1944-1949 1968-1989

Albania 1949-1968

Administration . Foreign Policy . The communist Albanian government distrusted the west, fearing a potential repetition of the Greek experience. Sentiment was equally suspicious of Tito's Yugoslavia, with which Albania broke in 1948, so the Hoxha administration chose close ties with the USSR (which soon also broke with Yugoslavia). In 1955, Albania became a founding member of the Warsaw Pact - the only member nation not liberated by the Red Army.
Enver Hoxha was an admirer of Josef Stalin; in 1961 he broke with the USSR (Nikita Krushchev). now leaning on the PR China instead.

Political History . In 1967 Albania underwent her own version of the Cultural Revolution; places of worship were closed, clergy arrested.

The Economy . First Five Year Plan 1951-1955, Second Five Year Plan 1956-1960, Third Five Year Plan 1961-1965, Fourth Five Year Plan 1966-1970. In the Fourth Five Year Plan, the economic enterprises were given a touch more freedom to make their own decisions.
In 1952, Albania produced 86,000 metric tons of wheat, in 1957 a bumper 125,000, in 1960 64,000, in 1968 184,000 (IHS p.255). In 1961 the USSR cut her economic aid to Albania; the PR China tried to fill the gap.
Albania did not receive any Marshall Aid. In economic policy, Enver Hoxha tried to industrialize the country. Tirana Airport was constructed from 1955 to 1957.

Social History . The census of 1950 counted 1.2 million Albanians, the census of 1955 1.39 million, the census of 1960 1.62 million, the census of 1969 2.06 million Lahmeyer).

Cultural History . Tirana University was established in 1957, as the country's first university. During the Albanian Cultural Revolution of 1967, mosques and churches were closed; Albania proclaimed itself an atheist state. The Albanian National Olympic Committee was formed in 1959 and recognized by the IOC the same year.
Albania did not send athletes to the Summer Olympics in Helsinki 1952, Melbourne 1956, Rome 1960, Tokyo 1964 and Mexico City 1968. In the qualifications to the European Championship in 1968, by drawing the FRG 0-0, the Albanian national football team ousted West Germany from the competition.

Articles History of Communist Albania, Enver Hoxha, from Wikipedia
Origins of Tirana University, from Albania Online
History of the Airport, from Tirana Airport
The Communist Regime, 1944-1985, from History of Albania by CCL-AL
Country Study Albania, from Library of Congress
Article National Olympic Committee, from Wikipedia
Albania : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
DOCUMENTS Albanian Statesmen, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Historical Population Statistics, from Population Statistics, (Jan Lahmeyer)
Albanian banknotes, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money and from Currency Museum
REFERENCE IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics : Europe 1750-1988, NY : Stockton Press 1992 [G]
Miranda Vickers, The Albanians - a Modern History, (1995) London : Tauris 2001, 282 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 949.65 V637a
Article : Albania, pp.612-618 in : Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, vol.14, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862n v.14
Chapter 23 : Satellites and Soviet Policy, pp.327-352, in : John Gunther, Inside Europe Today, NY : Harper & Bros. 1961 [G]
Article : Albania, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1950 p.36, 1951 pp.35-36, 1952 pp.34-35, 1953 pp.35-36, 1954 pp.35-36, 1955 pp.98-99, 1956 pp.34-35, 1957 pp.97-98, 1958 pp.33-34, 1959 p.34, 1960 pp.33-34, 1961 pp.36-37, 1962 pp.19-20, 1963 p.138, 1964 pp.121-122, 1965 p.129, 1966 pp.91-92, 1967 p.94, 1968 p.9, 1969 p.92 [G]
Article : Albania, in : Americana Annual 1957 pp.21-22, 1961 pp.25-26, 1962 pp.24-25, 1963 pp.43-44, 1964 pp.43-44, 1965 p.68, 1967 p.49, 1968 pp.45-46, 1969 pp.65-66 [G]
Article : Albania, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1952 pp.29-30, 1961 pp.9-10 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on January 10th 2002, last revised on September 28th 2007

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