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Bukovina Wallachia
First posted on August 20th 2002, last revised on April 23rd 2011

Political History . The Principality of Moldavia emerged in the 14th century. In 1512 it became a vassall of the Ottoman Empire. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Moldavia was exposed to Russian invasions during Russo-Ottoman wars, and repeatedly came under Russian occupation. In 1775 the Ottoman Empire ceded the Moldavian region of Bukovina to Austria, in 1812 it ceded Bessarabia to the Russian Empire. In 1826 the Russian and Ottoman Empires agreed that indigenous persons should be appointed to office in the Danubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia). Reforms such as the abolition of slavery were introduced. In 1859 both Moldavia and Wallachia elected the same governor; in 1862 the United Principalities were proclaimed, which in 1881 gained political independence as the Kingdom of Romania .

Church History . First under the Orthodox hierarch of Halych, Moldavia received its own Metropolitan in 1401. In the 17th century, the language of religious service was changed to Romanian. In 1864 the Orthodox Church of Romania was established.

Moldavia 1812-1859, 1512-1812, 1350-1512

Administrative History of Moldavia
Demographic History of Moldavia
Economic History of Moldavia

for ceded territories, see
(since 1775)
Bessarabia Gubernia (1812-1918); Moldova

Historic Encyclopedia Entries : History of Moldavia
List of Wars : Moldavia
Historical Atlas, Moldavia Page

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Country Profiles Current Moldavia, from Eliznik
Article Moldavia, from Wikipedia
Historic W. Wilkinson, An account of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, 1820, GB
Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.382- in : Th. Thornton, The present state of Turkey ; or, A description of the political, civil, and religious Constitution, Government, and Laws of the Ottoman Empire .. , 1807, GB
Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.297- in vol.2 of Th. Thornton, The present state of Turkey, 1809, GB
J. Hütz, Beschreibung der europäischen Türkei, 1828, in German, GB; search for Moldau
R. Lindau, Die Walachei und Moldau, 1849, in German, GB
J.F. Neigebauer, Die Donau-Füstenthümer, vol.1, 1854, in German, GB
J.H. Skene, The Danubian principalities: the frontier lands of the Christian and the Turk, vol.1 1854, vol.2, 1854, GB
W. Derblich, Land und leute der Moldau und Walachei, 1859, in German, GB
Links, on History Virtual Library History : Romania; Internet Sources on Romania, from SSEES
Category : Moldavia, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Moldau, from Wikipedia
Organizations The Institute of Archaeology in Iasi
Historical Dictionary Enciclopedia Romaniei, in Romanian
Timelines Timeline, from timelines.ws
Google News Archive Search, search for Moldavia
M. Naima, Annals of the Turkish Empire from 1591 to 1659 of the Christian era, vol.1, trsl. by Ch. Fraser, 1832, posted on Google Books
Accounts of History general, modern of Romania History of Romania : Library of Congress, Country Studies : Romania
Brief History of Romania, from Rom Club; Romanian History, from European Cultural Centre, Bucharest, posted by Rotravel; History of Romanians, by Ion Calafeteanu, on Government of Romania Website; History of Romania, posted by FEEFHS
Illustrated History of Romanians, from Government of Romania
of Moldavia Article : Moldavia : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Fürstentum Moldau, from Wikipedia German edition
Moldavia, from Eliznik
Historical of Romania D. Mitrany, Romania : Her History and Politics, from The Balkans. A History of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Romania and Turkey (1915), posted by Globusz
A.Tr. Laurian, Istoria romaniloru, 1867, in Romanian, GB
Historical of Moldavia F.J. Sulzer, Geschichte des transalpinischen Daciens, das ist: Der Walachey, Moldau .. (1781) in German, posted on Internet Archive
L.S. Raicevich, Osservazioni storiche, naturali, e politiche intorno la Valachia e Moldavia, 1788, in Italian, posted on Google Books
M. de Kogalnitchan, Histoire de la Valachie, de la Moldavie et des Valaques Transdanubiens vol.1 : 1241-1792, 1837, in French, posted on Google Books
Specific Periods F.J. Sulzer, Geschichte des transalpinischen Daciens, das ist: Der Walachey, Moldau .. (1781) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Th. Thornton, The present state of Turkey; or, A description of the political, civil, and religious constitution, government, and laws, of the Ottoman empire ... Together with the geographical, political, and civil, state of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (1807), posted on Internet Archive
Military Article History of Jihad against the Romanians, from WikiIslam; tendentious
Article Moldavian Military Forces, Khotyn Fortress, Moldavian Magnate Wars, Category Battles involving Moldavia, from Wikipedia
The Fortress of Neamtz, from Neamtz Online
Mariana Sapac, The defensive architecture of medieval Moldavia (the middle of the 14th century ? the middle of the 16th century) (abstract), from CNAA
Mediaval Castles and Fortresses in Romania, from Romania Activtravel, scroll down for Moldavia
Tighina Fortress, from Wikimapia
Die Wehrkraft : Moldau, Walachei, Serbien, Montenegro und Griechenland (1871) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Economy The Currency of the Moldavian Coin in the Hungarian Kingdom, 14th / 15th Century, The Currency of the Hungarian Coin in Moldavia, 15th Century, by Monica Gogu
Articles : Romanian Wine : Moldavia, Moldovan Wine, from EncycloWine
Moldavia, from Romanian Wines
B. Constantinescu et al., Medieval Silver Coins Analyses by Pixe and ED-XRF Techniques (2008)
Danela Murariu, The History of Small Spelt in Romania
The Currency of Moldavian Coin in the Hungarian Kingdom 14th - 15th Century, 15th Century, by Monica Gogu
Carl Wilhelm Wutzer, Reise in den Orient Europas und einen Theil Westasiens zur Untersuchung des Bodens und seiner Producte, des Klimas, der Salubritäts-Verhältnisse und der vorherrschenden Krankheiten (Journey to the Orient of Europe and a Part of Western Asia to Examine the Soil and its Products, the Climate, Health Conditions and Leading Diseases), Elberfeld : Bädeker 1860-1861, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Wallachia and Moldavia, pp.51-55 in vol.2 of J. MacGregor, Commercial statistics, 1847, GB
Ethnography Article History of Gagauzia, from Wikipedia
Geschichte der Vlach-Roma (History of the Romanian Gypsies), from Rombase, in German
Chronology of Moldavian-Hungarian History, from Association of Csango-Hungarians in Moldavia
R.F. Kaindl, Geschichte der Deutschen in den Karpathenländern, v.2, v.3 (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
J. Tatrosi, The Hungarians of Moldavia (1920), IA
M. Kogalniceanu, Skizze einer Geschichte der Zigeuner, ihrer Sitten und ihrer Sprache, 1840, in German, GB; much on Wallachia
A.G. Paspati, The Language of the Gypsies, as now used in the Turkish Empire, pp.143-270 in Journal of the American Oriental Society vol.7 1862, GB
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Romania, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Romania, Moldova
Article Painted Churches of Northern Moldavia, from Wikipedia
Churches of Moldavia, from UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Moldavia's Early Churches and Monasteries, from Eliznik
The Truth about the Csangos, from Dumitru Martinas - Roman-Catholic Association
Romanian Monasteries, scroll down for Metropolitanate of Moldavia and Bucovina
Jews in the Region of Moldavia, by Anna Suchenek
The Church of Wallachia and Moldova in the Middle Ages (Middle of the 14th Century - 1821), from Romanian Orthodox Church
Moldavia and Wallachia, p.58 in Ch.St. Dudley, An analysis of the system of the Bible society, 1821, GB
A. Pichler, Geschichte des Protestantismus in der orientalischen Kirche im 17. Jahrhundert oder: Der Patriarch Cyrillus Lucaris und seine Zeit, 1862, in German, GB; search for Moldau
Article : History of Christianity in Romania : Orthodox Church in Moldavia, Wallachia and Romania, from Wikipedia
Regions see under Bukovina, Bessarabia
Romania : Counties, from www.statoids.com
Local History Articles Iasi : History, Galati : History, Suceava : History, from Wikipedia
Iasi (history), from modtech.ro
Structures, Institutions Article University of Iasi : History, Academia Mihaileana, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Galati Judet, Iasi Judet
The Danube as a Major Route of Transport : Steam Navigation, from Donauschiffahrt

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Romania, by Ben Cahoon; scroll down for Moldavia; Rulers : Romania, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Moldavia; Rulers from Vallachia and Moldavia till 1859; from Romania - Encyclopedic Survey; Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Balkans, scroll down for Moldavia
List of Rulers of Moldavia, from Wikipedia
I. Mladjov, Rulers of Romania (Moldavia, Wallachia)
Lists of Bishops
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Romania, check for U.S. consuls in Galatz
Population Figures Romania : Population Figures of Historiuc Administrative Divisions, from populstat.info by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Digital Newspaper Libraries Periodiche Romanesti Vechi, from Biblioteca Digitala Nationala
(Almost) Daily Search London Gazette 1665-; 160 Moldavia entries
Search Gazeta de Lisboa 1715-1833 (GB, incomplete series) for Moldavia
Search Gazeta de Lisboa Occidental 1720-1738 (GB, incomplete series) for Moldavia
Search Gazetta Universale o Sieno Firenze 1779-1801 (GB, incomplete series) for Moldavia
Search La Gazette de France 1772-1786 (GB, incomplete series) for Moldavie
Magazines, General Moldo-Wallachia, pp.245-252 in vol.53 of Fraser's Magazine 1856, GB
Harpers New Monthly Magazine CCCX 1876 Vol.LII, The Principalities on the Danube, posted by Wikisource
Magazines, Economic Search Handels-Archiv (Prussia 1847-1855, in German) for Moldau, Galacz
Search Allgemeines Organ für Handel und Gewerbe (1835-1848, in German) for Moldau, Galacz; Dampfschiffahrt auf der Donau, p.120 in vol.1 1835, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt, p.233 in vol.2 1836, Dampfschiffahrt auf der Donau, p.380 in vol.3 1837, Galacz und Braila im Jahre 1838, pp.659-660 in vol.4 1838 , in German, GB
Magazines, Religious Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.497-501 in The General Baptist repository, and Missionary observer, 1853, GB
Online Yearbooks International, on States Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch : Moldau, vol.65 pp.292-298, 1827, vol.66 pp.339-345, 1835, vol.67 pp.360-366, 1839, in German, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach : Moldau, vol.13 : 1836 pp.610-611, 1836, vol.16 : 1838/39 pp.566-567, 1839, vol.17 : 1840 pp.691-692, 1840, vol.19 : 1842 pp.709-710, 1842, vol.20 : 1843 pp.709-710, 1843, vol.23 : 1846 pp.702-703, 1846, in German, GB
Almanach de Gotha : Moldavie vol.89 pp.676-679, 1852, vol.90 pp.667-671, 1853, vol.94 pp.734-737, 1857, vol.95 pp.756-759, 1858, Principautes de Moldavie et Vallachie vol.97 pp.817-821, 1860, vol.102 pp.989-993, 1865, vol.106 pp.987-994, 1869, in French, GB
Annuario Storico Universale : Moldavia, 1843 p.425, 1845 pp.226-227, in Italian, GB
International, on Trade Statistisches Jahrbuch, Das Osmanische Reich : Moldau und Walachei, pp.119-121, 1845, Das Osmanische Reich : Moldau und Walachei, p.200, 1846, Das Osmanische Reich : Donauländer, pp.195-200, 1848, in German, GB
Image Databanks Postcards of Romania : Galati, Iasi, from Postcardman
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Moldavia
Search Österreichisches Staatsarchiv for Fürstentum Moldau; page in German
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties General Treaty Collections Th.E. Holland (ed.), The European Concert in the Eastern Question: A Collection of Treaties and .. (1885), posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Between Turkey and Foreign Powers. 1535-1855 (1855), posted on Internet Archive
I. de Testa, Recueil des traites de la Porte Ottomane avec les puissances etrangeres depuis le premier traite conclu, en 1536, entre Suleyman I et François I, jusqu'a nos jours, vol.1 (1864), vol.2 (1864), vol.3 (1864), vol.4 (1864), vol.5 (1864), vol.6 (1864), vol.7 (1864), vol.8 (1864), vol.9 (1864), vol.10 (1864), vol.11 (1864), posted on Internet Archive
Protocols of Congress of the representatives of Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Turkey; for the settlement of affairs in the East (1878) 1885, posted on Internet Archive
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Consular Reports J. de Hagemeister, Report on the commerce of the ports of Russia, Moldavia, and Wallachia : made to the Russian giovernment in 1835, 1836, GB
Commercial Resources of Wallachia and Moldavia, Brailow 1836, pp.287-304 in vol.5 of The Portfolio, 1836, GB
Commercial Relations of Wallachia and Moldavia (1836), from D. Urquhart, The Portfolio, vol.5, 1837, posted on Google Books
Moldo-Wallachia : Galatz 1865, pp.476-483 in Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries, 1866, GB
Moldo-Wallachia : Galatz 1864, pp.659-670 in Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries, 1866, GB
Document Collections F.A. Wickenhauser, Moldawa; oder Beiträge zu einem Urkundenbuche für die Moldau und Bukovina (1862) in German; posted on Internet Archive
Individual Documents Harpers New Monthly Magazine CCCX 1876 Vol.LII, The Principalities on the Danube, posted by Wikisource
Joseph von Hammer Purgstall, Meine Agentie in der Moldau 1806-1807, ch. 13 of "Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben", in German, posted by Zeno
Thomas Thorton, The Phanariots of Moldavia, 1809, from Modern History Sourcebook
Historical Maps entire country, hindsight/modern Moldavia in 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, from euratlas
South East Europe History Map Index, from Eliznik
Maps : Romanian Territories in the 15th Century, Romanian Territories under Michael the Great (1593-1601), from Amcopress
Map : Regions of Moldavia, from Wikimedia Commons
entire country, contemporary Category : Old Maps of Romania, from Wikimedia Commons
Moldavia, Wallachia, from Sohr-Berghaus, 4th edition 1850, 5th edition 1855, 5th edition 1861, from Fleming's Kriegs-Atlas 1854, posted by M. Witkam
Moldavia Map (Blackie & Son 1882), posted by FEEFHS
Ex Cartographica Transilvaniae, Moldaviae, Vallachiae
detail, hindsight/modern Modern Map of Iasi, from Ici Ro
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Die Moldau, Bender, from Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, in German
Article Moldau, from Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, in German
Articles Moldau, Jassy, Bakau, Galatz, Husch, Ismail, Kagul, Kilia, Roman, Sasyk, from Pierer's Universal Lexikon 1857-1865, in German
Article : Galatz (Galacz), EB 9th edition 1875-1889, posted by Library Index
Moldau, Jassy, Galatz, Covurlui, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Moldavia,, Jassy, Galatz, EB 11th edition 1910-1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
Religious Moldoblachia, p.47 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Moldau, pp.172-174 in vol.20 of J.J. Herzog, Real-encyclopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, 1863, in German, GB
Articles Rumania, Jassy, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Articles Jassy, Rumania, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Economic Moldavia, Valachia and Rumelia, pp.244-245 in H.A.Sc. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea, 1819, GB
Die Fürstentümer Moldau und Walachei, pp.43-44 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1842, in German, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Die Moldau, die Walachei und Bulgarien, vol.4 1844 pp.306-309, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Die Fürstentümer Moldau und Walachei, pp.43-44 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1848, in German, GB
Walachia and Moldavia, pp.51-62 in J. MacGregor, Commercial statistics, 1850, GB
Geographical La Moldavie, pp.204-206 in vol.1 of J. Vaissette, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
Moldavia, pp.165-167 in vol.2 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Of the Government of Moldavia, pp.200-201 in E. Habesci, The present state of the Ottoman empire, 1784, GB
The Province of Moldavia, p.479 in J. Morse, View of the present state of all the empires, kingdoms, states, and republics in the known world, and of the United States of America in particular, 1801, GB
Die Moldau, pp.535-544 in Neueste Länder-und Völkerkunde , 1812, in German, GB
Entry Moldavia, pp.241-, in C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, 1828, GB
Principality of Moldavia, pp.538-540 in vol.2 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1832, GB
Turkey in Europe, Greece and the Ionian Islands, pp.107-119 in Ch. R. Maxwell, An epitome of the military geography of Europe, 1850, GB
Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.684-685 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Wallachia and Moldavia, pp.1035-1037 in vol.2 of M'Culloch's universal gazetteer , 1855, GB
Die Moldau pp.253-256 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Article Galatz, Husch, Jassy, Moldau, Niamtz, Reni, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish, posted on Project Runeberg
Moldavia, p.313 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Das Osmanische Reich in Europa nebst den drei Donaufürstenthu\ümern, pp.200-317 in J.E. Wappäus, Handbuch der Geographie und Statistik von Ost- und Nord-Europa, 1864, in German, GB
Ethnological The Danubian Principalities, Valachia and Moldavia, pp.212-225 in R.G. Latham, The Nationalities of Europe, 1863, GB
Historical Moldavia, p.422 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Moldavie, pp.9-10 in vol.9 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persanes, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1769, in French, GB
Die Moldau und die Wallachei, pp.610-611 in : vol.1 issue 1 of Das Ausland, 1828, in German, GB
Die Walachei und Moldau, pp.576-578 in vol.4 of F. Rehm, Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters, 1837, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Postal Routes etc. K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Moldau, Jassy
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Galatz
Travelogues A. Neale, Travels through some parts of Germany, Poland, Moldavia, and Turkey , 1818, posted on Google Books
St. Raicevich, Voyage en Valachie et en Moldavie, 1822, in French, GB
D. Sestini, Viaggio in Valachia e Moldavia, 1853, in Italian, GB
Die Bukowina und die Moldau, pp.665-676 in K. Biernatzki, Die Länder und Völker der Erde, 1856, in German, GB
Tour Guides A. Schmidl, Reisehandbuch durch da Königreich Böhmen, Mähren, Schlesien, Galizien, die Bukowina und nach Jassy, 1836, in German, GB
Institutions Archives State Archives of Romania, from Pro Genealogists, scroll down for Iasi, Galati
Musea Search Museums.com for Moldova, Iasi
Monuments B. Stefanescu et al., The Virtual Reconstruction of the Medieval Cathedral of Suceava by Means of Virtual Reality Technologies 2008
The Three Holy Hierarchs Monastery - A Glimpse on its History
List of Castles in Romania : Moldavia, from Wikipedia; Lista de Castele in Romania : Moldova, from Wikipedia Romanian edition
Libraries Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flaggenlexikon, click for Moldau, bilingual German & English site
Flag, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Principaute de Moldavie, from Heraldique Europeenne
Coins, Banknotes Coins from Moldavia, from Apricity Forum
Medieval Coins from Moldavia, The Coins of Moldavia and Wallachia, from Romanian Coins; from Numista
Search Coin Archives for Moldau
Moldavia Coins, from Zeno
Others Joh. C. Zimmerman, De Donau-Vorstendommen (Wallachije en Moldavie), cumulative review in Dutch, pp.709-740 in De Gids 1854

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database for Moldavia
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Eastern Europe EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies), search for Moldau, Moldavia)
on Moldavia Historia Moldaviae, p.503 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Europe Central and Eastern European Online Library
Electronic Text Archive, from DXARTS / CARTAH, Univ. of Washington
on Romania History Theses, from CNAA (written in Romania, mostly on R. history, in Romanian, abstracts in English)
Biblioteca Digitala Nationala
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919, London etc.: Longman 2002 [G]
Dimitri Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth. Eastern Europe 500-1453, Crestwood NY : St. Vladimir's Seminary Press 1971 [G]
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Kurt W. Treptow e.a., Historical Dictionary of Romania, Methuen : Scarecrow 1996, 384 pp.

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