Croatia before 1102 1301-1526

Croatia 1102-1301

The relation between Croatia and Hungary had been aggred on in the PACTA CONVENTA of 1091. The Croats were to accept the King of Hungary as the King of Croatia, but Croatia would maintain it's autonomy, in form of a Croatian viceroy (BAN), separate diets, called SABOR, for Slavonia (first recorded in 1273) and for Croatia south of the Sava River, and a Croatian church organization, headed by the bishop of Zagreb.
Under Hungarian rule, FEUDAL LAW was introduced; the King of Hungary and Croatia made the nobility dependent on the King by handing out fiefs. These fiefs were exempt from the administration of the count (Zupan). Simultaneously, the Croatian peasantry was reduced to the status of serfs.
The Dalmatian coast now was contested between Hungary and Venice; on the 4th crusade the crusaders took Zadar (Zara) in 1202, en route to Constantinople. The Croatian magnates in the region of the Dinaric Mountains, most notably the Subic and Frankopan families, established a certain degree of autonomy for themselves.
In the 1230es the Franciscans and Dominicans founded monasteries in the cities of Croatia, esp. in Dalmatia. The Kings of Hungary, especially after the devastating Tatar raid of 1241-1242 (Battle of Sajo 1241), provided the cities with charters, granting them far-reaching autonomy, in return for taxation and for the promise to fortify themselves (city walls). In Croatia's interior, the most important city was Gradec, today a suburb of Zagreb.
Hungarian sovereignty was undisputed in Slavonia and central Croatia (around Zagreb), while mountainous Dalmatia was difficult to control. and was contested with Venice. The city of RAGUSA (Dubrovnik), while able to fend off Venetian attacks, slipped out of Croatian control and in effect became an independent republic. The Serbs occupied the area around the Gulf of Kotor in 1196, holding on to it for 150 years.

Croatia, History of, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1914 edition, from Discover Croatia, from , from, illustrated
Dalmatia, History of, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1914 edition
Yugoslavia, from Library of Congress, Country Studies
REFERENCE Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, Cambridge University Press (1985) 1999
Ivo Goldstein, Croatia - a History, (1999) McGill-Queen's UP 2001

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on November 7th 2004

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