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Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
First posted June 10th 2005, last revised on May 24th 2011

For the history of Rumelia after its dissolution, see Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Yugoslavia

Rumelia 1879-1912
Rumelia 1815-1879

Click here for a general history of the Ottoman Empire

Historic Encyclopedias on Eyalets / Vilayets in European Turkey 1857-1913, on European Turkey
Historical Atlas : Rumelia Page, Ottoman Empire (core)
List of Wars, Rumelia Page

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Note : Literature, as well as documents posted, on Rumelia with its ethnically diverse population reflect a wide range of often conflicting, partially radical positions. The webmaster does not associate himself with any of the links added below; caution is advised.
Country Profiles Modern from Wikipedia
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium entry Rumelia, posted by macottrum
Historical W. le Queux, The near East; the present situation in Montenegro, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, Roumania, Turkey and Macedonia (1907), posted on Internet Archive
R. Wyon, The Balkans from within (1904), posted on Internet Archive
J.F. Fraser, Pictures from the Balkans (1906), posted on Internet Archive
Links General
on History Links on Macedonian History, from Balkan Web
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Modern History of Thrace , timeline in English, pro-Greek
Accounts of History Modern
Specific Periods
Administration Jivoin Perich, La Confederation Balkanique (The Balkan Confederation, 1912), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online, in French
Anonymous, Une Confederation Orientale comme solution de la Question d'Orient (An Oriental Confederation as solution of the Oriental Question, 1907), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online, in French
Military List of Wars, Rumelia Page, at this site
First Graeco-Turkish War of 1897, from OnWar.com
M.U. Ekinci, The Origins of the 1897 Ottoman-Greek War - A Diplomatic History, masters thesis Bilkent University 2006
Macedonian Uprisings, from Macedonia for the Macedonians
A. von Horsetzky, Der russische Feldzug in Bulgarien und Rumelien 1877-78: Eine militärische .. (1878) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Economy & Finances J.L. Farley, The resources of Turkey considered with especial reference to the profitable investment of capital in the Ottoman empire, 1862, GB
Social History
Ethnography Mapping Migration in Kastoria, Macedonia
A.G. Paspati, The Language of the Gypsies, as now used in the Turkish Empire, pp.143-270 in Journal of the American Oriental Society vol.7 1862, GB
E.L. Clark, The Races of European Turkey: Their History, Condition, and Prospects (1878), posted on Internet Archive
V.A. Tsanoff, Reports and letters of American missionaries, referring to the distribution of nationalities in the former provinces of European Turkey, 1858-1918 (1919), posted on Internet Archive
H.N. Brailsford, Macedonia; its races and their future (1906), posted on Internet Archive
O. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen, ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum (1906) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Turkey (in Europe), pp.343-356 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Identity (Trans)Formation among Bulgarian Muslims, by Maria Todorova, details on Pomak history
Macedonian Orthodox Church, from Macedonia for the Macedonians
Melih Çoban, Ottoman Jews in Salonica : a Community at the Heart of Ottoman Enlightenment, in : Turkish Review of Balkan Studies 2007 pp.69-84
Patron Saints Index : Salonica, Constantinople
Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Romania (title misleading)
The Church of Constantinople, pp.10-13 in M.G. Dampier, The organization of the Orthodox Eastern churches 1910, IA
History of Regions Macedonia and the failure of Ottoman reforms, from Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History by Steven W. Sowards
Rohnstock, F.: Salonik und sein Hinterland (1886) (Salonica and its Hinterland), in German, soon to be posted at DTBSWS
V. Berard, Pro Macedonia: l'action austro-russe.- Les bombes de Salonique.- Le memorandum bulgare.- Une action anglo-franco-italienne.- Aux Hellenes (1904) in French, posted on Internet Archive
S. Georgevitch, Serbia and Kosovo (1922, written prior to 1912), IA
Local History History of Skopje, Thessaloniki, Ohrid, Shkoder, Durres, Ioannina, Prizren, Pristina, Pec, Edirne, from Wikipedia
Institutions Railway from Constantinople to the frontiers of Servia with a branch to Salonica 1860, GB
Biographies Dame Gruev - the Founder of IMRO, from The Tragic Peninsula by Christ Anastasoff, St. Louis 1938
Others The Serbs and the Macedonian Question, from Internet Library of Serb Culture

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Freely Accessible Articles (selection) from the New York Times articles (since 1851) on Roumelia; Adrianople; Salonica; Monastir; Janina; Uskub; more from NY Times Archive (charges modest fee)
New York Times 1901 : Anarchy in Macedonia, in Reality Macedonia
Online Yearbooks International for more yearbook entries, see under Ottoman Empire
Statesman's Year-Book, Entry : Turkey (data organized by continent : Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia) : vol.1 1864 pp.492-515, GB, vol.2 1865 pp.488-510, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.499-517, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.488-506, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.488-506, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.488-506, GB
Image Databanks Image : The Bey of Rumelia, Herald for Rumelia, from Raalamb Costume Booka manuscript of 1657-1658 kept in the Royal Library, Stockholm
Archival Deposits
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Consular Reports
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections The Three Emperors' League of 1881 pertaining to Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, posted by Avalon Project at Yale Law School
Sultan Mehmed Reshad's Rumelia Journey of 1912, posted by Sozler Publication
Macedonia during the Turkish Rule, from The Archive of Macedonia, has numerous documents in facsimile
British Consul General Blunt to the Marquis of Salisbury, May 10th 1880, on the Activity of the Albanian League of Prizren in the Vilayet of Kosova, 1880, posted on Mithat Gashi's Webpage; more documents on Kosovo here
Documents on the Macedonian Question, from macedoniainfo, pro-Bulgarian and anti-Greek
Sir Artur Evans about Roumans, Greeks and the "Eastern Question", 1903, attached a text by Sir Charles Eliot, Turkey in Europe, 1908.
Letters of Serbian Consuls from Kosovo and Metohija XIX and XX century, from Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Raska and Prizren, 3 documents of 1894-1895
The Events of 1903 in Macedonia, as presented in European Diplomatic Correspondence, posted by Macedonian Heritage, 70 Documents
Correspondence of Foreign Consuls in Macedonia, from Bulgaria Online, 2 documents of 1903
Documents on the Struggle of the Macedonian People for Independence and Nation-State
The Macedonian Question, 1878-1908, 1908-1912, collection of documents posted by Mt.Holyoke (Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914, Washington : GPO 1918)
Arthur D. Howden-Smith: An Attack on the Bashi-Bazouks, Macedonia, 1907, from Modern History Sourcebook
Macedonian Muslims During the Balkan Wars, from Habsburg Web
Historical Maps collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas Rumelia page
Ottoman Europe, hindsight Maps : Europe in the Year 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, from Euratlas
Map featuring the Bulgarian Exarchate, 1870-1912, from macedoniainfo
Map : Balkans Region, 1878-1912, from Balcanica
Ottoman Empire, contemporary Map : The Albanian Vilayets and Sandjaks in 1881, from A Brief Historical Atlas of Albania-One-Nation-All
Ethnic map of Rumelia, by J. Cvijic, 1909, from A Brief Historical Atlas of Albania-One-Nation-All
Ethnographic Map of Macedonia, by Dr. Cvijic, Dotation Carnegie, undated (early 20th c.)
Map : Empire Ottoman en Europe, (shows Rumelia Pashaliks; Heck, Atlas Geographique et Historique 1835), posted by M. Witkam
Map : Balkans (borders of Catholic Dioceses; from Streit, Atlas Hierarchicus 1913), posted by M. Witkam
Turkey in Europe 1890, 1896, 1898, 1899, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1911, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, Modern
detail, contemporary Constantinople 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Rumelia, Adrianople (Vilayet), Adrianople (City), Salonica, Monastir, Ochrida, Albania, Scutari (Vilayet, Scutari (City), Iannina, Uskub, Kossovo (Vilayet), Prizren, Ipek, Novibazar, Macedonia, from EB 1911
Articles Rumelien, Adrianopel, Saloniki, Monastir, Janina, Skutari, Durazzo, Ochrida, Kossovo, Ipek, Albanien, Makedonien, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Monastir, Salonica, Adrianople, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Articles Turkish Empire, Adrianople, Thessalonica, Achrida, Durazzo, Serres, Scopia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Salonica, p.307 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, Universal Cambist, 1821, GB
Present State of Agriculture in European Turkey, pp.120-122 in vol.1 of J. Loudon, An encyclop?ia of agriculture, 1825, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Adrianopel, Salonichi, Varna, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Die Moldau, die Walachei und Bulgarien, vol.4 1844 pp.306-309, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Agricultural Productions and Manufactures of European Turkey, pp.45-62 in vol.2 of J. McGregor, Commercial Statistics, 1844, GB
on European Turkey
European Turkey, pp.336-356 in S. Pinkerton, Modern Geography, 1804, GB
European Turkey, pp.225-257 in vol.6 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1828, GB
European Turkey, pp.624-639 in F.H. Ungewitter, Europe, past and present: a comprehensive manual of European geography and history, 1850, GB
Turkey in Europe, Greece and the Ionian Islands, pp.107-119 in Ch. R. Maxwell, An epitome of the military geography of Europe, 1850, GB
European Turkey, pp.256-282 in S.G. Goodrich, A Pictorial Geography of the World: The old world, 1856, GB
European Turkey, pp.307-313 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Turkey in Europe, pp.157-159 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
on regions/places in E.T.
Article Adrianopel, Albanien, Ambelakia, Ankiauli, Antivari, Argyrokastro, Arta, Avlona, Baba-Dagh, Balkan, Basardschik, Belgrad, Berat, Bihatz, Biograd, Bosna-Serai, Bosnien, Brod, Bukarest, Bulgarien, Burgas, Busco, Butrinto, Chimera, Delvino, Demotika, Dobrudscha, Drama, Drin, Dubitza, Tyrkisk, Dubnitza, Durazzo, Eski Baba, Eski Saghra, Feridschik, Fokschan, Gabrova, Galatz, Gallipoli, Ghiustendil, Giurgewo, Gladowa, Glagosch, Gradiska, Herzegovina, Husch, Ichtiman, Ilbessan, Indschigis, Islemie, Jakova, Jassy, Kalafat, Kalarasch, Kamengrad, Karatova, Karrakal, Kimpolung, Klissura, Konitsa, Konstantinopel, Krajova, Kruschewacz, Lom, Margariti, Maritza, Mezzovo, Missivri, Moldau, Monastir, Mostar, Nevesinje, Niamtz, Nissa, Okhrida, Osmanbasar, Parga, Perlepe, Petrowitsch, Plevna, Plojeschti, Podgoritza, Pravady, Premedi, Prevesa, Prisrend, Pristina, Rassowa, Reni, Rimnik, Rimnik Wultschea, Rumili, Saloniki, Schumla, Serbien, Seres, Servia, Silistria, Simnitza, Slatina, Sofia, Srebrnik, Suli, Taschindscha, Tatar Basardschik, Tepelen, Teschani, Therapia, Tirana, Tirnava, Trikala, Tripoli, Tschaglaik, Tschatschak, Tschernawoda, Tschernetz, Tschetate, Tschirmen, Tschorin, Tultscha, Uschitza, Uskjup, Ustruga, Usundschova, Valachiet, Varna, Vodena, Volo, Widdin, Wissoko, Woinizza, Zwornik, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
Historical L'Illyrie Ottomane, pp.1-10 in vol.9 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persanes, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1769, in French, GB
Turkey in Europe, pp.576-577 in M. Willson, Outlines of history, 1854, GB
Postal Routes etc. K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Adrianopel, Constantinopel, Belgrad
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Constantinople, Adrianople, Salonica etc.
Tour Guides J. Conder, The Modern Traveller : Turkey, 1830, GB
J. Murray, A handbook for travellers in Turkey : describing Constantinople, European Turkey, Asia Minor, Armenia, and Mesopotamia, 1854, GB
M. Busch, Die Türkei; Reisehandbuch für Rumelien, die untere Donau, Anatolien, Syrien, Palästina, Rhodus und Cypern (1870) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Travelogues H. Holland, Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, Thessaly, Macedonia, &c. during the years 1812 and 1813 (1819), vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
E. Spencer, Travels in European Turkey, in 1850: Through Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thrace .. (1851), IA, GB
Carl Wilhelm Wutzer, Reise in den Orient Europas und einen Theil Westasiens zur Untersuchung des Bodens und seiner Producte, des Klimas, der Salubritäts-Verhältnisse und der vorherrschenden Krankheiten (Journey to the Orient of Europe and a Part of Western Asia to Examine the Soil and its Products, the Climate, Health Conditions and Leading Diseases), Elberfeld : Bädeker 1860-1861, in German, posted by DTBSWS
G.M.M. McKenzie, Travels in the Slavonic provinces of Turkey-in-Europe , 1867, GB
V. Chirol, 'Twixt Greek and Turk, or, Jottings during a journey through Thessaly, Macedonia, and Epirus (1881), posted on Internet Archive
M.A. Walker, Old Tracks and New Landmarks: Wayside Sketches in Crete, Macedonia, Mitylene .. (1897), posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives State Archives of the Republic of Macedonia, Historical Archive of Sarajevo, Archive of the Federation of Bisnia i Herzegovina, Albania's State Archive
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Proposed national flag of Macedonia, 1903, from FOTW

Bibliography General RHS Bibliography
Search UK National Archive Online Library for Serbia, Servia
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keyword Mauritius (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Search ISBN Database ..
on Rumelia Annotated Bibliography, from Macedonian Heritage (Greek perspective)
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Turkey, Albania
Bibliography : Macedonia and the Macedonians, by Andrew Rosos
Bibliography and Map Sources, from Kosovo Origins by Hugo Roth
A Bibliography on Minorities in Greece : Greece, Thrace Minorities
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
International Boundary Studies
eScholarship, University of California
on Rumelia Central and Eastern European Online Library
Greek Genocide 1914-1923
Digital National Library of Serbia
Thesis Server
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On Balkans
General Accounts Rossitsa Gradeva (ed.), Rumeli under the Ottomans, 15th to 18th Centuries. Institutions and Communities. Istanbul : Isis Press 2004 [G]
J. Müller, Albanien, Rumelien und die Österreichisch-montenegrinische Gränze; oder, Statistischtopographische Darstellung der Paschaliks Skutari, Priserend, Ipek, Toli-Monastir, Jakova, Tirana, Kavaja, Elbassan und Ohrida, so wie des Gränzdistricts von Budua in Österreichisch-Albanien (1844) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Topics Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile. The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, Princeton, NJ : Darwin Press 1995 [G]
Mark Mazower, Salonica. City of Ghosts. Christians,Muslims and Jews 1430-1950, NY : Alfred A. Knopf 2006, KMLA Lib.Sign. 949.565 M476s
Stephen Runciman, The Great Church in Captivity, Cambridge : UP (1968) 2008 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Th. Veremes, Historical Dictionary of Greece, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 949.5 V492b

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