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First posted on June 5th 2005, last revised on January 18th 2013

The Mediterranean island of Crete (in Greek Kriti, in Turkish Kirid, in Italian Candia) was part of the Byzantine Empire 395-c.824, then an Emirate c.824-961, again part of the Byzantine Empire 961-1204, then possession of the Republic of Venice 1204-1645 (1669), then province of the Ottoman Empire 1645 (1669) - 1898 (1908/1911). In 1897/98 placed under international administration; in 1908 annexed by Greece.

Crete 1897-1908
Crete 1832-1897

Historic Encyclopedias on Crete, 1809-1911

Timeline : History of Crete since 824
Historical Dictionary : Greece
Historical Atlas : Crete Page, Greece Page
List of Wars : Greece

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Country Profiles from Wikipedia
W. Wulsch, Der öffentliche Rechtszustand auf der Insel Kreta 1908, IA
Links General Category : Crete, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Crete, from Wikipedia
M. McTiernan, Cretan History
Historical Dictionaries click here (on Greece)
Organizations Society for Cretan Historical Studies
Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Rethymno, Crete
Timelines from timelines.ws
Chronologie Crete, from Clio
Accounts of History Modern Article History of Crete, from Wikipedia
History of Crete, from Crete Island, Greece
A very brief history of Crete, by Stelios Jackson
Historical J.H. Freese, A short popular history of Crete, 1897, IA
L. Cass, An Historical, Geographical and Statistical Account of the Island of Candia, or Ancient Crete, 1839, IA
Specific Periods W. Wulsch, Der öffentliche Rechtszustand auf der Insel Kreta, 1908, in German, IA
Ottoman Crete, from Ottoman Empire
I. Mladjov, Muslim Sicily and Crete (Emirate)
Articles : Emirate of Crete, Kingdom of Candia, Ottoman Crete, Cretan State, Theriso Revolt, from Wikipedia
L. Kallivretakis, A Century of Revolutions. The Cretan Question between European and Near Eastern Politics 2008
P. Senisik, The transformation of Ottoman Crete: Cretans, revolts and diplomatic politics in the late Ottoman Empire, 1895-1898, 2007 thesis
Ballandalus, History of Andalusi Crete according to the 12th century Skylitzes Manuscript
The Emirate of Crete : Foundation and Byzantine Reconquest
Administration Article : Cretan Gendarmerie, from Wikipedia
M. McTiernan, The Halepa Pact
Military Other A.M. Shepard, The Byzantine Reconquest of Crete : A Historical Example of the Silent Pressure of Sea Power, US Naval Institute 1941
Military War of Candia
G. Brusoni, Historia dell'ultima guerra tra' Veneziani e Turchi .. dall' Anno 1644 gino al 1671, 1673, in Italian, GB
A. Valiero, Historia della guerra di Candia, 1679, in Italian, GB
A. Santa Croce, Frammenti istorici della guerra di Candia, 1647, in Italian, GB
1866-1868 W.J. Stillman, The Cretan insurrection of 1866-7-8 1874, IA
1897-1908 First Graeco-Turkish War of 1897, from OnWar.com
Austrian Forces on Crete 1897-1898, from Austro-Hungarian Army
Order of Battle, Austro-Hungarian contingent during the blockade of Crete 1897-1898, posted by Austro-Hungarian Army
M.U. Ekinci, The Origins of the 1897 Ottoman-Greek War - A Diplomatic History, masters thesis Bilkent University 2006
Milutin Labovic, The Montenegrin hat was the first blue helmet, from Montenegrina, account of Montenegrin soldiers on Crete 1897
Seaforth Highlanders, from British Armed Forces and National Service (Crete 1897)
Mission Abroad, from Arma Carabinieri
Paleochora Site, Battle of Paleochora 1897; M. McTiernan, The Battle of Sarakina 1897
Economy & Finances Coins from Crete, from Greek Numismatics - Modern Coins
Observations sur le commerce de la Mer Noire et des pays qui la bordent; auxquelles on a joint deux memoires sur le commerce de Smyrne et de l'isle de Candie, 1787, in French, GB
Candia, pp.260-272 in vol.2 of Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt, 1819, GB
D.V. Williamson, Transparency, Contract Selection and the Maritime Trade of Venetian Crete, 1303-1351 2002, SSRN
Cretan Ceramics : Cretan History
N. Adiyeke, Olive Production in Crete in Nineteenth Century
Tour in Crete, Historical Information on Cretan Products
Explore Crete : History of Olive Oil
Wines of Crete, The History of Wine in Crete
Social History E. Kermeli, Children Treated as Commoditi in Ottoman Crete
P. Krokidas & A. Gekas, Public Health in Crete under Mehmed Ali in the 1830s
Ethnography Article Cretan Turks, from Wikipedia
S.G. Howe, The Cretan Refugees and Their American Helpers (1868), posted on Internet Archive
Twisted Memories of a Lost Homeland - The Turkish Cretan Community of Turkey
Religion General E. Bayraktar, The Implementation of Ottoman religious policies in Crete 1645-1735: Men of faith as actors in the Kadi court thesis 2005
Orthodox Th. Deforakis, Brief Historical Review of the Holy Archdiocesis of Crete
Patron Saint Index : Crete
Claire Bonnelie, Contribution a l'etude de l'Eglise en Crete venitienne (XIIIe-XIVe siecle) (Contribution to the Study of the Church in Venetian Crete), thesis 2000, in French
The Monasteries of Myriokefala and Roustika in Crete and their Chapels
Article : Archdiocese of Crete, from OrthodoxWiki
Judaism The Jews of Crete, from Etz Hayyim Synagogue
Catholic Diocese of Candia, from Catholic Hierarchy
Claire Bonnelie, Contribution a l'etude de l'Eglise en Crete venitienne (XIIIe-XIVe siecle) (Contribution to the Study of the Church in Venetian Crete), thesis 2000, in French
Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Romania (title misleading)
Islam Article Cretan Muslims, from Wikipedia
1923 : Expulsion of Muslims from Crete, from PIWP
G.B. Antourakis, Mosques and Minarets in Crete, from Crete Tournet
History of Regions Articles Chania Prefecture, Rethymno Prefecture, Heraklion Prefecture, Lasithi Prefecture, from Wikipedia
History of Sfakia
Local History Chania, from Walled Towns
Hania, from interkriti.org
Articles Heraklion (Candia), Chanea, Rethymno, from Wikipedia
Articles Chania : Geschichte, Rethymno : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
History of the City of Chania, from City of Chania
Kissamos History, from Explore Crete
Rethymnon History, from Rethymnon.biz
Cultural History C.A. Wright, A Brief Introduction to the History and Food of Crete
Cretan Nutrition, History of the Cretan Diet
Biographies Biography of Eleftherios Venizelos, from stigmes
Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen, from Austrian Commanders; he was Austrian Consul on Crete in 1897
Historians of the Ottoman Empire : Abraham of Crete (d. 1737)
Others International Court of Justice, France vs. Greece 1936-1937, on lighthouses on Crete, posted by World Courts
Encyclopedia of Earth, Crete Mediterranean Forests, Sea of Crete
WWF : Ecoregions : Mediterranean Island of Crete

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), scroll down for Crete; from Rulers (B. Schemmel), scroll down for Crete; from Regnal Chronologies (Crete)
List of Rulers in Crete, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops List of Primacies of the Orthodoxe Church of Crete, from Speedy Look
Article : Roman Catholic Diocese of Crete, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Administrative Regions of Greece, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer), scroll down for Kriti
Documents Historical Newspapers Digital Collection : Newspapers, from National Library of Greece
Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Articles in "The Great Round World and What is Going on in it" 1897-1898; links to individual articles here
Search London Gazette 1665-; 439 Candia entries
Search Gazeta de Lisboa 1715-1833 (GB, incomplete series) for Candia
Search Gazeta de Lisboa Occidental 1720-1738 (GB, incomplete series) for Candia
Search Gazetta Universale o Sieno Firenze 1779-1801 (GB, incomplete series) for Candia
Search La Gazette de France 1772-1786 (GB, incomplete series) for Candie
Historical Yearbook Entries Le Canee et ses Dependances pp.468-469, in Annales Maritimes 1818, in French, GB
Annuario pontificio 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1726, 1728, 1729, 1731, 1732, 1733, 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1741, 1742, 1744, 1746, 1749, 1750, 1751, 1752, 1753, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1759, 1760, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1766, 1767, 1770, 1771, 1773, 1775, 1776, 1779, 1781, 1783, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1795, 1796, 1802, 1806, 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Creta
Image Databanks Caricatures Greece / Crete 1897, posted by INAF
Comite de redaction de la constitution cretoise 1906-1907, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Nationaal Archief (NL) : Inventaris van de archieven van het Consulaat Candia en Conculaat Irakleion op Kreta (Griekenland), 1912-1952
Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, search for Candia / Kreta
National Archives (UK), search for Candia / Crete
Archivio di Stato di Venezia, search for Candia, Canea
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties General Treaty Collections Th.E. Holland (ed.), The European Concert in the Eastern Question: A Collection of Treaties and .. (1885), posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Between Turkey and Foreign Powers. 1535-1855 (1855), posted on Internet Archive
I. de Testa, Recueil des traites de la Porte Ottomane avec les puissances etrang?res depuis le premier traite conclu, en 1536, entre Suleyman I et François I, jusqu'a nos jours, vol.1 (1864), vol.2 (1864), vol.3 (1864), vol.4 (1864), vol.5 (1864), vol.6 (1864), vol.7 (1864), vol.8 (1864), vol.9 (1864), vol.10 (1864), vol.11 (1864), posted on Internet Archive
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Consular Reports E. Flagg, Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, Candia, vol.3 1857 pp.321-329, Canea (Crete) 1865 pp.523-524, GB
Document Collections The Cretan Question 1897-1908, from Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918; posted by Mt.Holyoke
W. Liebknecht, Crete and Social Democracy (1897), posted by Marxists Internet Archive
P. Piccolomini, Corrispondenza tra la corte di Roma e l'inquisitore di Malta durante la guerra di Candia (1645-1669), 1908, in Italian, IA
Great Britain, Foreign Office, Papers relative to the affairs of Greece, 1826-1832, 1835; several Candia entries
The Cretan Question 1908/1913, from Mt. Holyoke
Historical Maps click here
Category : Old Maps of Crete, from Wikimedia Commons
Crete (n.d.), from World of Maps
Candia-Iraklion, Braun Hogenberg 1575, Candia-Iraklion, von Breydenbach 1486, from Historic Cities
Administrative Division of Ottoman Crete 1669-1827, Wikipedia
Crete (Johnston 1861), from Wikipedia
Crete, ethnic map (Lejean 1861), from Wikipedia
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Candia, pp.87-93 in vol.4 part 1 of Encyclopaedia Britannica 1797 GB
Article : Candia, pp.119-124 in vol.5 of the 4th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica 1810 GB
Article : Crete, pp.565-570 in vol.6 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Article : Crete, pp.636-639 in vol.6 of the London Encyclopedia, 1829, GB
Article : Candia, in Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, 1857, in German, posted by Zeno
Article : Kreta, in : Nordisk Familjebok, 1st ed. 1884, in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg
Articles Kreta, Kanea, Kandia, Rethymnon, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Kreta, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1892-1894, in German
Article : Kreta, in : Meyers Grosses Universal-Lexikon 1905, in German, posted by Zeno
Article Crete, Canea, from EB 1911
Religious Article Candia, Gortyna, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 edition
Article : Crete, from Jewish Encyclopedia
Crete, p.50 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Economic Of the Trade of the Archipelago : Candia, p.623, in : W. Beaves, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Canee, p.70 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Entry : Canea, pp.62-63 in Tomas Antonio de Marien y Arrospide, Tratado general de monedas, pesas, medidas y cambios de todas las naciones, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Entry : Die Insel Candia, pp.621-623 in : J.F. Lange et al., Übersicht und Berechnung aller Münzen, Ellenmaasse und Handelsgewichte von allen Welttheilen, 1804, in German, GB
Candia, p.86 in P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Candie, in Metrologie universelle, ancienne et moderne 1816, in French, GB, unpaginated
Entry Canea p.62 in : W. Dickinson, Universal commerce, or, The commerce of all the mercantile cities and towns of the World, 1818, GB
Candia, p.62 in vol.1 of : P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1821, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Candia, posted by DTBSWS
Search Ch. Vere, The pocket cambist, 1836, GB, for Candia
Trade of Crete, pp.164-176 in vol.2 of J. McGregor, Commercial Statistics. A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Shipping, Imports and Exports and the Monies, Weights and Measures of all Nations, 1844, GB
Grosses Adressbuch der Kaufleute, Fabrikanten und handelnden Gewerbsleute von Europa und den Hauptpläzen der fremden Welttheile, vol.23 : Griechenland, Türkei, Asien, Afrika und Australien, 1845, in German, GB
Crete, pp.163-176 in vol.2 of John McGregor, Commercial Statistics. A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port, and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Shipping, Imports and Exports, the Monies, Measures and Weights of all Nations, 1847, GB
Search Knight's cyclopaedia of the industries of all nations 1851, IA, for Candia
Geographical Article : Candia, pp.152-146, in vol.4 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
Article : Candia, in : R. Brookes, The General Gazetteer: or, Compendious Geographical Dictionary, 1801 edition, unpaginated, one page; GB
Crete, pp.172-177 in : A System of Geography, 1807, GB
Article : Candia, pp.303-310 in Maritime Geography and Statistics 1815 GB
Candia, pp.158-159 in R. Brookes, A New Universal Gazetteer, 1832, GB
Candia, pp.189-190 in : H. Murray et al., The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1839, GB
The Island and Sea of Candia, pp.202-207 in J. Purdy, Sailing Directions for the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea, 1841, GB
Candia pp.241-242 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Candia, p.312 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical Candie, pp.29-37 in vol.9 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persanes, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1769, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Postal Routes etc. Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Candia
Tour Guides John Murray, A hand-book for travellers in the Ionian Islands, Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, and Constantinople, 1845 ed., IA
John Murray, Handbook for Travellers in Greece, 1854 ed., IA
Th.A.B. Spratt, Sailing directions for the island of Candia or Crete, 1866, IA
John Murray, Handbook for travellers in Greece, including the Ionian Islands, continental Greece, the Peloponnese, the islands of the Aegean sea, Crete, Albania, Thessaly, & Macedonia; and a detailed description of Athens, ancient and modern, classical and mediaeval, 1884 ed., IA
Baedeker, Greece, Handbook for Travellers, 1894 ed., 1905 ed., IA
Baedeker, Griechenland, Handbuch für Reisende, 1883 ed., 1908, in German, IA
Th.A.B. Spratt, Sailing directions for the island of Candia or Crete, 1866, GB
Travelogues R. Pashley, Travels in Crete, vol.1, 1837, vol.2, 1837, IA
Charles Rochfort Scott, Rambles in Egypt and Candia, vol.1, 1837, vol.2, 1837, GB
Exhibition Catalogues Turkey, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Crete
Institutions Archives Historical Archive, of the University of Crete
Ottoman Archives (site in Turkish; see Wikipedia Article
Musea The Historical Museum of Crete, Iraklion, from Interktriti; Official Website
Museum of Cretan Ethnology
Maritime Museum Crete
Monuments Mosques and Minarets in Crete, from Crete Tour Net
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of the Principality of Crete, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coins from Crete, from Greek Numismatics - Modern Coins
Cretan Banknotes, from Greek Banknotes
Search Coin Archives for Kreta, Crete, Candia; Crete, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Crete Coins, from Numista, from ColNect,
Stamps Stamps of Crete, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Articles Postage Stamps and Postal History of Crete, Austrian Post Offices in Crete, French Post Offices in Crete, Russian Post Offices in Crete, from Wikipedia
Dead Country Stamps and Banknotes, British Occupation of Crete (1897-1909), Russian Occupation of Crete (1897-1909)

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Crete
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Greece Myriobiblos, Etext Library of the Church of Greece
ANEMI, Digital Library of Modern Greek Studies
Academia.edu : Crete, Archaeology of Crete, Crete during Venetian Rule, Ottoman Crete; registration required, charges fees
General Accounts
Online Journals full text online Oriental Herald 1-23, 1824-1829, GB
Table of Contents
General Accounts
Specific Topics Molly Greene, A Shared World. Christians and Muslims in the Early Modern Mediterranean, Princeton : UP 2000 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Th. Veremes, Historical Dictionary of Greece, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 949.5 V492b

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