Narrative of the defence of Kars 29th September, 1855, 1856, GB
A. Lake, Narrative of the defence of Kars, historical and military, 1857, GB
Muslim Heritage : Ottoman Maritime Arsenals
Economy & Finances H.A. Karajian, Mineral Resources of Armenia and Anatolia (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Some Account of Angora Wool, and the Different Species of the Animal that Produces that Valuable Article, pp.61-62 in Select Reviews of Literature and Spirit of Foreign Magazines, 1810, GB
Rowland Macdonald Stephenson, Railways in Turkey. Remarks upon the Practicability and Advantage of Railway Communication in European and Asiatic Turkey, 1859, GB
Entry : Turkey, pp.1385-1399 in Official descriptive and illustrated catalogue : Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851, GB
Advertisements : The Ottoman Railway from Smyrna to Aidin, pp.(5)-(6) in vol.17 of The Banker's Magazine, 1857, GB
Über Krappbau. Aus dem Bericht des Consuls Spiegelthal zu Smyrna an die Handelskammer zu Görlitz, pp.297-299 in vol.23 of Annalen der Landwirthschaft in den Königlich Preussischen Staaten, 1834, in German, GB
M.Chr. Chatziioannou, Creating the pre-Industrial Ottoman Merchant : Sources, Methods and Interpretations
Observations sur le commerce de la Mer Noire et des pays qui la bordent; auxquelles on a joint deux memoires sur le commerce de Smyrne et de l'isle de Candie, 1787, in French, GB
Smyrna, pp.54-63 in vol.2 of Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt, 1819, GB
The Iznik Pottery Industry, from Islamic Ceramics, Ashmolean
A. Martineau, Le commerce fran?is dans le Levant 1902, in French, IA
P. Masson, Histoire du commerce fran?is dans le Levant au XVIIIe si?le 1911, in French, IA
P. Masson, Histoire du commerce franc?ais dans le Levant au XVIIe sie`cle 1896, in French, IA
U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Flour and wheat trade in European countries and the Levant , 1909, IA
M. Epstein, The English Levant Company: Its Foundation and Its History to 1640 1908, IA
H.G. Rosedale, Queen Elizabeth and the Levant Company; a diplomatic and literary episode of the establishment of our trade with Turkey, 1904, IA
F.E.G. Saint-Priest, Memoires sur l'ambassade de France en Turquie et sur le commerce des Français dans le Levant 1877, in French, IA
F. Walsh, Account of the Levant Company, 1825, GB
F.V. de Forbonnais, Questions sur le commerce des François au Levant 1755, in French, GB
Social History M. Fuhrmann, Cosmopolitan imperialists and the ottoman port cities. Conflicting logics in the urban social fabric, Cahiers de la Mediterranee 2003
Ethnography 1300-1914 Appearance of Turks in Anatolia, in Article : Turkification, from Wikipedia
Article : Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, Pontic Greeks, Laz People, Cossacks in Turkey, Karamanlides (Orthodox Turkish-speakers of Central Anatolia), from Wikipedia
Martin van Bruinessen, Constructions of ethnic identity in the late Ottoman Empire and Republican Turkey : the Kurds and their Others
M.Chr. Chatziioannou, Creating the pre-Industrial Ottoman Merchant : Sources, Methods and Interpretations
Exile Map of the Circassians and Abkhazians, from Circassian World
1914-1923 L. Oeconomos, The martyrdom of Smyrna and eastern Christendom; a file of overwhelming evidence, denouncing the misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and showing their responsibility for the horrors of Smyrna (1922), IA
Greek atrocities in the vilayet of Smyrna (May - July 1919) : inedited documents and evidence of English and French officers (first series), IA
Panayiotis Diamadis, The Assyrians in the Christian Asia Minor Holocaust, 2000
Article : Armenian Genocide, Ottoman Casualties of World War I, from Wikipedia
Greek Genocide 1914-1923 : Smyrna
Martin van Bruinessen, Constructions of ethnic identity in the late Ottoman Empire and Republican Turkey: the Kurds and their Others
Religion D. Zeidan, The Alevi of Anatolia, Meria 1999
Molly McAnailly Burke, Jewish History in Anatolia
Index for Abraham Galante's Jews of Turkey, from SephardicGen
Üzeyir Özyurt, The Language of Kilim in Anatolia
The Church of Constantinople, pp.10-13 in M.G. Dampier, The organization of the Orthodox Eastern churches 1910, IA
History of Regions Entry Buhtan, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
H. Algemon, Highlands of Asiatic Turkey (1901), IA
Modern Armenia, pp.249-251 in vol.8 of The Quarterly Register, 1836, GB
William Burckhardt Barker, Lares and penates: or, Cilicia and its governors, being a short historical account of that province from the earliest times until the present day, 1853, GB
Michael Chamich, History of Armenia: from B.C. 2247 to the year of Christ 1780, or 1229 of the Armenian Era, 1827, GB
F. Beaufort, Karamania, 1817, GB
Local History Ankara, from Wikipedia, History of Izmir (Smyrna), from Wikipedia, History of Trabzon (Trebizond, Trapezunt), from Wikipedia, History of Adana, from Wikipedia
G. Rolleston, Report on Smyrna (1856), posted on Internet Archive
C. Humann e.a., Smyrna (1873) in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Oikonomos, B.F. Slaars, Etude sur Smyrne, 1868, in French, GB
Eusebio Valli, Memoria sulla peste di Smyrne del 1784, 1788, in Italian, GB
Smyrne, pp.103-116 in L.R. Aubert-Roche, De la peste ou typhus d'Orient, 1840, in French, GB
E. Frangakis, The ottoman port of Izmir in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, 1695 -1820, Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee 39, 1985, pp.149-162, Persee
Institutions A Short History of Turkish Railways, by Trains of Turkey
Biographies Rabbis buried in Izmir 1540-1860, from SephardicGen
Article : Chrysostomos Kalafatis of Smyrna, from OrthodoxWiki

Historical Data Lists of Consuls U.S. Consuls in Turkey, from The Political Graveyard, see under Aintab, Alexandretta, Bursa, Erzerum, Mersina, Samsun, Sivas, Smyrna, Trebizond; incomplete lists
Documents Yearbooks Annuario pontificio 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1726, 1728, 1729, 1731, 1732, 1733, 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1741, 1742, 1744, 1746, 1749, 1750, 1751, 1752, 1753, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1759, 1760, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1766, 1767, 1770, 1771, 1773, 1775, 1776, 1779, 1781, 1783, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1795, 1796, 1802, 1806, 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Smirne, Ancira, Anatolia
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Photo Album : Memories from Smyrna, 1900-1922
Accidental Collections
Occidental Collections
Items on Ottoman Anatolia
Turkey, from Images of Asia
Gertrude Bell Archive Photo Collection
New York State Archives : Gallery : Asia Minor
Archival Deposits Levantine Heritage, describes files on Izmir/Smyrna Anglican Parish held in London, Izmir, Istanbul
Nationaal Archief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van het Consulaat te Smyrna, (1611) 1685-1811 (1837)
Pre-1922 Archives of the Centre for Asia Minor Studies
Constitutions, Laws Ottoman Fermans, posted by the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, Smyrna, vol.3 1857, pp.307-320, 1857, 1858, pp.158-159, Trebizond, Smyrna, Erzerom, 1858 1859 pp.348-351, Smyrna, 1862 pt.1, 1863, pp.572-580, 1863, 1865, pp.498-503, Alexandretta, 1864, 1865, p.653, Mersine, 1865, 1866, pp.470-472, Smyrna, 1866, 1867, pp.426-428, 1867, 1868, pp.602-606, 1868, 1869, pp.591-594, GB
Document Collections Documents and Comments on the History of the Ottoman Empire, in English / English translation, posted on Royals Portal
Search Recuëil van alle de placaten, ordonnantien, resolutien, instructien, lysten ... 1721, in Dutch, GB, for Smirna
Historical Maps collections Discus Media, The 1900 Collection, Maps from Yesteryear, Turkey
Mohammad al Kurbi Collection of Maps and Prints
Search David Rumsey Map Collection
Ottoman Anatolia, hindsight Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, Iranian Languages from Titus
OmniAtlas, Historical Atlas of Europe Jan. 1 1919, April 4 1919, June 28 1919, Sept. 10 1919, Nov. 27 1919, April 6 1920, June 4 1920, August 10 1920
Exile Map of the Circassians and Abkhazians, from Circassian World
Ottoman Anatolia, contemporary Pinkerton 1818 : Turkey in Asia, Wikimedia Commons
Cary 1819 Ottoman Anatolia, posted by M. Witkam
Heck 1835 Empire Ottoman en Asie, (shows Rumelia Pashaliks; Heck, Atlas Geographique et Historique 1835), posted by M. Witkam
Mitchell 1850 : Turkey in Asia, Wikimedia Commons
Turkey 1888, Turkey in Asia 1898, Probert Encyclopedia
Treaty of Sevres, 1920, BYU
Maps : Ottoman Anatolia 1921 (Andrees Handatlas 7th ed. 1921 2nd print, posted by M. Witkam
Map : Ottoman Anatolia, Catholic Dioceses, Not United Orthodox Churches, (from Streit, Atlas Hierarchicus 1913), posted by M. Witkam
Ethnographic Map of Anatolia 1911, Wikipedia
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary Constantinople 1906, Smyrna 1907, Probert Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Anatolia, pp.492-498, Ancyra, pp.510-511, in vol.1 of Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1833, GB
Articles : Adana, p.115, Anatolia, pp.515-517, Angora, p.577, in vol.1, 1857, of The New American Cyclopaedia, GB
Articles : Anatolien, Smyrna, Angora, Adana, Trapezunt, in : Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892 edition, in German
Articles Adana, Anatolia, Angora, Smyrna, Trebizond, from EB 1911; see Places, Category : Turkey, from EB 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
Religious Articles Smyrna, Angora, Trebizond, Adana, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Smyrne, pp.990-991 in Dictionnaire de Numismatique, vol.32 of Encyclopedie Theologique, 1832, in French, GB
Economic Of Smyrna p.213, in J. Hewitt, A frontline upon money, coins, and exchange, 1755, GB
Commerce de Turquie et du Levant : Smirne pp.976-1014, Echelle Neuve p.1014, Angouri pp.1014-1015, Bursa p.1015, Sinope, pp.1041-1042 in vol.5 of J.S. de Brulons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1765, in French, GB
Of the Levant Trade : Smyrna, Angora, pp.614-615, in : W. Beaves, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Smyrne, pp.241-242 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Search anon., Handbuch für Kaufleute, sowohl Wechsel als Waarenberechnungen von den vornehmsten Handelsplätzen, bey allen steigenden und fallenden Coursen, mit oder ohne Spesen, blos durch Addiren und Multipliciren in Leipziger Wechselzahlung zu berechnen, 1787, in German, for Smyrna
Entry : Smirna, pp.205-206 in Tomas Antonio de Marien y Arrospide, Tratado general de monedas, pesas, medidas y cambios de todas las naciones, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Entry : Smirna, pp.630-631 in : J.F. Lange et al., Übersicht und Berechnung aller Münzen, Ellenmaasse und Handelsgewichte von allen Welttheilen, 1804, in German, GB
Article : Goat : Angoran Goat, in : Th. Mortimer, A general dictionary of commerce, trade, and manufactures, 1810, GB
Smyrne, in Metrologie universelle, ancienne et moderne 1816, in French, GB, unpaginated
Entry Smyrna pp.242-246 in : W. Dickinson, Universal commerce, or, The commerce of all the mercantile cities and towns of the World, 1818, GB
Present State of Agriculture in Asiatic Turkey, p.139 in Ch. Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, 1825, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Smyrna, posted by DTBSWS
Search Ch. Vere, The pocket cambist, 1836, GB, for Smyrna
Entry : Smyrna, pp.602-603 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest, 1837, GB
Smyrne, p.515 in A.J. Blancqui, Cours d'?onomie industrielle, 1837, in French, GB
Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents (1838), posted on Internet Archive, on Turkey (Smyrna) pp.275-276
Articles : Bataloins, p.105, Camelot, pp.233-234 in vol.1 of A.F. Jöcher, Vollständiges Lexikon der Waarenkunde in allen ihren Zweigen, 1839, in German, GB
Die asiatische Türkei, pp.44-45 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1842, in German, GB
Asiatic Turkey pp.95-108, Turkish Armenia pp.108-125 in vol.2 of J. McGregor, Commercial Statistics. A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Shipping, Imports and Exports and the Monies, Weights and Measures of all Nations, 1844, GB
Grosses Adressbuch der Kaufleute, Fabrikanten und handelnden Gewerbsleute von Europa und den Hauptpläzen der fremden Welttheile, vol.23 : Griechenland, Türkei, Asien, Afrika und Australien, 1845, in German, GB
Asiatic Turkey, pp.95-108, Turkish Armenia pp.108-124 in vol.2 of John McGregor, Commercial Statistics. A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port, and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Shipping, Imports and Exports, the Monies, Measures and Weights of all Nations, 1847, GB
Die asiatische Türkei, pp.44-45 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1848, in German, GB
Search Knight's cyclopaedia of the industries of all nations 1851, IA, for Smyrna, Angora
Geographical Klein-Asia, Anadoli, pp.52-106 in vol.5 pt.1 of A.F. Büsching, Neue Erdbeschreibung 1768, in German, GB
Article : Angora, Caramania, Chisme, Chiutaye, Erzerum, Isnic, Manachia, Natolia, Nicomedia, Pergamo, Satalia, Sinob, Smyrna, Terasso, Tocat, Trebizond, in : R. Brookes, Brookes's General gazetteer improved, 1806, unpaginated, GB
Entry : Anatolia, pp.383-384 in J.H. Tuckey, Maritime geography and statistics, 1815, GB
Scutari, Isnikmid, Iznik, Cyzicus, Boorsa, Anatolia ..., pp.74-85 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world , 1824, GB
Asia Minor, pp.97-124 in vol.4 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1832, GB
Articles : Adana p.16, Afium=Kara=Hissar p.21, Akhissar p.38, Akscheher, Akserai p.39, Alascheher p.40, Alaya p.41, Alexandrette p.48, Amasieh p.68, Angora pp.103-104, Brussa p.385, Diarbekr p.625, Erzerum p.720, in vol.1 (1858), Isnik p.189, Kaisarieh p.215, Karaman p.224, Konia p.262, Lilleasien pp.299-302, Satalieh p.658, Sinope p.694, Siwas p.695, Smyrna p.707, Trapezunt p.795, Van p.837, in vol.2 (1863) of Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog, in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg
Asiatic Turkey : Anatolia pp.208-210 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Natolia or Anatolia, p.363 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical Adena, p.114, Aidin, Aidinelli, p.186, Ancyre, p.411, in vol.1 : A, 1740, Erzerom, p.122 in vol.3 : Chei-E, 1740, Sinope, p.295, Trebisonde, p.206 in vol.8 : Seh-Z, 1740, of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, in French, GB
Asiatic Turkey, pp.102-176 in D. Ramsay, Universal history Americanised, 1819, GB
Historical Yearbook Entries Smyrne pp.462-464, Le Canee et ses Dependances pp.468-469, Cote de Caramanie et Satalie, p.469 in Annales Maritimes 1818, in French, GB
Tour Guides John Murray, A hand-book for travellers in the Ionian Islands, Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, and Constantinople 1845 ed., 1854 ed., IA
M. Busch, Die Türkei; Reisehandbuch für Rumelien, die untere Donau, Anatolien, Syrien, Palästina, Rhodus und Cypern (1870) in German, IA
Travelogues Early voyages and travels in the Levant 1893, IA; travels by T. Dallam, J. Covel, 17th century
P. Lucas, Reise in die Türckey, Syrien, das Gelobte Land ..., vol.1, 1721, in German, GB
J. Pitton de Tournefort, A voyage into the Levant , 1741, GB
Ch. Thompson, Travels through Turkey in Asia, the Holy Land, Arabia, Egypt and other parts, 1767, GB
William Wittman, Sir Richard Phillips, Travels in Turkey, Asia Minor, Syria: and across the desert into Egypt, 1803, GB
J.M. Kinneir, Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan in the years 1813 and 1814, 1818, GB
R. Walpole, Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, and other countries of the East (1818), IA
J. von Hammer-Purgstall, Umblick auf einer Reise von Constantinopel nach Brussa und dem Olympos und von da zurück über Nicäa und Nicomedien, 1818, in German, GB
J.M. Tancoigne, A narrative of a journey into Persia, and residence at Teheran, 1820, GB ; crosses Asia Minor from Constantinople
R. Walpole, Travels in various countries of the East, 1820, GB
J.H. Mayr, Johann Heinrich Mayr's Reise nach Konstantinopel, Aegypten, Jerusalem, und auf den Libanon, 1820, in German, GB ; crosses Asia Minor from Constantinople
W.M. Leake, Journal of a tour in Asia Minor, 1824, GB
Syria and Asia Minor, vol.3 of J. Conder, The Modern Traveller, 1830, GB; here 1824 edition
W.J. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus and Armenia: with some account of their Antiquities and Geology, vol.1, 1842, vol.2, 1842, GB
P. von Tschihatscheff, Reisen in Kleinasien und Armenien: 1847 - 1863, 1867, in German, GB
J.L. Farley, Egypt, Cyprus and Asiatic-Turkey (1878), IA
G. Geary, Through Asiatic Turkey: Narrative of a Journey from Bombay to the Bosphorus (1878), IA
M. Sykes, Dar-ul-Islam; a record of a journey through ten of the Asiatic provinces of Turkey (1904), IA
Institutions Archives Ottoman Archives (site in Turkish; see Wikipedia Article
Ottoman History : Libraries and Archives in Ankara, from Bilkent University
Official Symbols Coats of Arms

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on the Ottoman Empire
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on the Ottoman Empire
Online Journals full text online Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-1999, Persee
Oriental Herald 1-23, 1824-1829, GB
Cahiers de la Mediterranee 2001-
Table of Contents
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.920-972 Article Turkey and Ancient Anatolia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Bernard Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford : University Press (1961) 2nd edition 1968
Jason Goodwin, Lords of the Horizons : A History of the Ottoman Empire, Henry Holt 1999
Douglas A. Howard, The History of Turkey, Greenwood 2001, 272 pages; KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1 H848h (focusses of the history of Anatolia)
Halil Inalcik, An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Vol.I : 1300-1600, Cambridge : UP 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1015 135e v.1
Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert (ed.), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Vol.2 : 1600-1914, Cambridge : UP 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1015 135e v.2
Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth, Wissenschaftliche Länderkunden : Türkei (Country Studies : Turkey), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1982, in German [G]
Specific Topics Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile. The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, Princeton, NJ : Darwin Press 1995 [G]
Dimitri Gondicas and Charles Issawi (ed.), Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, Princeton : Darwin Press 1999
Ervin Staub, The Turkish Genocide of the Armenians, pp.173-187 in : Ervin Staub, The Roots of Evil. The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence, Cambridge : UP (1989) 1996, KMLA Lib.Sign. 364.15 S798r
Raphaela Lewis, Everyday Life in Ottoman Turkey, NY : Dorset Press 1971 [G]

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