Dalmatia as described in Historic Encyclopedias

Historic Encyclopedias on Dalmatia : Brockhaus 1809-1811, Pierer 1857-1865, Anskjaer 1858-1863, Meyer 1885-1892, NNordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Dalmatien (excerpts)
Dalmatia, a large landscape, bordered by the Adriatic Sea, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Albania; including the Dalmatian islands it has an area of 312 square miles. A mountainous, but healthy country blessed by grain, wine, oil, tree fruits, sheepbreeding and fishery, which in history at times was submitted to the Venetians, Turks, the Republic of Ragusa, the Austrians and the Kingdom of Hungary, which presently, for the most part, belongs to the Kingdom of Italy. Her inhabitants, mostly Morlachs, for the larger part adhere to Greek faith, while in the cities Roman Catholicism is dominant. The dominant language is Slavonic. In the Italian part of Dalmatia, of which Zara is the capital, he population recently has been estimated as 329,000.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Dalmatien (1)
Dalmatia, Kingdom, southernmost province of the Austrian Empire, a coastal stretch of land on the Adriatic Sea, located between it, European Turkey and the Croatian military border zone, to it belong 61 islands and many uninhabited islets along the coast. The Dalmatian mainland is structured in three parts, as Ragusa prefecture , in the north and south, by Turkish territory is separated from the remainder. Toward the coast the land is traversed by mountain ranges, which form a continuation of the Dinaric Alps. Further to the north on the border to Croatia is the Morlach Mountain Range (Vellebit Mountains), which with Mt. Santo reaches an elevation of 5,405 feet, further on Mt. Tartari, the Mosser Mts., and a coastal stretch in which Mt. Biocova reaches 5,521 feet. The mountain ranges on the islands run parallel and also consist of limestone including deposits of flintstone, coal, asphalt, ferrous clay, lignite, none of which are mined. The mountain ranges descend steeply toward the coast; the coastline is ruptured, has seberal bays, of which those of Cattaro, Ragusa and Castelli are the largest. The narrows and channels separating the islands are usually deep, and because of their small width, have low waves. The land has only coastal rivers (Zermagna, Kerka, Cettina, Narenta, Ombla etc.) and many lakes (those of Vrana, Nadine, Poglizza, Scordona, Zablachie, Morigne, Jesero, Jeseratz, Desla, Poglian), the climate is mild, but dry, the freqquent winds from the east and northeast push the evaporaion of the Adriatic Sea toward Italy; therefore summers bring little precipitation and people depend on water from the wells. Animals : bred animals (sheep), game (wolves), poultry, fish, bees, Spanish flies, he vegetation is poor; the mountains get the more barren, of the once lush forests only a few bushes are left. Many areas suffer from lack of firewood. The growth of heliotropium, savoury, a kind of euphorbia is poor, the fig tree instead grows well; olive cultivations produce excellent oil, viticulture is important, produces a gegerally firy, dark strong wine, further fruit grows in quantity, especially sour cherries on the islands, of which the famous Maraschino licquor is made, little agriculture, the pastures are better; fishery nourishes the inhabitants of the coast and trade with fish (mackerels, anchovis) is conducted; also considerable coral fishing, especially near Sebenico.
Area : 233.4 square miles, population 411,000 , Slavs, which are generally called Dalmatians, but also Morlachs in the north, Ragusans and Bocchesi in the south, further Italians, Albanians and a few Jews. The Dalmatian is strong, tall and of regular shape, has black or dark brown, rarely blond hair, common dress is a brown coat, the wealthier ones wear it in red, footwear are the Opankas, with soles of the leather of oxen. Only the wealthier persons wear shoes. Women love jewelry if it attracts attention. The language is a Slavic dialect; those with education speak Italian. The dominant religion is Roman Catholicism; the province is divided in several dioceses, has 60 monaseries for monks and 9 for nuns, but there are also many Greek Christians. Among educational institutions Ragusa has a philosophical college, there are three gymnasia in Spalato, Ragusa and Zara. The government is unrestricted, all men are soldiers, the provincial court is at Zara and there are several country courts. Coat of arms : 3 golden leopard heads in a blue field. Components : Dalmatia proper (Venetian Dalmatia), the Republic of Ragusa, Bocchia di Cattaro and two islands of Quarnero (Arbe, Pagano); these used to be divided in 4 circles (Zara, Spalato, Ragusa and Cattaro); since 1850 they are divided in 7 prefectures (Cattaro, Macarsca, Ragusa, Sebenico, Sige, Spalato, Zara).

source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Dalmatien (2)
Dalmatia, history. ... In 1089 the kings of Hungary conquered Dalmatia, and it remained at imes under their, at times under Byzantine protection, under indigenous princes, until it was conquered by the Turks under Muhammad II., following the death of the last prince. By that time Venice already had conquered a number of coastal places, but had to give them up in 1358. In 1409 Venice reacquired them by a combination of conquest and purchase, and succeeded in driving the Turks from the coast. The most important gain was made in 1713, when Venice in the Treaty of Passarowitz, in compensation for the loss of Morea, was ceded territory in Dalmatia. So Dalmatia was divided in three, Austrian Dalmatia, Venetian Dalmatia, Turkish Dalmatia (between Bosnia and Albania). Further the Republic of Ragusa forms part of the old Dalmatia; in 1797 Venetian Dalmatia came to Austria, in 1809 to France, which ceded it to the Kingdom of Illyria; in 1814 it came back to Austria, which formed a separate kingdom of it.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, Article : Dalmatien
Dalmatia, one of the crownlands of the Austrian monarchy, which stretches as a narrow coatal land with many islands along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in a direction from northwest to southeast between 42 degrees 10 minutes and 44 degrees 52 minutes northern latitude and between 32 degrees 14 minutes and 36 degrees 40 minutes eastern longitude. It includes an area of 232 square miles with 393,715 inhabitants (1851) without the military population. It borders in the north on the Croatian military frontier, in the east on Bosnia, the Herzegovina and Montenegro and elsewhere on the Adriatic Sea. Except for the islands the land consists of three separate stretches of mainland, which are separated by two small stretches, which the Turkish Herzegovina sends out to the sea; it is a terrasse shaped mountain country descending from the Dinaric Alps. These form the border with Turkey down to Narenta Valley, and parallel to them run several chains along the coast. The highest point in the Dinaric Alps is Dinara in the vicinity of Berlika, 5,574 feet. South of the Narenta Valley the border woth Turkey is formed by an uninterrupted mountain chain which continues around Cattaro Bay to Albania's border; its highest point, and at the same time Dalmatia's highest elevation, is Oria at 5,846 feet. Dalmatia's mountains belong to the Jurassic formation; the coastal chains mostly descend deeply toward the sea, are strongly interrupted and denuded. The islands may be regarded as a subterranean continuation of these mountain chains, as they have the same characteristics. The most important islands, from north to south, are Arbe, Pago, Grossa, Brazza, Lessina, Curzola and Meleda, hey are all high and mountainous, the last rises to 3,552 feet above the sea. There are no plains of importance in Dalmatia. The valleys are narrow and appear more as incisions than as proper valleys. The most important is the Cettina Valley which at its widest is only 3/4 mile wide. Rovers are coastal rivers and all feed into the Adriatic Sea. The most important are from north o south the Zermagna which has its mouth just above Novigrad, Kerka, which reaches the sea near Sebenico, Cettina, which has her spring near Berlika, runs first in southeastern direction, then turns west and reaches the sea near Almissa, and the Narenta, which comes from Herzegovina, and which at Fort Opus splits in two arms; it reaches the sea in 12 arms, is navigable from its mouth to the border for ships of 50 kom. weight. Dalmatia has only one permanent lake of importance, Brana, southeast of Zara; it is a coastal lake with subterranean connection with the sea. The others are only filled with water in fall and winter. The rivers create many swamps, which, with the exception of coastal swamps, dry up in summer. The climate is healthy except near the coastal swamps, snowfall is rare; the thermometer does not fall belong freezing point for extended periods of time. A burden is the strong northeastern wind which blows freqyently in he winter, Bora, as is the southeastern wind, Scirocco, which blows in he summer. Annual average temperature is in Zara 12 degrees, in Ragua 13 degrees, in Cataro 13.7 degrees. Of the entire area (232 squae miles), in 1851 the productive part made up 224 square miles, namely 25.6 square miles farmland, 12.4 square miles vineyards, 2.8 square miles olive groves, 130,8 square miles pasture, 50.1 square miles forest land, the remainder meadows, plantations of oas, laurel, chestnut. Proper agriculture is of little importance and backward; the most important grains are wheat, maize and barley. The main product is wine. Further a large quantity of olives, figs and almonds is produced. In 1851 the number of the most important livestock were 21,997 horses, 84,139 head of cattle, 22,660 mules and donkeys, 621,805 sheep, 399,443 goats and 30,409 hogs. Fishery along the coast, especially for anchovis, mackerels and tuna, is very important and produces a good surplus. The land is poor in mineral products, the most important being lignite, asphalt, limestone and marble quarries. Industry, except for shipbuilding, is n a very low level. The most important import articles are grain, flour, cotton and woollen textiles, sail cloth, silk, cattle and tobacco; export articles are olive oil, fish, wine, sheeps dung, skins and hides, tallow, perfumes, horn and dyestuffs. The total import value in 1851 was 6,295,000 Rigsdaler, the total export value 5,162,000 Rigsdaler, the total transit trade 3,104,000 Rigsdaler. The steamships of the Austrian Lloyd provide the largest part of the transportation of wares; Dalmatia itself in 1848 owned no less than 2,089 vessels, with a combined capacity of almost 9,000 kom. last. The land communication consist largely of two main roads, one connecting Knin with Ragusa, the other from Zara along the coast. Large stretchs are not passable by wagons. The population, which above has been given as 393,715 (1851) without the military, for the most part belong to Slavic tribes, as 9/10 are Croats. The remainder consists of Italians and a few Jews. The people's language is the Slavic or Illyrian in the Herzegovinian dialect; the official language is Italian, which is also the language of the upper classes. By confession in 1851 the population consisted of 318,340 Roman Catholics, 496 united and 14,529 not united Greeks, 15 protestabnts and 340 Jews. The Dalmatians ate strongly built men and in general live a rather simple life. In administrative respect the country is placed under a stadholder who resides in Zara. It is divided in 4 circles, Zara, Spalato, Ragusa and Cattaro which are divided in 32 disricts, and in ecclesistic respects it forms the archdiocesis of Zara with 5 suffragan dioceses. In Ragusa there is a Greek bishop.
Dalmatia was annexed by the Roman Empire under Augustus, and on the occasion of the fall of the Western Roman Empire was conquered by the Goths and Avars. In the 7th century, the latter were expelled by the Slavs, which in the 11th century submitted to the Magyars. The Venetians meanwhile established control over the coast, while the mountainous stretches fell to the Turks. In the Treaty of Campoformio 1797 the country came to Austria, which in the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 had to cede it to Napoleon, but got it back in 1814.

source in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, Article : Dalmatien
Dalmatia, kingdom and Austrian crown land, the southernmost part of the Empire, contains a narrow coastal area on the eastern side of the Adriatic Sea between 44 degrees 45 minutes and 42 degrees 10 minuts northern latitude and between 14 degrees 45 minutes and 18 degrees 58 minutes longitude east of Greenwich, is bordered in the north by Croatia (the former military border), in the east by Bosnia, the Herzegovina and Montenegro, in the south and west by the sea; further about 50 larger islands and numerous rocky islets (Scoglias) belong to it. In 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin the Spizza territory (43 square km) was annexed into Dalmatia. The greatest lengh of the province is 556, the greatest width 74 km, the area 12,832 square km (233 square miles). The Herzegovinian lands of Klek and Sutovina split the Dalmatian mainland in three parts.
Physical Conditions. Dalmatia is a furrowed karst area stretching from northwest to southeast, with some mountain islands and a high mountain range on its fringe. The long chain of lengthy islands also has the same characteristics. Mainland and islands generally have steep rocky coasts and share the barrenness of the mountains, as well as their lack of water. The land is lowest in the stretch between coast and Zermanja, in which elevations only in a few cases reach 600 m. A higher mountain country is found between Kerka and Narenta (Smilaja 1516 m). The high chain of the Velebit on the Croatian border (Sveto Brdo 1754 m), which is crossed by a road (summit 1008 m) is followed beyond the Zermanja incision by the Orlavica (1209 m) and then the Dinaric Alps (Mt. Dinara 1811 m and other peaks, which towards southeast get lower), while the coastal mountain range rises in height. Here the Mossor reachers 1339 m, the Biokovo famous for its botanic wealth up to 1766 m. The mountains in the Ragusan area are of lesser height, few reach 1200 m (Sniesnica 1241 m); in the Cattaro area the highest elevations of Dalmatia, among them Orjen with 1898 m, are found. Only the three southernmost islands have important elevations (Mt. San Vito on Brazza 785 m, San Niccolo on Lesina 634 m, Hum on Lissa 592 m); the northern ones are low, only on Arbe a peak rises above 400 m. The geologic formation caused the existance of numerous cavesb among which the Aesculapian Grotto on the Sniesnica and the Grotto of Verlicca deserve mentioning. Dalmatia does not have plains in the srict sense; the largest plain area is found between Knin and Ostrovizza, about 8 square km in size. Dalmatia is a generally arid land. Most of the smaller islands have no springs. Everywhere one attempts to supply oneself with water from cisterns, in part natural ones, which are filled by dammed rivulets, in part by artificial ones which usually dry out in summer. Among the coastal rivers only the Narenta is of importance, of which only the swampy mouth belongs to Dalmatia. The other few coastal rivers are : the Zermanja (which has its spring outside Dalmatia), the Kerka with the Cikola and the Cettina. All are deeply incised, the Kerka forms several cataracts, among which those near Scardona are the most important. Also the Cettina, before it reaches the sea, has a steep fall. All other rivulets are tiny creeks which only appear in the rainy season, and which disappear in the Karst. Except for the salty Lake Vrana (29 square km) Dalmatia has a number of periodically dry basins which are filled by rainwater, so the lakes near Zara, Imorski, Vergorac. Dalmatia is not lacking swamps (132 square km), but only those in the Narenta Delta (the drainage of which is in the works) are of larger size. The Adriatic coast of Dalmatia is 560 km long. The many promontories, peninsulas and isthmi form a number of channels, barrows, inlets and bays are formed which are all the better for navigation as the coasts are steep almost everywhere. The most important of these navvigational routes are the Canale della Morlacca, the Canal of Brazza and the Canal of Narenta. Among the most important bays are the one of Spalato and the Bocche di Cattaro, with her sea basin and narrows the most beautiful part of the country. The largest peninsula it the one of Sabbioncello. Along the entire coast a weak current from southeast to northwest, the Corrente Generale, can be observed, it is most notable when winds blow from the south. Ebb and tide are less than 2/3 m above or below average sea level; only when the wind is strong, they may reach 1 m. The most important of the inhabited islands are, from north to south, Arbe, Pago, Brazza (the largest and most populous island), Lesina, Lissa, Curzola, Lagosta and Meleda. In general Dalmatia has the mildes climate of all Austrian lands, despite it being affected by coastal air. The land rarely experiences a real winter with snow and ice, the thermometer rarely falls below freezing. The average annual temperature in Zara is 14.8 degrees Celsius, in Ragusa 16.8 degrees; average annual rainfall is 78 - 80 cm. The southeastern wind (Scirocco) is dominant, less frequent the northwes (Mistral). The feared northeast (Bura) blows frequently, as he colder air of the higher altitudes exchanges with the heated air of lower altitudes. Thunderstorms are frequent, on average more than 40 per year.
Population. The population of Dalmatia in 1869 was 458,611, in 1880 : 476,101, thus 37 inhabitants per square km. The lowest population density (20) is found in the district (Bezirkshaupmannschaft) Benkovac, the densest that of Lesina (55). The population is distributed in 81 municipalities and 841 communities with 80,149 inhabited houses. The most numerous population elements in Dalmatia is the Serbian (93 %), who in the interior are called Morlachs. North of the Cettina persons in height, dialect, clothing style and customs are similar to he Croatian type; on the islands the influence of Italian idiom is noticable. The Slavs use, in addition to the Latin alphabet, also (for the purpose of religious service) the Cyrillic and Glogolithic alphabet. The next most numerous population element are the Italians (5.8 %), concentrated in the coastal cities and on the islands. In the larger cities about 3400 Germans reside. About 900 Albanians inhabit Borgo Erizzo near Zara, about 250 Jews of Spanish descent form the rest of the population. In regard to stature the Dalmatian stands out by body height, accentuated treats, sharp senses and extraordinary power. He has stamina, his nourishment and way of life are simple, his spirit inclined toward education. In some areas still today blood revenge is customary. Clothing traditions are so nanifold, that for instance almost every community on the Bocche di Cattaro has her own traditional dress. Over 83 % of the population are Roman Catholic, 16 % Greek Orthodox. Protestants, united Greeks and Jews together make up hardly 500 souls. The Roman Catholic church is headed by an archbishop (in Zara), five bishops (at Sebenico, Spalato, Lesina, Ragusa and Cattaro). The Oriental Greeks have two dioceses (at Zara and Cattaro), which are placed unter he Metropolitany of Czernowitz. The monasteries (68 Roman Catholic, 11 Greek) ae inhabited by 533 monchs and 109 nuns.
Among edicational institutions, next to diocesan seminaries and monastery schools, here are 4 superior gymnasia (Zara, Spalato,Ragusa, Cattaro), one superior real school (Spalato), an inferior real school (Zara), a teacher seminary (Borgo Erizzo) and a seminary for female teachers (Ragusa), further 2 nautical schools (Cattaro, Ragusa); there were 340 elementary schools. In 1871 only 17 % of the children underlying mandatory schooling attended elementary school; by 1880 the percentage rose to 68 %. A museum in Zara is under construction, the one in Spalato displays the relics found in Salona.
Natural products, agriculture etc. Few countries have relatively such a manifold vegetation as does Dalmatia. Up to the feet of the mountains two regions can be distinguished. The barren rocky coast is followed by fat soil consisting of marl, clay and black coal. The lack of irrigation, the destruction of the forests under Venetian rule, the salt kernels blown into the country during storms prevent the lush grow of flora, especialy of trees, which already is endangered by the large number of sheep and goats. Dalmatia has only a few pines; all the more frequent are cedar trees and coastal pines. The bush consists of pistacias, myrtles, junipr, carob beans etc. An especially rich flora is found on the island of Lesina, where even rosemary is widely found. In the southernmost parts plants at home in southern Europe thrive in the open, among them cactea, agaves, even the date palm. Only 11 % of the land is farmland; pastures (among it many stretches of barren land) make up 47 %. Vineyards cover 6 %, gardens and meadows 4 %, in the country's interior poor forest only 30 %. The meagre products of agriculure (c. 1,650,000 hl grain, mostly maize, barley and wheat), 45,000 hl legums, 250,000 hl potatoes, 25,000 hl beets) are not sufficient to answer local demand, but the province produces excellent wine (1,150,000 hl) and olive oil (100,000 metric ctr.) a part of which is exported. Sour cherries grow well; they are the basis for Maraschino liquor, also almonds, melons, figs, pomegranades, all without requiring to be looked after. Chrysanthemums are grown for the production of insecticide (annual production over 10,000 metric ctr.). The grassland produces 250,000 metric ctr. hay; the few forests deliver 300,000 cubic meters of timber. The value of real estate and culivated land is estimated at 37.5 million Florin. Livestock breeding, because of the lack of fodder and of the low quality of the pastures, can not be raised. Horses (20,256) serve as riding and pack animals, as do mules (7732) and donkeys (19,082). Because of the low number of head of cattle (89,728) and its usage in agriculture, milk, butter and cheese as well as beef have become rare treats. Numerous are only sheep (824,191) and goats (217,155); thus lamb the standard meat. Hogs (29.432) are rarely found. Hunted are only the numerous water fowl, namely in the delta of the Narenta. On the islands bees are kept (Solta honey). For Dalmatia, fishery is of great importance, namely for anchovis, which provides exclusive employment for a number of villages. The fish (22 different species), pickled or dried, form an important export product. Near Sebenico corals are fished. The soil of Dalmatia contains few mineral treasures. Lignite (near Siveric) is produced (220,000 metric ctr). Limestone and marble quarries are more productive; most productive is the sea (salines on the islands of Arbe and Pago and at Stagno, 1885 75,000 metr. ctr.).
Industry, trade, communication. Industry in Dalmatia, with the exception of liquor production (Maraschino, Zaratine Rosoglio), the production of bottles (for the former), of limestone and brick burning, of soap production and oil presses, hardly developed. Even grinding mills are of the most primitive technology. In the last decades a silk industry has emerged, without having gained importance. The inhabitants of the countryside are very skilled in the production of everything they need for daily use, such as cloth, rough linen, shoes, ropes, baskets, hats etc. Very important is also shipbuilding; smaller ships are built at a number of places; larger shipyards are at Ragusa and at Milna on the island of Brazza. Navigation is the main source of income of the Dalmatines; for centuries they are regarded the most experienced sailors of the Adriatic Sea. Dalmatia's merchant navy has 510 ships with a combined tonnage of 77,285 and a combined crew of 14,042. Among them there are 102 vessels suited for long distance trips, with a tonnage of 53,725. Shipbuilding produces 180-200 new ships and 100 remodeled or repaired vessels annually, mostly barks. The 54 Dalmatian ports are frequented by c. 20,000 ships annually with a cargo of 3,200,000 tons. Dalmatia's trade for the larger part is transit trade to and from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trade may be estimated as of a value of 16 million Florin, 33 % of which falling on imort via the sea (wool and cotton wares, flour, barrels), imports via the land 8 % (grain, tobacco, livestock for slaughter), on exports (oilve oil, insecticide, sheep- and gioat skins, wine, liquor, fish, sea salt) over 36 %, on transit trade 22 %. Dalmatia in 1880 ceased to be a separate customs area, at the same time as Bosnia-Herzegovina it was included in the Austro-Hungarian customs union. Communication with Bosnia-Herzegovina, due to the lack of roads, is conducted by pack animals, and therefore goods have to be packed in small units of maximum 75 kg weight. Major markets are at Ragusa, Cattaro and elsewhere. Since 1877 a state railroad connects Spalato with he coal basin at Siveric, with a branch line to Sebenico (105 km); since 1885 another one connects Metkovic with Mostar in Herzegovina (43 km). Paved roads were built in Dalmatia only under Ausrian administration. The most important are the Strada Mediterranea which traverses the entie length of the country, and the Strada Littoral, which connects Zara with Almissa. Since 1831 the street crossing the Velebit hs been opened, which forms the shortest route between Zara and Karlstadt. Into the Herzegovina lead the road in the Narenta Valley from Metkovic to Mostar. In total Dalmatia has 2,522 km in country roads. The ports of Dalmatia rarely require engineering; of military importance is the port of Rogosnica. One of the most excellent ports is Porto di San Giorgio on the northern coast of the island of Lissa. The best refuge for entire squadrons in winter is found in the Canale di Calamotta. The port of Ragusa is small and exposed to the Scirocco. Gravosa Bay, a litle to the north, is spacious enough for the largest fleet, and secure. The Bocche di Cattaro is excellent protects even against the worst Bora. Naval ports are Lissa, Zara and Cattaro. The following ports have the largest trade : Spalato, Zara, Sebenico and Gravosa.

Administrative Division of Dalmatia

District Area (sq km) Population 1880 District Area (sq km) Population 1880
Benkovac 1581 31,003 Metkovic 377 10,509
Cattaro 678 33,757 Ragusa 775 36,307
Curzola 590 21,812 Sebenico 961 39,176
Imoski 641 27,443 Sinj 1335 40,103
Knin 1411 41,884 Spalato 1886 91,151
Lesina 413 22,911 Zara 1636 60,161
Macarsca 548 19,884

Administration. The political division into Bzirkshauptmannschaften (districts) can be seen from the abovelisted table. The superior authority is the stadholdership. In Zara there is a supreme court and a country court, in Spalato, Ragusa, Cattaro circle courts, further 33 district courts. In Zara, Spalato and Ragusa Chambers of Commerce and Trade. The diet of Dalmatia is composed by the Catholic archbishop, the Greek Orthodox bishop of Zara, and 41 deputees (10 of the highest tax payers, 1 of the capital, 7 of the cities, 3 of the chambers of commerce, 20 of the country communities). Dalmatia sends 9 deputees to the Reichsrat (1 the most taxed, 2 the cities and chambers of commerce, 6 the country communities). Dalmatia collects not even 600,000 Florin in direct taxes, of indirect ones 1.6 million, more than half of which because of the salt and tobacco monopoly. In the coat of arms, Dalmatia displays 3 crowned leopard heads, Ragusa three blue dialogal beams on the right, Zata a harnessed rider, Cattaro (Austrian Albania) a red lion. The flag is that of the Austrian navy. The capital is Zara.
See Petter, Das Königreich D. (Gotha 1857, 2 vols.); Noe, D. und seine Inselwelt (Wien 1870); Schiff, Kulturbilder aus D. (Wien 1875); Schatzmayr, D., geograph.-histor.-statist Beschreibung (Triest 1877); "Landeskunde des Königreichs D." (das. 1876); Swida, Das Königreich D. (Wien 1882); Stesanovicz-Vilovsky, Die Serben im südl. Ungarn, in D. etc. (Teschen 1884); Bidermann, Die Bestandteile des heutigen Königreichs D. (in der Wiener "Statist. Monatsschrift" 1885), und das seit 1871 in Zara erscheinende Jahrbuch "Manuale del regno di Dalmazia".
History. ... King Ladislas of Hungary, brother-in-law of the King of Croatia and Dalmatia, claimed his rights over Croatia, was recognized as the country's sovereign, and his descendant Koloman fought a war over Dalmatia with Venice, which after various events, especially in the] era of the Hungarian Anjou Dynasty (1310-1382) ended in the truce concluded by King Sigismund with the Venetians in 1433, in consequence of which Dalmatia was split in two. Early in the 13th century he Morlachs immigrated, and in 1242 Dalmatia was devastated by the Mongols. The wars between Hungary and Venice continued, and in 1462 the Otomans began regular raids into Croatia and Dalmatia, which faild to harm the fotified cities, but caused great devastation in the open country. In the meantime the Venetians held on to their Dalmatian possessions and enlarged these by conquests and treaties with Turkei. Only Ragusa, inmidst of all these struggles, maintained her independence, and even rid herself of the responsibility to have her "counts" or "deans" appointed by he Republic of Venice, after 150 years. With a careful diplomacy between Hungary, Venice and the Porte. In the Treaty of Karlowitz 1699 the Porte ceded southern Dalmatia to Venice, which managed to win the hearts and minds of the Dalmatians to such an extent that these became their most faithful subjects and most courageous fighters against the Turks, and while Venice had to surrender her best possessions in the Levant, the Turks failed in trying to conquer little Dalmatia. Venetian rule in Dalmatia included since the treaties with the Porte of 1671 and 1699 Vecchio Acquisto (the old possession) all earlier acquired coastal territory, the border of which had been negotiated by Provveditore Nani (therefore Linea ani), and Nuovo Acquisto the lands gained by the border regulation negotiated by Proveditore Generale Mocenigo (Linea Mocenigo), which contains a large part of the Contado of Zara, a part of the districts of Sebenico and Troni, the districts of Knin and Drenis, finally parts of the districts Scardona, Spalato, Siga, Almisso, Mucarsca (correctly Macarsca) and Narenta. The Treaty of Passarowitz 1718 gave to Dalmatia her present borders (Acquisto Novissimo) which added the remainder of the last named districts. Both together form the mountain country. The municipal statutes dating back into independent times form the basis for communal administration. The representative of the highest juridical, political and military authority was in every city the Conte-Capitano, dispatched by Venice, who in turn was under the provincial Provveditoe Generale residing in Zara.
Venice did little in order to raise general welfare and to promote the education of the inhabitants by the means of public schooling. Still disappointment was general, when the Doge's Republic was dissolved in the Treaty of Campo Formio on May 12th 1797, and hitherto Venetian Dalmatia came under Austrian rule, In the Treaty of Pressburg 1805 Austria had to cede almatia to Napoleon I. who, after the expulsion of the Russians, added it to the Kingdom of Italy. After, in the Treaty of Vienna, he also gained Hungarian Dalmatia, in 1810 out of all of Dalmatia and the Austrian territories west of the ava River he formed the so-called Illyrian Provinces of his Empire. In 1814 Dalmatia fell back to Austria and was merged wih the agusan territory and a part of Albania, and elevated to a separate kingdom. While the Austrian administration undertook a number of steps to raise the material and spiritual level of he country, they failed in gaining it a lot of sympathies. In consequence of the events of 1848 Dalmatia was subordinated to the Ban of Croatia. As the Slavic inhabitants of Dalmatia almost exclusively belonged to the lower classes and were politically inactive, as the leading figures in the diet were Italians, Dalmatia did not want a connection with Croatia. So the Dalmatian diet expressed the desire to remain in the complex of German-Slavic provinces, and hurried to send delegates to the Viennese Reichstag. Only a small faction was pro-Slavic, and in an address which was presented to the Emperor on Oct. 9th 1861 they requested the reconstitution of the tri-unite kingdom, for which they claimed the same degree of autonomy within the Austrian state, as Hungary had had until the revolution of 1849. That the inhabitants were neither civilized nor loyal to the Empire, became apparent in the insurrection of 1869. When the government in October 1869 wanted to recruit a militia, this appeared to the inhabitants of the Bocche di Cattaro as an infringement of their liberty; they put up armed resistance, expelled the officials, laid siege to Fort Dragalj and annihilated a detachement sent out against them. In their mountains they were almost sage from attack. Several regiments were beaten back and suffered losses; the insurgents received support from the interior and from Montenegro. Only when General von Rodich succeeded, by promising amnesty, compensation and freedom from the draft, to move the Bocchesians to lay down their arms and to submit, so that in February 1870 calm was restored. The Kaiser's visit of Dalmatia (in April and May 1875) which provided the opportunity to numrous local ovations, appeared later, when the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the natural hinterlands of Dalmatia (1878) became reality, as having preceded this grea action of Austria, and appeared to the Dalmatians as a guarantee for the realization of a number of hopes concerning the material situation of the country. In the meantime the Slavic Party gained more and more ground in Dalmatia and finally gained the majority in the diet. The struggle of the parties, the Italian and the Slavic autonomists, and the supporters of a Croatian triunite kingdom Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia (Bosnia and Herzegovina included), continued in varying ferocity. Sensing their numeric superiority and their majority in the diet, the Croatian National Party began to attack the Italians and Germans, to Slavicize the schools. Also in 1881 in southern Dalmatia, in the Bocche and in so-called Krivoscie a new insurrection broke out, because of the introduction of mandatory military service; it was suppressed only in 1882. See, in addition to the older books on the history of Dalmatia von Bomann (Venezia 1778), Lago (Zara 1809), Kreglianovich-Albinoni (Zara 1809); Cattalinich, Storia della Dalmazia (Zara 1835, 3 vols.); Solitro, Documenti storici sull 'Istria e la Dalmazia raccolti e annotati (Venezia 1844); "Prospetto cronologico della storia della Dalmazia con riguardo alle provincie slave contermine" (2. ed., Zara 1878); Pacor, Die Operationen in den Bocche von Cattaro 1869 (Wien 1870).

source in German, posted by Retro-Bibliothek

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Dalmatien (1906)
Dalmatien, Austrian crown land with the title of kingdom. ... The population was in 1890 527,426, in 1900 593,784, 46 per square km. Of them were 96,65 % Serbo-Croats, 2.61 % Italians, the latter mostly living in the coastal cities and on the islands; the remainder consisting of Germans, Czechs, Slovenes etc. 83.7 % were Roman Catholics, 16.2 % Greek Catholics. The Roman Catholic church has an archbishop in Zara and 5 bishops (in Ragusa, Spalato, Sebenico, Lesina and Cattaro), the Greeks two bishops (in Zara and Cattaro). There are 6 priests seminaries, 5 gymnasia, 2 real schools, a teachers seminary for males, another for female prospective teachers, an agrarian school and two nautical schools, plus 367 public and 20 private elementary schools. Progress in recent decades disregarded, the general level of education in Dalmatia is lower than in any other part of the crownland; in 1900 only 26.4 % of the entire population above the age of 6 (22.1 % of the entire population) can read and write.
In consequence of the many mountains and the arid, barely arable limestone ground only 10.7 % of the land is farmland, 46.3 % pasture, vineyards make up 6.4 %, orchards 3.7 % and the forest 30 %. Agricultural products 1901 695,000 dt. grain, mostly maize, 22,000 fl legumes, 192,800 dt. potatos, they do not suffice to cover local demand. Instead wine and oil are exported (1901 harvest of the former 1,155,800 hl, of the latter 66,200 dt.). Further the sour cherry is cultivated, of which Marascino liquor is made, almonds, melons, figs and other fruits, tobacco (16,700 dt.), Chrysanthemum Cinerarifolium, of which the so-called Dalmatian insecticide is made etc. The hay harvest has increased to 255,500 dt. and the forests deliver annually 445,000 cubic metres of timber. Livestock breeding, in consequence of the lack of fodder, is not impressive. In 1900 there were 26,350 horses, 38,500 donkeys and mules, 108,200 head of cattle, 888,000 sheep, 187,500 goats, 56,750 hogs. The hunt of waterbirds in the numerous swamps is of economic importance. Also beekeping, especially on the islands, is of importance. Of very great importance are fish, as in 1901 8,461 fishermen with 1,958 boats were counted. The catch, which besides fish also produces mollusks and sponges, is of a value of almost 2 million crowns. Of minerals are produced lignite (1.3 million dt., mainly at Monte Promina near Siveric), limestone and marble, further sea salt (mainly on the islands Arbe and Pago, and at Stagno, c. 70,000 dt.).
The Industry produces liquor (Marascino, Rosoglio), burns chalk and produces bricks, soap, presses oil, conserves fish, and there is some shipbuilding. Seafaring is considerable, and since old times it has been the main occupation of Dalmatia's population. The country's merchant fleet in 1900 increased to 7,832 vessels with 42,109 tons and a crew of 19,330. Dalmatia's 67 ports in the same year were frequented by 50,366 arriving vessels with 7.3 million tons. In 1900 Dalmatia had 126 km of railways, 169 post offices and 110 telegraph stations with 1,746 km of lines.
The diet consists of the Catholic archbishop, the Greek bishop of Zara, and of 41 elected delegates (10 chosen by those most taxed, 8 by the cities, 20 by the rural communities). To the Reichsrat's Chamber of Deputees Dalmatia sends 11 deputees. Administratively the country is divided in 13 districts. The country's coat of arms is three crowned leopard heard in front of a blue field. Capital is Zara.
History. ... When Venice was threatened by the League of Cambrai (1508), the Turks conquered all of Dalmatia's interior, who by the Treaties of Karlowitz (1699) and Pozarevac (1718) had to return these conquests to Venice. The latter's Dalmatian possessions in he Treaty of Campo Formio came to Austria, which in the Treaty of Pressburg 1805 had to cede them toNapoleon's Italian kingdom. Dalmatia and adjacent territories were in 1810 reconstituted as the Illyrian Provinces. In 1814 Dalmatia returned to Austrian rule and in 1816 was elevated to an Austrian crownland with the status of kingdom. The 1867 constitution listed Dalmatia among the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrat, i.e. the Austrian part, a measure which the government implemented with the support of the Italian population element against the will of the Slavic population element, which already in 1848 expressed their desire to unify Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia to a triunite kingdom with far-reaching autonomy. The introduction of mandatory military service caused unrest in Dalmatia in 1869-1879 and in 1881, which were suppressed with military force. Meanwhile the Slavs gradually took over the majority in the diet, and in 1890 passed a formal request for the unification of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia; against this the Italian population element pleaded with he central government.
See : Cattalinich, Storia della Dalmazia (3 vols., Zara 1835), Cons, La province romaine de Dalmatie (1882), Pisani, Les possessions venitiennes en Dalmatie (1890), La Dalmatie de 1797 a 1815 (1893) and vol.11 "Dalmatien" of Die Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild (1892).

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg


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First posted on March 5th 2009

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