History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

First posted on December 1st 2011






Political History . In 395 the Roman Empire was partitioned by the sons of Emperor Theodosius; Arcadius received the East. While sources until 1453 refer to this Eastern Roman Empire simply as the Roman Empire, historians call it the Byzantine Empire.
While the Western Roman Empire fell in the 5th century, the Byzantine Empire lasted on, and in 533-553 conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa, the Ostrogoth Kingdom in Italy and part of the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain. In the later 6th century, much of Italy was lost to the Lombards, much of the Balkans to the Avars (and settled by their subjects, the Slavs).
In the 7th century, Syria, Egypt, later the Maghreb were lost to the Caliphate. In the 8th century the Byzantine possessions in Spain were lost to the Caliphate, in the 9th century Crete, Cyprus, part of Sicily. In the later 9th century, the Byzantine Empire began to regain ground - Crete, Cyprus were retaken, in the 10th and early 11th century, the Empire expanded into northern Syria, conquered the Bulgarian Empire.
The defeat at the hands of the Seljuqs in the Battle of Mantzikert (1071) resulted in the loss of part of Anatolia. Soon the Byzantine possessions in Italy were lost, too. The conquest of Constantinople by the 4th crusade 1204 was a disaster : the Byzantine Empire scattered into a number of (Catholic) crusader states and a number of (Orthodox) successor states competing for the reestablishment of the Byzantine Empire. The Despot of Nicaea succeeded in this goal in 1261; the restored Byzantine Empire, compared to 1200, had lost territory, most notably in Anatolia.
Byzantine civil wars and Ottoman expansion in the 14th century reduced the Byzantine Empire to the capital and a stretch of territory on the Peloponnese. In 1453 the city of Constantinople was conquered and annexed by the Ottoman Empire.


Church History . The purpose of the (first) Council of Nicaea in 325 AD was to define Christianity, the soon to be official religion of the Roman Empire (since 330 at par with paganism, since 395 exclusively). At the Council of Chalcedon 451 significant Christian communities in Syria and Egypt - the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church - were branded heretics. The leaders of early church were the 5 patriarchs, residing in Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem and Rome. For the Byzantine Empire, the decisive figure was the Patriarch of Constantinople, residing in the neighbourhood of the Byzantine Emperor. Because of this distance, most Patriarchs of Constantinople lacked independence in their action.
In the 9th century, the Byzantine Empire was caught up in a violent dispute between the iconoclasts and those who believed icons to have healing power. In the later 9th century, Byzantine Emperor Basil I. lead an army against a statelet established by the Paulician 'heretics' in eastern Anatolia. The 9th century also saw Byzantine missionaries spread Orthodox Christianity among the Slavs.
In 1054 a papal legate visited Constantinople and excommunicated the patriarch, and while doing so caused the Schism. In reality, the Latin Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church long had gone their separate ways.
When the Byzantine Empire was partitioned by the crusaders in 1204, in the many crusader states an attempt was made to force Catholicism on their Orthodox subjects. This policy was resented by the populace and contributed the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire.








E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
Historic
Links, on History Category : Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary OrthodoxWiki
Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World : Asia Minor (EHW)
Suda Online : Byzantine Lexicography
Organizations Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies, UK
Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Commission for Greek and Byzantine Studies
Digitales Forschungsarchiv Byzanz, Univ. of Vienna
Byzantine Studies Association of North America
Auystraliam Association for Byzantine Studies
Byzantine Studies on the Internet, Fordham Univ.
The Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise
Byzantine Library, Paris
Timelines Explore Byzantium, Timeline 324-476, 518-565, 610-842, 842-1025, 1025-1118, 1204-1453
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
General, Historical C. Dufresne, Historia Byzantina, 1729, in Latin, GB
E. Gibbon, The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire vol.1 1776, vol.3 1827, vol.4 1838, vol.5 1825, vol.7 1805, vol.9 1789, vol.10 1811, vol.12 1839, vol.13, 1907, GB
G. Finlay, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol.1 1853, vol.2 1854, GB
Specific Periods G. Finlay, History of the Byzantine empire from DCCXVI to MLVII, 1856, GB
G. de Villehardouin, The chronicle ... concerning the conquest of Constantinople, by the French , trsl. by T. Smith 1829, GB
F.C. Schlosser, Geschichte der bilderstürmenden Kaiser des oströmischen Reichs 1812, in German, GB
Article : Byzantium under the Heraclians 610-711, Byzantium under the Isaurians, 711-802, Byzantium under the Macedonians 867-1056, Byzantium under the Komnenos Dynasty, 1081-1185, Byzantium under the Palaiologoi 1261-1453, Byzantine civilisation in the twelfth century, from Wikipedia
Articles : Macedonian Dynasty 867-1056, Palaeologan Dynasty, from Wikipedia
C. Diehl, Justinian's Government in the East 1913, IA
N.H. Baynes, The Successors of Justinian, 1913, IA
E.W. Brooks, The Successors of Heraclius to 717 1913, IA
C. Diehl, Leo III. and the Isaurian Dynasty, 1923, IA
Administration Article : Logothete, from Wikipedia
Article : Pronoia (land grants; basis for term "Byzantine Feudalism"), from Wikipedia
Article : Caesaropapism, from Wikipedia
A.L.U. Gasquet, De l'autorite imperiale en matiere religieuse a Byzance 1879, in French, IA
C. Toumanoff, Caesaropapism in Byzantium and Russia
P. Vinogradoff, Origins of Feudalism, 1913, IA; describes the period from about 476 to 1000 in the Byzantine Empire
C. Diehl, The Government and Administration of the Byzantine Empire 1923, IA
E.W. Brooks, Arabic Lists of the Byzantine Themes, 1901, IA
Article : Thema (Byzantine District), from Wikipedia; Article : Themes, from EHW
Article : Byzantine Aristocracy and Bureaucracy, from Wikipedia
Military General Forces Article : Byzantine Army, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine Navy, from Wikipedia
Article : Akritai, from EHW; describes settlers in frontier areas with military responsibilities
Article : Byzantine Army in Asia Minor, from EHW
Fortifications Article : Walls of Constantinople, Hexamilion Wall, from Wikipedia
Byzantine Fortresses in the Empire of Trebizond, from Rome Art Lover
Lists of Wars etc. Categories : Battles involving the Byzantine Empire, Naval Battles involving the Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
List of Byzantine Wars, from Wikipedia
List of Sieges of Constantinople, from Wikipedia
List of Byzantine Revolts and Civil Wars, from Wikipedia
Wars 395-600 Article : Byzantine-Sassanid Wars, from Wikipedia
Article : Anastasian War 502-506, from Wikipedia
Article : Vandalic War 533-534, from Wikipedia
Article : Gothic War 535-554, from Wikipedia
Article : Lazic War 541-562, from Wikipedia
Article : Roman-Persian War of 572-591, from Wikipedia
Article : Maurice's Balkan Campaign 582-602, from Wikipedia
600-800 Articles : Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628, Siege of Constantinople 626, from Wikipedia
Articles : Muslim Conquest of Syria 634-638, Battle of Yarmouk 636, Muslim Conquest of Egypt 639-641, Siege of Alexandria 641, from Wikipedia
Articles : Siege of Constantinople 674-678, Siege of Constantinople 717-718, from Wikipedia
V. Christides, Military Intelligence in Arabo-Byzantine Naval Warfare, De Re Militari
Article : Umayyad Conquest of North Africa 647-709, from Wikipedia
W.E. Kaegi, Decisive Combats in Byzantine Africa, 2006
E.W. Brooks, A.A. Vasil'yev, The Struggle with the Saracens, 717-1057 , 1923, IA
800-963 Article : History of Islam in Southern Italy : Conquest of Sicily 827-902, from Wikipedia
J.G.C. Anderson, The Campaign of Basil I against the Paulicians in 872 A.D., 1896, IA
E.W. Brooks, A.A. Vasil'yev, The Struggle with the Saracens, 717-1057 , 1923, IA
Article : Byzantine-Arab Wars : Campaigns of Michael III., from Wikipedia
Article : Rus-Byzantine Wars 830-1043, from Wikipedia
963-1180 Article : Battle of Mantzikert 1071, from Wikipedia; from EHW
R. Markham, The Battle of Manzikert: Military Disaster or Political Failure? , De Re Militari
E.W. Brooks, A.A. Vasil'yev, The Struggle with the Saracens, 717-1057 , 1923, IA
Article : Byzantine-Arab Wars : Byzantine Resurgence, 963-1025, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine-Norman Wars 1050-1185, from Wikipedia
M.F. Scafuri, Byzantine Naval Power and Trade : The Collapse of the Western Frontier, thesis Texas A & M 2002; on the loss of Southern Italy 1071
Article : Byzantine-Georgian Wars 1064-1308, from Wikipedia
1180-1261 Article : Fourth Crusade, from Wikipedia
W. Norden, Der vierte Kreuzzug im Rahmen der Beziehungen des Abendlandes zu Byzanz , 1898, in German, IA
Article : Byzantine-Georgian Wars 1064-1308, from Wikipedia
Articles : Siege of Constantinople 1235, Battle of Pelagonia 1259, Siege of Constantinople 1260, from Wikipedia
1261-1453 Article : Rebellion of Albanon 1259-1261, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine-Venetian War 1294-1302, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine-Genoese War 1348-1349, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine-Georgian Wars 1064-1308, from Wikipedia
Article : Fall of Constantinople 1453, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Article : Byzantine Economy, from Wikipedia
A.E. Liaou, The Economic History of Byzantium, from the seventh through the fifteenth century, 2002
C. Morrisson, J.C. Cherynet, Prices and Wages in the Byzantine World, IISG
List of Byzantine Inventions, from Wikipedia
Enamel, from Qantara Mediterranean Heritage
Article : Cloisonne, from Wikipedia
Byzantine Finances, from Global Security
Articles : Mint of Antioch, Mint of Kyzikos, Mint of Nicomedia, Mint of the Empire of Nicaea, from EHW
Article : Trade with the East, from EHW
Textile Collection, from Byzantine and Christian Museum, Athens
Social History Article : Byzantine Aristocracy and Bureaucracy, from Wikipedia
Article : Aristocracy in Asia Minor (Byzantium), from EHW
Ethnography P. Charanis, The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire 1963, IA
Articles : Mardaites in Asia Minor, Forced Movement of the Mardaites, 688, from EHW
Religion General J.M. Neale, A history of the Holy Eastern Church vol.1, 1850, vol.2, 1847, GB
Greek Orthodox Church General Article : Greek Orthodox Church, from Wikipedia
Hierarchy Article : Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, from Wikipedia
J. Meyendorff, Hierarchy and Laity in the Orthodox Church 1955
Article : Caesaropapism, from Wikipedia
A.L.U. Gasquet, De l'autorite imperiale en matiere religieuse a Byzance 1879, in French, IA
C. Toumanoff, Caesaropapism in Byzantium and Russia
Theology P.J. Alexander, The Byzantine apocalyptic tradition, 1985, GB
Excerpts from J. Meyendorff, "Byzantine Theology," Historical trends and doctrinal themes, posted by Holy Trinity Mission
Saints Category : Byzantine Saints, from Wikipedia
Sources of Byzantine Hagiography, by Impantokratoros
N. Patialiakas, "Byzantine" Hagiography - Rational Depiction
Monasticism Article : Eastern Christian Monasticism : Byzantine Monasticism, from Wikipedia
Article : Mount Athos, from Wikipedia
Monasticism in the Byzantine Church, from The Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise
Architecture A. van Millingen, Byzantine Churches in Constantinople, their History and Architecture, n.d., GB
Mission Article : Saints Cyril and Methodius, from Wikipedia
History, General Article : History of the Orthodox Church, from Wikipedia
D. Geneakoplos, a short history of the ecumenical patriarchate of constantinople
Timeline of Church History : Byzantine Era 451-843, Late Byzantine Era 843-1054, Post-Roman Schism 1054-1453, from OrthodoxWiki
History, Specific Article : Byzantine Iconoclasm, from Wikipedia
Article : Iconoclasm in Asia Minor, from EHW
A. Schmemann, Byzantium, Iconoclasm and the Monks
J. Pagoire, L'eglise Byzantine de 527 a 847, 1905, in French, IA
W. Norden, Das Papsttum und Byzanz; die Trennung der beiden Maächte und das Problem ihrer Wiedervereinigung, bis zum Untergange des byzantinischen Reichs (1453) 1903, in German, IA
Schismata and 'Heresies' Article : Paulicianism, from Wikipedia
Article : Syriac Orthodox Church, from Wikipedia
Article : Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, from Wikipedia
Article : Nestorian Schism, from Wikipedia
Judaism Article : History of the Jews in the Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
Byzantine Empire, from Jewish Virtual Library
N. de Lange, Research on Byzantine Jewry, 2004
Article : Jews in Asia Minor, from EHW
History of Regions Geographic Regions Greece J.P. Fallmerayer, Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea: w?rend des Mittelalters vol.1, 1836, vol.2, 1836, in German, GB
G. Finlay, The history of Greece from its conquest by the Crusaders to its conquest by the Turks, and of the empire of Trebizond, 1204-1461, 1851, GB
Balkans Macedonia during the Byzantine Period (until 1204), 1998
Imperial Byzantine Policy Towards The Slavs And Its Effects, from History of Macedonia, 2011
The Arrival of the Slavs, from History of Ohrid
Anatolia Article : Administrative System in Byzantine Asia Minor, from EHW
Article : Medieval Anatolia : Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
N. Adontz, The Reform of Justinian in Armenia, 1908, IA
Syria Judea under Byzantine Rule (4th century-6th Century CE), from Jewish Virtual Library
Artcle : Syria (Roman Province) : Dominate, from Wikipedia
M. Lewis, Byzantine Syria and the Centralised Church
Z.T. Fiema, Southern Syria during the Classical and Byzantine Periods
Egypt House of Ptolemy : Byzantine Egypt, links & bibliography
Africa Article : Praetorian Prefecture of Africa, from Wikipedia
C. Diehl, L'Afrique byzantine 1896, in French, IA
Tunisia - Byzantine Africa, from Global Security
Italy D. de Guldencrone, L'Italie Byzantine; etude sur le haut Moyen-Age (400-1050) , 1914, in French, IA
C. Diehl, Etudes sur l'administration byzantine dans l'exarchat de Ravenne , 1888, in French, IA
Article : Catepanate of Italy, from Wikipedia
Article : Sicily : Byzantine, from Wikipedia
Article : Sardinia : Byzantine Period, from Wikipedia
Successor States
Orthodox
Greek
Despotate of Epirus 1205-1479 Article : Despotate of Epirus, from Wikipedia
Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261 Article : Empire of Nicaea, from Wikipedia
Empire of Trebizond 1204-1461 Article : Empire of Trebizond, from Wikipedia
Trebizond Empire Coins, from Zeno
J.P. Fallmerayer, Geschichte des Kaiserthums von Trapezunt, 1827, in German, GB
The Comnenian Empire of Trebizond, 1204-1468, from wegm.com (Coins)
Successor States
Orthodox
Non-Greek
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, 1080-1375 Article : Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, from Wikipedia
Sirarpie Der Necessian, The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia 1962, IA
Second Bulgarian Empire, 1185-1396 Article : Second Bulgarian Empire, from Wikipedia
Serbia Article : Serbia in the Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Successor States
"Heretic'
Paulician State, 810-878 Article : State of the Paulicians, from EHW
Successor States
Catholic
Latin Empire, 1204-1261 Article : Latin Empire, from Wikipedia
Principality of Achaia, 1205-1432 Article : Principality of Achaia, from Wikipedia
Achaia Coins, from Zeno
Duchy of the Archipelago, 1207-1579 Article : Duchy of the Archipelago, from Wikipedia
Duchy of Athens, 1205-1458 Article : Duchy of Athens, from Wikipedia
Kingdom of Cyprus, 1192-1489 Article : Kingdom of Cyprus, from Wikipedia
Lordship of Negroponte, 1204-1470 Article : Lordship of Negroponte, from Wikipedia
Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes, 1309-1522 Article : Knights Hospitaller : Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes , from Wikipedia
Kingdom of Thessalonica, 1204-1224 Article : Kingdom of Thessalonica, from Wikipedia
Possessions of Venice Kingdom of Candia, 1204-1669 Article : Kingdom of Candia, from Wikipedia
Caffa (Ven. 1204-1261) Article : Feodosiya : Caffa, from Wikipedia
Chios (Ven. 1204-1224) Article : Chios : Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Possessions of Genova Chios, Samos, Lesbos, Caffa 1261- Article : Chios (Genoese Period), from Wikipedia
Article : Lesbos : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Feodosiya : Caffa, from Wikipedia
Successor States
Muslim
Seljuk Dynasty Article : Seljuq Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Ottoman Empire
Emirate of Sicily
al-Andalus
Local History Anon., Constantinople: its past, present and future , 1853, GB
Article : Nicaea : Early History, Roman and Byzantine Empires, from Wikipedia
Institutions
Culture Article : Byzantine Architecture, from Wikipedia
Article : Byzantine Art, from Wikipedia
Byzantium (c.330-1453), from Metropolitan Museum of Art
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History : Byzantine Art, 28 subpages
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Byzantine Emperors, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops List of Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople, from Wikipedia; List of Patriarchs of Constantinople, from OrthodoxWiki
List of Eastern Orthodox Dioceses and Archdioceses
List of Archbishops of Athens, from Wikipedia
Documents Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Bilateral Treaty Collections
Document Collections Internet Medieval Sourcebook : Selected Sources, Byzantium
J. Thomas, A.C. Hero, Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents , Dumbarton Oaks
Individual Documents J.B. Bury, De Administrando Imperio 1906, IA
J.B. Bury, The Ceremonial Book of Constantine Porphyrogennetos 1907, IA
Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorvm quae svpersvnt, trsl. into Latin by A. Meineke, 1849, IA
Anaplous Bosporou. Dionysii Byzantii De Bospori navigatione quae supersunt; una cum supplementis in geographos graecos minores aliisque ejusdem argumenti fragmentis e codicibus MSS. edidit Carolus Wescher, 1874, IA
T. Nöldeke, Die von Guidi herausgegebene Syrische Chronik 1893, in German, MENA
A. Komnene, The Alexiad [1081-1118], Wikisource
Historical Maps entire country, hindsight/modern Category : Maps of the Byzantine Empire, from Wikipedia
Explore Byzantium : 565, 668, 780, 1025, 1092, 1143, 1218, 1350, 1453
Euratlas Periodis : Europe in the Year 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400
Map : Byzantine Empire in the 6th Century, Univ. of Pennsylvania
Linguistic Map of Justinian's Empire, c.560, from Wikipedia
Map : Byzantine Empire c.700, from Rosenwein, Short History of the Middle Ages
entire country, contemporary
detail, hindsight/modern Map : Byzantine Constantinople, from Wikipedia
Maps : Anatolia 1097, Anatolia 1200, Anatolia 1300, from Wikipedia
Map : Anatolian Beyliks, from Wikipedia (14th Century)
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious Article : The Byzantine Empire, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Article : The Byzantine Empire, from Jewish Encyclopedia
Historical
Travelogues
Institutions Archives Sources of Knowledge, Sources of Memory : Archives of the Byzantine Empire
Musea Byzantine & Christian Museum, Athens
Museum of Byzantine Culture, Thessaloniki
Byzantine Museum of Zakynthos
Byzantine Museum, Kastoria, from Macedonian Heritage
Cyprus University, Byzantine Museum
Byzantine Museum of Corfu, from Corfu Museums
Agios Lazaros Byzantine Museum, Larnaca, Cyprus
Istanbul Mosaic Museum, from MUZE
Hagia Sophia Museum, from MUZE
Monuments Article : Great Palace of Constantinople, from Wikipedia
Article : Hippodrome of Constantinople, from Wikipedia
Article : Hagia Sophia, from Wikipedia
Article : Mount Athos, from Wikipedia
Libraries Byzantine Library, Paris
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Byzantine Coins, from Zeno
Byzantine Coins, auction catalogue H.J. Berk/V. England 1989, GB
Catalogue of the imperial Byzantine coins in the British Museum vol.1, 1908, vol.2, 1908, IA
Byzantium, from wegm.com
Byzantine Numismatics, from Digital Library Numis

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
on Byz. Emp [Comment on, Links to] Byzantine Studies Bibliographies, by Paul Halsall
Bibliography on Byzantine Material Culture and Daily Life, Univ. Vienna
Bibliography on Women in Byzantium, Dumbarton Oaks
RI-OPAC (Regesta Imperii, Database of Publications on the Middle Ages, including Byzantine Studies)
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Swiss Electronic Library; Gallica
on the region Central and Eastern European Online Library
ANEMI, Digital Library of Modern Greek Studies
Electronic Text Archive, from DXARTS / CARTAH, Univ. of Washington
Biblioteca Digitala Nationala, Romania
on Byz. Emp. Golden Horn University, Byzantine Primary Source Digital Library
Digital Library, Leimonos Monastery
Digitales Forschungsarchiv Byzanz, Univ. of Vienna
Myriobiblos, Etext Library of the Church of Greece
Online Journals full text online Byzantinische Zeitschrift vol.1 1892, IA, vol.2 1893, IA, vol.3 1894, IA, vol.4, IA, vol.5, IA, vol.6, IA, vol.7, IA, vol.8, IA, vol.13, IA, vol.15, IA, vol.16, IA, vol.17, IA, vol.18, IA, vol.19, IA, vol.21, IA, vol.22, IA
Table of Contents
Online
General Accounts Dimitri Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth. Eastern Europe 500-1453, Crestwood NY : St. Vladimir's Seminary Press 1971 [G]
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries