History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Syria Iraq
First posted on May 30th 2002, last revised on April 5th 2010

Turkey since 2002
Turkey 1989-2002
Turkey 1980-1989
Turkey 1971-1980
Turkey 1960-1971
Turkey 1950-1960
Turkey 1945-1950
Turkey 1939-1945
Turkey 1923-1939
Turkey 1918-1923

Click here for the history of the Ottoman Empire (until 1918), for Ottoman Anatolia until 1918, for Eastern Anatolia 1914-1918 for Cilicia 1919-1923

Timeline, Turkey
Historical Atlas, Turkey Page
List of Wars : Turkey

Students' Papers : Kim, Min Ju, The Gender Issue in the Modern History of Turkey : The Discrepancy between modernization of legal institutions and social customs (2011)
Students' Papers : Kim, Sun Hoo, History of Food and Nutrition in West Asia (2009)
Students' Papers : Park, Young Jin, Multicultural Metropoleis : Vienna and Istanbul, as described in Historic Encyclopedias (2009)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference ; Mongabay
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Turkey
from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia
Historical N. Eren, Turkey Today And Tomorrow An Experiment In Westernization (1963), posted on Internet Archive
H. Edib, Turkey Faces West A Turkish View Of Recent Changes And Their Origin (1930), posted on Internet Archive
E.G. Mears, Modern Turkey (1924), posted on Internet Archive
J.T. Shotwell, Turkey and the Straits (1940), posted on Internet Archive
C. Price, The Rebirth of Turkey (1923), posted on Internet Archive
A. Kilic, Turkey and the World (1959), posted on Internet Archive
T. Williams, Turkey A World Problem To-Day (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Links, General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
dos Santos, Hefti, Tiedemann, Wintz : Turkish Culture and Society : Where East Meets West, Resource Guide
Links, on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; from Virtual Library Economic and Business History
History-Related Articles, from Kurdistanica
Organizations Turkish Turkish Historical Society; Article : Turkish Historical Society, from Wikipedia
Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History
Turkish Institute of Archaeology
Association of Turkish Archivists and Records Managers
Social History Research Foundation of Turkey
Turkish Cultural Foundation
Turkey : Association of History Educators, from Euroclio
Ministry of Culture (Turkey), General Directorate of Monuments and Museums , Archaeology
multi-national Workshop for Armenian / Turkish Scholarship
Historians of Islamic Art Association
foreign, on Turkey Middle East History and Theory Workshop at the University of Chicago 2001-
Institut Français d'Etudes Anatoliennes (IFEA); Deutsche Orient-Stiftung (Deutsches Orient Institut); British Institute at Ankara (BIAA); Institute of Turkish Studies [US]; Turkish Studies Association
Historical Dictionaries Kurdistanica, Digital Encyclopedia of Kurdistan
Usakpedia, expresses Turkish views
Timelines from Library UTexas, scan, since 1914; another timeline 7500 B.C.-today from Hitit; another timeline 1923- from Encyclopedia of the Orient; from BBC News; Turkey to 1960, Turkey since 1961, from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Turkish Perspective About Turkey - History, from Turkish Embassy, Washington
History of Turkey, from Turkish Odyssey
Historical Heritage, from TBB; History and Archaeology, from Go to Turkey
other Perspective Turkey and Turkish Culture, links to a wide range of Turkey-topics
Encyclopedia of the Orient : History of Turkey
from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
M. Philips Price, A History of Turkey from Empire to Republic (1956), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods E.M. House, What really happened at Paris; the story of the Peace Conference, 1918-1919 (1921), posted at Internet Archive, The Armenian problem and the disruption of Turkey, by W. L. Westermann
Historiography Turkish Perspective Kerim K. Key, An Outline of Modern Turkish Historiography (1954), title reference from Open Library
Fatme Müge Göçek, Reconstructing the Turkish Historiography on the Armenian Massacres and Deaths in 1915, from : Hovannisian (ed.), Looking backward, moving forward: confronting the Armenian Genocide, posted by google books
Asliqül Berktay, The Anti-Nationalist Liberation of Turkish Historiography (2009), title reference from Amazon
Dogan Gürpinar, The Seljuks of Rum in Turkish Republican Nationalist Historiography, thesis 2004
Zafer Toprak, Modern Turkish History. Contemporary History Studies in Turkey (2008)
USAK Bookstore, offers publications which give Turkish perspective
on Turkish Perspective Howard Eissenstat, History and Historiography: Politics and Memory in the Turkish Republic (2003), abstract from Cambridge Journals
Eran Livni, Alevi Identity in Turkish Historiography, Middle East History and Theory Workshop 2002
Konrad Hirschler, Defining the Nation: Kurdish Historiography in Turkey in the 1990s, abstract of 2001 article
Büsra Ersanli, History Textbooks as Reflections of the Political Self : Turkey (1930s and 1990s) and Uzbekistan (1990s), abstract of 2002 article from Cambridge Journals
Ouur Yildirim, Representation of the Lausanne Refugees in Greek and Turkish Historiographies, 2002
Hercules Millas, History Textbooks in Greece and Turkey, History Workshop Journal 1991; History, Collective Memory & National Identity : the Case of Turkey, from All Academic; An Assessment of High School History Textbooks in Turkey: Teachers' and Students' Perceptions. from Eric
Problems in Kurdish Historiography, from Kurdistanica
other Perspective note : further historiographic sources may be found under Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Armenia, Greece, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, Serbia, Bosnia.
Gwynne Dyer, Turkish 'Falsifiers' and Armenian 'Deceivers'. Historiography and the Armenian Massacre, (1976), accessible through jstor
Antonina Zhelyazkov, Islamization in the Balkans as a Historiographic Problem : The Southeast European Perspective, Osmanische Forschungen 2001
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Turkey; Governments on the WWW : Turkey
Category : Politics of Turkey, from Wikipedia
General Article Politics of Turkey, from Wikipedia Turkey Profile, from International Crisis Group
Foreign Policy Tevfik Emin Kor, Tigris Euphrates River Dispute, ICE Case Studies 1998; Navid Ahdieh, Turkey, Dams, Kurds, and Conflict Within and Between Countries , ICE Case Studies 2007
Nathan Mertz, Turkey, Ataturk Dam and Downstream Disputes, TED Case Study 2005
Article : Greek-Turkish Relations, from Wikipedia; Bestami Sadi Bilgic, The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate and the Turkish-Greek Relations, 1923-1940, from Turkish Weekly
Relations between Russia and Turkey, from Axis
Turkish-European Relations - A Chronology, Turkish Weekly
Article : Israel-Turkey Relations, from Wikipedia
Article : Iran-Turkey Relations, from Wikipedia
B. Demirtas-Cosgun, Turkish-Bulgarian Relations in the Post Cold-War Era : The Exemplary Relationship in the Balkans
Military see here
Article Military History of Turkey, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Turkey, from ODM
Elise Massicard, Case Study : The Repression of the Koçgiri Rebellion 1920-1921, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Hamid Bozarslan, Chronological Index : The General Ottoman and Turkish Contexts, From the Tanzimat (1838) to the Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion (1938) , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Turkey
Economic History of Turkey, by Thayer Watkins
Textile Workers in Turkey, 1922-2003, by Lisa A. Seidman; Turkish Textile Industry, from ITKIB
History of the Securities Market in Turkey, from Istanbul Stock Exchange; Article Istanbul Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
The Turkish Glass Industry, from Pasabahçe
Agricultural Output and Productivity Growth in Turkey since 1880, by Sevket Pamuk
Pharmaceutical Industry in Turkey, by D. Uvey, A.N. Gokce and I. Basagaoglu
Articles Regional Cooperation for Development, Truman Doctrine, Economic Cooperation Organization, from Wikipedia
Geoffrey Jones, Managing Governments : Unilever in India and Turkey, 1950-1980 (2006)
Global Integrity : Turkey 2004, Turkey 2007
Cosar, Nevin. Demirbank: The History of a Small Commercial Turkish Bank. Business and Economic History 28, no. 1 (Fall 1999): 125-32.
Social History Turkish Women, a brief historical survey, from Business with Turkey
The Turkish Women's Movement : A Brief History of Success, by IEMED
Ethnography Languages of Turkey, from Ethnologue
Migration Information Source : Turkey; Turkey, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre; Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Turkey : Kurds
Overview on the Roma in Turkey, by Ana Oprisan
Circassian Diaspora in Turkey : Stereotypes, Prejudices and Ethnic Relations, by Ayhan Kaya; Turkey : Circassian Minority Asserts its Identity, from Genocide Watch
Hikmet Oksüz, Ülkü Köksal, Emigration from Yugoslavia to Turkey (1923-1960), Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2004 pp.145-176
Hikmet Öksüz, The Reasons for Immigration from Western Thrace to Turkey (1923-1950), in : Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2004 pp.250-278
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Turkey
Henryk Jankowski, Crimean Tatars and Noghais in Turkey
Vahe Tachjan, Case Studies : The expulsion of non-Turkish ethnic and religious groups from Turkey to Syria during the 1920s and early 1930s, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Voices of the Uyghur Diaspora, from Forced Migration Online; on Uyghur Diaspora in Turkey
Article : Demographics of Turkey : Immigration, from Wikipedia
Demography : Population Studies - Turkey (links to Academic institutions)
Murat Kirdar, Explaining Ethnic Disparities in School Enrollment in Turkey 2007, posted by MPRA
Sedat Laciner, The Ideological And Historical Roots Of Kurdist Movements In Turkey: Ethnicity Demography, Politics, Turkish Weekly
Martin van Bruinessen, Constructions of ethnic identity in the late Ottoman Empire and Republican Turkey: the Kurds and their Others
Turkey, pp.4969-5022 in vol.7A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Virtual Jewish History Tour : Turkey, from Jewish Virtual Library; Turkey, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
500 Years of Jewish-Turkish History, from Istanbul Center
History of Regions Provinces of Turkey, Districts of Turkey, from www.statoids.com
History, from Kurdistanica
Local History on Istanbul, from Istanbul Infolink, from Virtual Istanbul, from Governorship of Istanbul, from Wikipedia
History of Izmir, from Cankan, from Wikipedia, Glossary of Izmir from armory.com
History of Ankara, from hitit, from Wikipedia
History of Adana, from Wikipedia, Encyclopedia of the Orient
Institutions General Information, from Turkish Academy of Sciences (TÜBA)
A Short History of Turkish Railways, by Trains of Turkey; Article Turkish State Railways, from Wikipedia
Turkey, from Airline History
Structurae : Turkey; Search Lighthouse Explorer for Turkey
Cultural History Online Publications on the History of Turkish Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Turkey, from UK Food Online, a culinary history of Turkey
Turkish Cuisine (w. history), from Turkish Cultural Foundation
Biographies Famous Turks, from Nations Encyclopedia, from Turkey Turkish, List of Turks, from Wikipedia
Others Disaster History by Country : Turkey, from Relief Web
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Turkey
Article Turkey at the Olympics, Sport in Turkey, Football in Turkey, from Wikipedia
The History of Freemasonry in Turkey, by Cecil Layiktez
Brief History of Journalism in Turkey, by Gül Demir
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
List of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Turkey, from Wikipedia; Liste der deutschen Botschafter in Konstantinopel und Ankara, from Wikipedia German ed.; List of French Ambassadors to Turkey, from Wikipedia (since 1538); Liste chronologique des ambassadeurs en France depuis 1525 (en Turquie), from Ambafrance; Polscy ambasadorzy w Turcji, from Wikipedia Polish edition
Embajadores de Mexico en Turquia, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Article : United States Ambassador to Turkey, from Wikipedia; List of Canadian Ambassadors to Turkey, from MOFA Canada
List of Ambassadors from New Zealand to Turkey, from Wikipedia
Chinese Ambassadors to Turkey, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Turkish Statistical Institute
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Turkey, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Turkey, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics, Turkey, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results Article : Elections in Turkey, from Wikipedia
from Psephos (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide (since 1999) ; from Electoral Geography 2.0; from BBC Turkish Edition (since 1983)
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes, Turkey
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Turkey
Newspapers on Turkey Türkische Post 1925-1943, from Die digitale Bibliothek, in German; Türkische Post / Der nahe Osten 1938-1941, from Die digitale Bibliothek, in German
(Almost) Daily Search London Gazette 1665-; for Turkey
Search New York Times Archive 1851- for Turkey
Search Times of London Digital Archive 1785-1985 for Turkey
Collection of Articles on Turkey The History of the Republic of Turkey, from World History Archives
Magazines, General Search Life Magazine 1936-1972 for Turkey; GB
Search Time Magazine 1923- for Turkey
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender
General, Turkey Entries
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Films on History/Society Turkish Film Museum (Turvak Museum)
Cinema of the World : Turkey; film.fm : Genre History, Turkish
Article : Cinema of Turkey, from Wikipedia
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Argentina, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Photographium, High Resolution Historic Photo Archive, Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Konya
Oriental Collections
Items on Turkey
Images of Asia, Old Pictures of Turkey
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Universal Collections
Items on Turkey
License Plates, from License Plates of the World, from Francoplaque
Airline Timetable Images : Turkey
Archival Deposits Diplomatic Archives : online documents etc. from Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Foreign Office (British) : Reports on Atrocities in the Districts of Yalova and Guemlek and in the Ismid Peninsula (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Foreign Office (British) : Correspondence between His Majesty's Government and the French Government Respecting the Angora Agreement of October 20 1921, posted on Internet Archive
Turkey Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Turkey
U.S. National Archives Pertaining to Turkey 1800-1944 , posted by U.S. Embassy in Turkey
Search National Archives, UK for Turkey
Inventaris van het archief van het Gezantschap in Turkije (Ankara), (1858) 1938-1954, from Nationaalarchief
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Turkey, from ILO, 40 docs. since 1932
Republic of Turkey, Constitutions, from Verfassungen.de, in German
Internet Law Library : Turkey
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Turchia, Turco, 260/111 entries, in Italian
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Turkey
Document Collections links to sources on Turkish history, posted by psm-data
Individual Documents Pontus Delegation, The Pontus Question : memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920, IA
Black book; the tragedy of Pontus, 1914-1922 (1922), IA
Terms of the armistices concluded between the Allied governments and the governments of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey (1919) IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Map Agencies, Turkey : Harita Genel Komutanligi (HGK), Ankara
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas Turkey page
Turkey Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Turkey, Maps of the History of Turkey, Wikimedia Commons
UK Treaties Online, Treaty Maps, has several detailed maps on regions of Turkey
Institut Kurde de Paris, Maps
Atlas of Kurdistan, Wikimedia Commons
A. Turan, Turkey in Maps
Turkey, hindsight Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, Iranian Languages from Titus
OmniAtlas, Historical Atlas of Europe Jan. 1 1919, April 4 1919, June 28 1919, Sept. 10 1919, Nov. 27 1919, April 6 1920, June 4 1920, August 10 1920, Nov. 12 1920, March 20 1921, Aug. 23 1921, Jun. 29 1922, Oct. 28 1922, Nov. 8 1923
Map : 1927 - Widowhood in Turkey (Webster 1935), posted by Wikipedia
Turkey, contemporary Turkey 1932, 1938, Probert Encyclopedia
Treaty of Sevres, 1920, BYU
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary Istanbul 1932, 1968, Probert Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Turkey, (on the Ottoman Empire rather than modern Turkey), Vilayets : Adrianople, Aidin, Konia, Sivas, Kars (Russian Province), Cities : Adalia, Adana, Adrianople, Afium Kara-Hissar, Aidin, Ak-Hissar, Angora, Brusa, Buldur, Constantinople, Diarbekr, Erzerum, Gallipoli, Ismid, Kars, Konia, Manisa, Mersina, Nigdeh, Sivas, Smyrna, Tireh, Trebizond, Van, from EB 1911
Articles Türkisches Reich, Karsgebiet, Adalia, Adana, Adrianopel, Afiun-Karahissar, Aidin, Akhiffar (typo, for Akhissar), Alexandrette, Angora, Antiochia, Ardahan, Bergama, Brussa, Diarbekr, Erzerum, Konia, Manisa, Sinope, Smyrna, Trapezunt, Urfa, Wan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Turkish Empire (on the Ottoman Empire rather than modern Turkey), Adana, Adrianople, Angora, Antioch, Constantinople, Smyrna, Trebizond, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908-1914 edition
Article Turkey (i.e. the Ottoman Empire), Constantinople, Adrianople, Brusa, Smyrna, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides
Travelogues L. Linke, Allah dethroned; a journey through modern Turkey (1937), IA
Institutions Archives Devlet Arsiveri
Turkey Archives, from Goethe Institut Turkey
Musea Lists, Links Category : Museums in Turkey, from Wikipedia
Musea Museum Websites Turkish Grand National Assembly Museum of Republic, from Ankara City Guide
Monuments Category : Monuments and memorials in Turkey, from Wikipedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site, List (search for Turkey), Tentative Lists : Turkey
Showcaves : Turkey
Windmills of Turkey, from Windmill World
Libraries National Library of Turkey
Libraries in Turkey, from LibDex
History of the Turkish National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia; National Anthem from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Malta, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coins of Turkey, from World Coin Gallery; Ottoman Empire/Turkey, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Turkey survey of bibliographies University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign : Turkish National Bibliography
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.231-342 in Matin Heper, Historical Dictionary of Turkey, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1999, KMLA Library R 958.1 H529h, 2002 ed. [G]
Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Turkey
A Bibliography of Turkey and the Ottoman Mideast Empire, from MideastWeb
Turkey, from The Online Books Page
Selected Bibliography on Turkey, from All About Turkey
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Turkish Weekly, A Short Bibliography on Turkish Foreign Policy
J. Mella, A Bibliography of Kurdistan and of the Kurds
Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History, Selected Works on the Ottoman Empire
pp.221-274 in M.M. Gunter, Historical Dictionary of the Kurds, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2004 [G]
serial publications Turkish Historical Society : Publications
Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History, Recent Publications
Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture, Publications
Publications of the Center for Ottoman Diplomatic History
general bibliographies
Turkey entries
Books on Genocide and Related Topics in Turkish, Armenian, from Prevent Genocide
Publications of Orient-Institut Istanbul : ITS, Pera Blätter
Bibliography, from Kurdistanica
Inventaris van de Collectie van het Koerdisch Instituut, Brussel 2009
booksellers Isis Press, Istanbul
Tulumba (Store selling Books, Movies in Turkey / in Turkish)
King Bulan's Turkic Bookstore
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Turkey Middle East History and Theory Workshop at the University of Chicago 2001-
Osmanli Arastirmalari - Osmanische Forschungen
Search MPRA for Turkey
Thesis Server Bilkent University Library Thesis Database
Online Journals full text online European Journal of Turkish Studies
Journal of American Studies of Turkey (1995-)
Alternatives. Turkish Journal of International Relations (2002-)
Turkish Weekly
Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, Ankara 2004-
Etudes Kurdes 2000-
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Mediterranee 1966-2008, Persee
Table of Contents online Orient, Journal of Deutsches Orient Institut, volumes 2007- abstracts online
Turkish Studies Association Journal, ToC of issues since 2000 online
Kurdish Life 1991-, cumulative index
International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1988-2002, cumulative index
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.920-972 Article Turkey and Ancient Anatolia. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Bernard Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford : University Press (1961) 2nd edition 1968
Douglas A. Howard, The History of Turkey, Greenwood 2001, 272 pages; KMLA Lib.Sign. 956.1 H848h
Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth, Wissenschaftliche Länderkunden : Türkei (Scientific Country Studies : Turkey), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1982, in German [G]
Chapter 4 : Turkey resurgent, pp.64-69 in : Peter Mansfield, The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, London : MacMillan (1973) 1976 [G]
Specific Topics Turkey, pp.155-166, in : Derek H. Aldcroft, Europe's Third World. The European Periphery in the Interwar Years. Leicester : UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.09724 A357e
Historical Dictionary Matin Heper, Historical Dictionary of Turkey, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1999
M.M. Gunter, Historical Dictionary of the Kurds, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2004 [G]
Articles : Kurdistan pp.313-315, in : James Minahan, Nations without Sates, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Urban History John Freely, Istanbul, the Imperial City. London : Penguin 1996; KMLA Lib.Sign. 949.618 F854i
Biographies A.L. MacFie, Profiles in Power : Atatürk, London : Longman (1994) 1999 [G]

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