Rumelia 1918-1941

Macedonia 1912-1918

During the First Balkan War (1912), allied Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia and Montenegro defeated the Ottoman Empire and proceeded to partition most of the Ottoman possessions (Rumelia on the Balkans peninsula. Bulgaria, the army of which had inflicted the decisive defeat on the Ottoman army, claimed the larger chunk of Macedonia, while Serbia occupied and hoped to annex central Albania.
The allied powers, including Britain, Italy and Austria-Hungary, regarding Serbia a Russian satellite, were not willing to concede Serbian access to the Mediterranean, and decided on the establishment of an independent Albania instead. Serbia, deprived of her share of the booty, claimed a larger share of Macedonia; Bulgaria refused to make concessions. The Second Balkan War (1912-1913) was fought over Macedonia; Bulgaria was defeated.
Macedonia was divided into three, the Greek share being called Aegaean Macedonia, the Serbian share Vardar Macedonia and the Bulgarian share (Pirin Macedonia).

This page describes the history of Vardar Macedonia.
In 1914 World War I broke out; by late 1915 most of the Kingdom of Serbia was occupied by the Central Powers, the front line largely following the Graeco-Serbian border, Bitola (Ottoman Monastir) the only part of Serbia the Serbs were able to hold on to throughout much of the war. Only late in 1918 were the Central Powers driven out of Vardar Macedonia. During World War I, most of Vardar Macedonia was occupied by and annexed into Bulgaria.
During the years 1912 to 1918, Vardar Macedonia experienced almost uniterrupted warfare, which brought with it physical destruction, the killing of soldiers and civilians, and internal as well as external displacement.

Timeline, from BBC News
History of the Republic of Macedonia, from Wikipedia
The Republic of Macedonia - From a Member State of the Yugoslav Federation to a Sovereign and Independent State, from Council for Research into South-Eastern Europe of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (1993)
History, from Skopje Airport
Article Vardar Banovina, from Wikipedia
Article History of Skopje, from Wikipedia
REFERENCE Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, Cambridge University Press (1985) 1999
Hugh Poulton, Macedonians and Albanians as Yugoslavs, pp.115-135 in : Dejan Djokic (ed.), Yugoslavism. Histories of a Failed Idea, University of Wisconsin Press 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 949.7103 D626y
Stephen Clissold (ed.), A Short History of Yugoslavia, Cambridge : UP 1968 [G]
Jivoin Perich, La Confederation Balkanique (The Balkan Confederation, 1912), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online, in French
Anonymous, Une Confederation Orientale comme solution de la Question d'Orient (An Oriental Confederation as solution of the Oriental Question, 1907), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online, in French

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted October 16th 2006, last revised on October 16th 2007

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