Wallachia 1396-1812

Wallachia 1812-1861

In 1812 the Russian occupation force withdrew. In 1821 Moldavian Phanariot Prince ALEXANDER YPSILANTI staged a coup attempt (dreaming of overthrowing Ottoman rule in Europe and establishing a Greek state); simultaneously Tudor Vladimirescu lead a rebellion in Oltenia; Ypsilanti seemingly treated Vladimirescu as an ally, but had him assassinated.
Following Ypsilanti's 1821 coup attempt, the Sublime Porte only appointed indigenous persons to the position of Hospodar (Prince) of Wallachia.
Ypsilanti, as Prince of Moldavia, was succeeded by indigenous Johann Sturdza, who intended to implement a number of reforms, but was prevented to do so by the Russians who interfered in Moldavian affairs; since the Treaty of Adrianople 1829 the Russians practically ruled the country. In 1832 the Russians imposed the REGLEMENT ORGANIQUE; in 1834 Russia appointed Alexander Ghika Hospodar (-1842), then Georg Bibesco (1842-1848); they ruled according to instructions from St. Petersburg.
In 1836 Braila was declared a Free Port, and connected by steam navigation with Budapest, Wienna and further up the Danube.
In 1848, a revolution erupted in Moldavia's capital Iasi, spreading over both Moldavia and Wallachia. The revolutionaries propagated the concept of a ROMANIAN NATION. The revolution was not expressedly anti-Ottoman, but aimed at the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia, and demanded a written constitution, freedom of the press etc. Prince Georg Bibescu signed a constitution on June 23rd 1848, and abdicated June 25th. The revolutionaries in Iasi, among them ALEXANDER CUZA, were arrested; the revolution in neighbouring Wallachia was suppressed by combined Turko-Russian forces - by the Turks in Wallachia, by the Russians in Moldavia. The Treaty of Balta-Liman restored the pre-revolutionary conditions.
Britain was worried about Russian influence in the Romanian principalities and about Russian expansion in general; in 1853-1856 British and French forces fought the CRIMEAN WAR; Moldavia was placed under Russian military administration Oct. 1853-Sept. 1854. Negotiations were held with the aim to merge Wallachia and Moldavia; on January 5th ALEXANDER JOHN CUZA was elected both prince of Moldavia and of Wallachia. From 1854 to 1857, Moldavia and Wallachia were occupied by an Austrian force (Austria being neutral in the Crimean War). In 1856 Russia ceded a strip of land along the lower Pruth and lower Danube, referred to as Bessarabia, to give the combined principalities access to the sea. In 1861 both principalities were formally merged (ROMANIA). They remained under Ottoman suzerainty until the Berlin Congress of 1878.

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Timeline, from timelines.ws
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Romania, from Kirken i Norge
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Romania
Brief History of Romania, from Rom Club; Romanian History, from European Cultural Centre, Bucharest, posted by Rotravel; History of Romanians, by Ion Calafeteanu, on Government of Romania Website; History of Romania, posted by FEEFHS
Illustrated History of Romanians, from Government of Romania
The International Status of the Romanian Lands in 1848, from Encyclopedia of the 1848 Revolutions
National Revival in Romania, 1848-1866, from Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History by S.W. Sowards
Biography of Alexander John Cuza, from infoplease
Walachei, Geschichte von (Walachia, History of), 1411-1848, 1848-1861, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888-1890 edition, in German
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Romania, by Ben Cahoon; scroll down for Wallachia; Rulers : Romania, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Walachia; Rulers from Vallachia and Moldavia till 1859; from Romania - Encyclopedic Survey; Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Balkans, scroll down for Wallachia

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 1st 2004, last revised on November 8th 2004

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