1912-1918 1923-1940

The Dodecanese in the years 1918 to 1923

In 1919 it was agreed that the Dodecanese island would be transferred to Greece (except Rhodos, by Treaty of Sevres); Italy, however, did not honour the agreement and in 1923 formally annexed the island, which was internationally recognized in the TREATY OF LAUSANNE 1923.
After World War I, the Italians attempted to extend their rule over the adjacent Turkish coast. Italian troops landed on the mainland in 1919, causing the Greeks to land and secure Smyrna. Soon the Greeks were decisively defeated by Kemal Ataturk's Turks in the BATTLE OF SAKARYA; the Italians withdrew, keeping only the eastern island of KASTELORIZON (Castelrosso in Italian, c. 3,000 inhabitants, all Greek Orthoodox). It had been occupied by the French in 1915 and allocated to Italy in the TREATY OF SEVRES 1920.
According to a census held in 1922, the Dodecanese Islands had 102,669 inhabitants, 45,000 of which dwelled on the island of Rhodos. The overwhelming majority was Greek Orthodox and Greek-speaking. The largest minority consisted of Turkish-speaking Muslims, followed by Jews, descendants of refugees from Spain and Ladino-speaking.

Article : Dodecanese Islands : Italian Rule, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Map featuring western Turkey according to the Treaty of Sevres, from World War I Document Archive
REFERENCE L.V. Bertarelli, Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano : Possedimenti e Colonie. Isole Egee, Tripolitania, Cirenaica, Eritrea, Somalia. Milano 1929, pp.16-168
Article : Dodecanesia, in : New International Year Book 1919 p.262, 1920 p.192, 1921 p.193, 1922 p.204 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on June 27th 2007

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