Wallachia 1812-1859

Wallachia 1396-1812

In 1396 and again in 1417 Wallachia accepted the status of an Ottoman vassall. Prince Radu of Afumatzi fought both Ottoman Turks and Hungarians (1521-1529); after his death, the Ottoman Sultan interfered in the internal affairs of Wallachia, appointing and deposing princes when he felt so. From 1593 to 1610, Wallachia was ruled by Michael the Bold, who in 1594-1595 cleansed Wallachia of Turks and Tatars, defeated an Ottoman force September 6th 1595, defeated the princes of Transylvania and Moldavia and on July 1st 1600 had himself proclaimed Prince of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania. In 1601 he was murdered; the union of the three Romanian principalities dissolved (see Wallachian Rising 1594-1601).
Prince Matthias Basarab (1633 bis 1654) fought against rival claimants to the throne, against Moldavians and Ottoman Turks. He reformed the administration, issued a civil and a penal law code, founded schools, churches, monasteries, had Romanian language church books printed; confiscated possessions of the Mt. Athos monasteries in Wallachia, which he handed over to Wallachian monasteries, maintained a standing army, signed agreements with the Emperor, the King of Poland and the Prince of Transylvania directed against the Ottoman Turks.
Prince Scherban Kantakuzenos (1679-88) was present in the Turkish camp outside of Vienna 1683; in 1688 he had the Romanian bible translation (by the brothers Greceanu) printed. Prince Konstantin Brankowan (1688-1714) was killed by the order of the Sultan, for maintaining relations with the court in Vienna.
From 1714 onward, the Sultans awarded the title of (temporary) Prince of Wallachia to the highest bidder; the beneficiaries usually were Greeks from Fenerbahce, and were called Phanariots. The history of Wallachia in the 18th century is characterized by intrigues and greed, on the side of the princes.
In 1718, in the Treaty of Passarowitz, the Ottoman Empire ceded Oltenia (Little Oltenia) to Austria; in 1739 Austria ceded the area back to the Ottoman Empire. From 1768 to 1774, Moldavia and Wallachia were occupied by the Russians, again 1781-1792 and 1805-1812. The Russian-Ottoman treaties following these wars granted Russia an ever-increasing influence in Wallachian affairs.

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Timeline, from timelines.ws
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Romania, from Kirken i Norge
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Romania
Brief History of Romania, from Rom Club; Romanian History, from European Cultural Centre, Bucharest, posted by Rotravel; History of Romanians, by Ion Calafeteanu, on Government of Romania Website; History of Romania, posted by FEEFHS
Illustrated History of Romanians, from Government of Romania
Walachei, Geschichte von (Walachia, History of), 1272-1411, 1411-1848, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888-1890 edition, in German
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Romania, by Ben Cahoon; scroll down for Wallachia; Rulers : Romania, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Walachia; Rulers from Vallachia and Molgavia till 1859; from Romania - Encyclopedic Survey; Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Balkans, scroll down for Wallachia

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 1st 2004, last revised on November 8th 2004

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