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Rumelia Moldavia
First posted on March 1st 2004, last revised on April 11th 2010






In Roman times, Wallachia was part of Dacia. Due to its location at the western end of the Steppe Road, Wallachia was conquered by the Goths, the Huns, the Bulgars, the Magyars, the Pechenegs or Cumans, the Tatars. The Vlach ethnicity, speakers of a Romance language and of Christian Orthodox faith, lived under various conquerors. In the early 14th century the Principality of Wallachia was established. In 1492 it recognized Ottoman suzerainty. In 1861, the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia were merged. For a while, the combined principalities were called Moldavia and Wallachia (or by similar terms), a name which gradually was replaced by Romania .

Wallachia 1812-1861
Wallachia 1396-1812

Demographic History of Wallachia
Economic History of Wallachia
List of Wars : Wallachia

Historic Encyclopedia Entries : History of Wallachia









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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Wallachia from Wikipedia
Article Walachei from Wikipedia German edition
Wallachia, from Eliznik
Historic C. Bouttats, Breve y exacta descripcion de los reynos de Hungria, Dalmacia y Morea, juntamente los Principados de Transilvania, Wallachia, Bulgaria etc., 1688, in Spanish, GB
W. Wilkinson, An account of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, 1820, GB
Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.382- in : Th. Thornton, The present state of Turkey ; or, A description of the political, civil, and religious Constitution, Government, and Laws of the Ottoman Empire .. , 1807, GB
Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.297- in vol.2 of Th. Thornton, The present state of Turkey, 1809, GB
On the Present State of Wallachia, pp.112-133 in vol.5 of The Portfolio, or a collection of State papers, 1837, GB
R. Lindau, Die Walachei und Moldau, 1849, in German, GB
J.F. Neigebauer, Die Donau-Fürstenthümer, vol.1, 1854, in German, GB
J.H. Skene, The Danubian principalities: the frontier lands of the Christian and the Turk, vol.1 1854, vol.2, 1854, GB
W. Derblich, Land und leute der Moldau und Walachei, 1859, in German, GB
Links Category : Wallachia, from Wikipedia
Internet Sources on Romania, from SSEES
Links, on History Virtual Library History : Romania
Historical Dictionary Enciclopedia Romaniei, in Romanian
Organizations "Nicolae Iorga" Institute of History Research Group for the History of Ethnic Minorities
Timelines Timeline, from timelines.ws
Accounts of History General, Modern Article Walachia : History, Foundation of Wallachia, from Wikipedia
Article Fürstentum Walachei from Wikipedia German edition
Summary History of Wallachia, from Eliznik Web Pages
Central and Eastern European Online Library
History of Wallachia, from Eliznik
General, Historical F.J. Sulzer, Geschichte des transalpinischen Daciens, das ist: Der Walachey, Moldau .. (1781) in German, posted on Internet Archive
A.Tr. Laurian, Istoria romaniloru, 1867, in Romanian, GB
Specific Periods The Foundation and Development of the Romanian Principalities, The Phanariote Rule, from Globusz
Military Die Wehrkraft : Moldau, Walachei, Serbien, Montenegro und Griechenland (1871) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Economy & Finances Commercial Resources of Wallachia and Moldavia, from The Portfolio, or a collection of State papers, vol.5, pp.287-304, 1836, GB
Observations on the Commerce of Wallachia and Moldavia, pp.68-80 in vol.3 of The Portfolio, or a collection of State papers, 1836, GB
Die Wallachei, pp.336-345 in : Ch. de Peyssonnel, Die Verfassung des Handels auf dem schwarzen Meere, 1788, in German, GB
Wallachia and Moldavia, pp.51-55 in vol.2 of J. MacGregor, Commercial statistics, 1847, GB
Ethnography Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History (2004), from google.books
R.F. Kaindl, Geschichte der Deutschen in den Karpathenländern, v.2, v.3 (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
M. Kogalniceanu, Skizze einer Geschichte der Zigeuner, ihrer Sitten und ihrer Sprache, 1840, in German, GB; much on Wallachia
A.G. Paspati, The Language of the Gypsies, as now used in the Turkish Empire, pp.143-270 in Journal of the American Oriental Society vol.7 1862, GB
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Romania, from Kirken i Norge
Laszlo Vetesi, How I Met Calvin in Wallachia
Horezu Monastery, from UNESCO
Orthodox Church of Romania - a Brief History, from Romanian Church of Australia; from Crestinism Orthodox
History of the Sudits of Romania, from JewishGen; Sephardic Jewish Community of Romania, from Sephardic Studies
Romanian Monasteries, scroll down for Metropolitanate of Muntenia and Dobrogea, Metropolitanate of Oltenia
The Church of Wallachia and Moldova in the Middle Ages (Middle of the 14th Century - 1821), from Romanian Orthodox Church
Moldavia and Wallachia, p.58 in Ch.St. Dudley, An analysis of the system of the Bible society, 1821, GB
A. Pichler, Geschichte des Protestantismus in der orientalischen Kirche im 17. Jahrhundert oder: Der Patriarch Cyrillus Lucaris und seine Zeit, 1862, in German, GB; search for Walachei
History of Regions
Local History Articles Braila : History, History of Bucharest, Buzau : History, Campolung, Caracal : History, Craiova : History, Giurgiu, Ploesti : History, Slatina : History, Targoviste : History, Turnu Magurele : History from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Romania
The Danube as a Major Route of Transport : Steam Navigation, from Donauschiffahrt
Biographies
Others Joh. C. Zimmerman, De Donau-Vorstendommen (Wallachije en Moldavie), cumulative review in Dutch, pp.709-740 in De Gids 1854

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Romania, by Ben Cahoon; scroll down for Walachia; Rulers : Romania, by B. Schemmel, scroll down for Walachia; Rulers from Vallachia and Moldavia till 1859; from Romania - Encyclopedic Survey; Regnal Chronologies : Eastern Balkans, scroll down for Wallachia
Lists of Bishops Article : List of Metropolitans of Ungro-Wallachia, from Wikipedia
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Digital Newspaper Libraries Periodiche Romanesti Vechi, from Biblioteca Digitala Nationala
(Almost) Daily Search London Gazette 1665-; 50 Wallachia, 57 Walachia entries
Search Gazeta de Lisboa 1715-1833 (GB, incomplete series) for Vallachia, Valachia
Search Gazeta de Lisboa Occidental 1720-1738 (GB, incomplete series) for Vallachia, Valachia
Search Gazetta Universale o Sieno Firenze 1779-1801 (GB, incomplete series) for Vallachia, Valachia
Search La Gazette de France 1772-1786 (GB, incomplete series) for Vallachie
Magazines, General Wallachia and the Wallachians, pp.33-35 in vol.19 of The Saturday Magazine, 1841, GB
Moldo-Wallachia, pp.245-252 in vol.53 of Fraser's Magazine 1856, GB
Harpers New Monthly Magazine CCCX 1876 Vol.LII, The Principalities on the Danube, posted by Wikisource
Magazines, Economic Search Handels-Archiv (Prussia 1847-1855, in German) for Walachei, Wallachei, Braila
Search Allgemeines Organ für Handel und Gewerbe (1835-1848, in German) for Wallachei, Walachei, Braila; Dampfschiffahrt auf der Donau, p.120 in vol.1 1835, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt, p.233 in vol.2 1836, Dampfschiffahrt auf der Donau, p.380 in vol.3 1837, Galacz und Braila im Jahre 1838, pp.659-660 in vol.4 1838 , in German, GB
Magazines, Religious Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.497-501 in The General Baptist repository, and Missionary observer, 1853, GB
Online Yearbooks Das Osmanische Reich : Donauländer, pp.195-200 in Statistisches Jahrbuch, 1848, in German, GB
Annuario Storico Universale : Valachia, 1843 pp.424-425, 1845 p.226, in Italian, GB
Image Databanks Historical Postcards : Braila, Bucuresti, from Postcardman, commercial site
Archival Deposits Search National Archives, UK for Wallachia, 182 entries
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties General Treaty Collections Th.E. Holland (ed.), The European Concert in the Eastern Question: A Collection of Treaties and .. (1885), posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Between Turkey and Foreign Powers. 1535-1855 (1855), posted on Internet Archive
I. de Testa, Recueil des traites de la Porte Ottomane avec les puissances etrang?res depuis le premier traite conclu, en 1536, entre Suleyman I et François I, jusqu'a nos jours, vol.1 (1864), vol.2 (1864), vol.3 (1864), vol.4 (1864), vol.5 (1864), vol.6 (1864), vol.7 (1864), vol.8 (1864), vol.9 (1864), vol.10 (1864), vol.11 (1864), posted on Internet Archive
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Consular Reports J. de Hagemeister, Report on the commerce of the ports of Russia, Moldavia, and Wallachia : made to the Russian giovernment in 1835, 1836, GB
Wallachia, Bucharest 1836, pp.521-523 in vol.2 issue 17 of The Portfolio, 1836, GB
Commercial Resources of Wallachia and Moldavia, Brailow 1836, pp.287-304 in vol.5 of The Portfolio, 1836, GB
Moldo-Wallachia : Galatz 1865, pp.476-483 in Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries, 1866, GB
Moldo-Wallachia : Galatz 1864, pp.659-670 in Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries, 1866, GB
Document Collections The Letter of Neacsu from Campolung (1521), from CIMEC
Historical Maps entire country, hindsight/modern Wallachia in 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, from euratlas
South East Europe History Map Index, from Eliznik
entire country, contemporary Category : Old Maps of Romania, from Wikimedia Commons
Romania - Wallachia 1882 (Blackie & Sons), from FEEFHS
Maps : Wallachia 1854, (Flemming's Kriegsatlas 1854), posted by M. Witkam
Maps : Moldau, Walachei (Sohr-Berghaus 4th edition 1850), (Sohr-Berghaus 5th edition 1855), (Sohr-Berghaus 6th edition 1874), posted by M. Witkam
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary City maps Bucharest 2 maps 1911, Bucharest 1905, from Discus Media
Map : Romanian Lands in the 17th Century, from didactic.ro
City map of Bukarest, part 1, part 2, from Nordisk Familjebok 2nd ed. vol.34 1922
Map of Braila 1892, posted on flickr
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Walachia, Braila, Bucharest, Craiova, Turnu Severin, from EB 1911
Articles Walachei, Circles : Dimbowitza, Dolschi, Gorschi, Ilfov, Jalomitza, Mehedintzi, Mutschel, Olt, Prahowa, Romanatzi, Teleorman, Waltscha, Wlaska, Cities : Ardschisch, Braila, Bukarest, Buzau, Giurgewo, Karakal, Kimpolung, Krajowa, Oltenitza, Plojesti, Rimnik, Slatina, Stirbey, Targovist, Tirguschu, Turnu-Magurele, Turnu-Severin, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Walachei, from Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon 1837-1841, in German, posted by Zeno; Article Walachei, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German, posted by Zeno; Article Die Wallachei, from Brockhaus Conversations Lexikon 1809-1811, in German, posted by Zeno
Religious Article Bukarest, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Article Bucharest, Craiova, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Wallachia, pp.45-46 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Walachei, pp.485-490 in vol.17 of J.J. Herzog, Real-encyclopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, 1863, in German, GB
Economic Moldavia, Valachia and Rumelia, pp.244-245 in H.A.Sc. Dearborn, A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea, 1819, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Bucharest, posted by DTBSWS
Die Fürstentümer Moldau und Walachei, pp.43-44 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1842, in German, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Die Moldau, die Walachei und Bulgarien, vol.4 1844 pp.306-309, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Die Fürstentümer Moldau und Walachei, pp.43-44 in H.F. Osiander, Ueber den Handelsverkehr der Völker, 1848, in German, GB
Walachia and Moldavia, pp.51-62 in J. MacGregor, Commercial statistics, 1850, GB
Bukarescht, pp.144-146 in Chr. Noback, Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtsbuch , 1856, in German, GB
Geographical La Vallachie, pp.206-208 in vol.1 of J. Vaissette, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
Walachia, pp.161-165 in vol.2 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Of the Government of Wallachia, pp.196-199 in E. Habesci, The present state of the Ottoman empire, 1784, GB
The Province of Wallachia, p.479 in J. Morse, View of the present state of all the empires, kingdoms, states, and republics in the known world, and of the United States of America in particular, 1801, GB
Die Wallachei, pp.528-535 in Neueste Länder-und Völkerkunde , 1812, in German, GB
Article Wallachia, pp.229-241, in C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, 1828, GB
Principality of Wallachia, pp.540-543 in vol.2 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1832, GB
Turkey in Europe, Greece and the Ionian Islands, pp.107-119 in Ch. R. Maxwell, An epitome of the military geography of Europe, 1850, GB
Wallachia, pp.635-636 in F.H. Ungewitter, Europe, past and present : a comprehensive manual of European geography and history, 1850, GB
Moldavia and Wallachia, pp.684-685 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Wallachia and Moldavia, pp.1035-1037 in vol.2 of M'Culloch's universal gazetteer , 1855, GB
Article Valachiet, from Stefan Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish, posted by Project Runeberg
Die Wallachei pp.250-253 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Wallachia, pp.312-313 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Das Osmanische Reich in Europa nebst den drei Donaufürstenthu\ümern, pp.200-317 in J.E. Wappäus, Handbuch der Geographie und Statistik von Ost- und Nord-Europa, 1864, in German, GB
Ethnological The Danubian Principalities, Valachia and Moldavia, pp.212-225 in R.G. Latham, The Nationalities of Europe, 1863, GB
Historical Wallachia, p.422 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Valachie, pp.7-9 in vol.9 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persanes, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1769, in French, GB
Die Moldau und die Wallachei, pp.610-611 in : vol.1 issue 1 of Das Ausland, 1828, in German, GB
Die Walachei und Moldau, pp.576-578 in vol.4 of F. Rehm, Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters, 1837, in German, GB
Other Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory, Wallachia, p.392, 1867 issue, 1867, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Postal Routes etc. K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Wallachei
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Wallachia, Bucharest
Tour Guides, Travelogues Reise von Bucharest, der Hauptstadt in der Wallachei, über Giurgewo, Rustschuk, durch Oberbulgarien bis gegen die Grenzen von Rumelien, und dann durch Unterbulgarien über Silistria wieder zurück, 1789, 1812, in German, GB
Ali Bey, Travels of Ali Bey, 1816, GB; search for Bucharest, Walachia, Wallachia
St. Raicevich, Voyage en Valachie et en Moldavie, 1822, in French, GB
D. Sestini, Viaggio in Valachia e Moldavia, 1853, in Italian, GB
Bukarest und Giurgewo, pp.676-684 in K. Biernatzki, Die Länder und Völker der Erde, 1856, in German, GB
Institutions Archives The National Archives of Romania
National Archives Romania, from Easy Archives Trip; State Archives of Romania, from ProGenealogists
Musea Lists, Links List of Museums in Romania : Wallachia, from Wikipedia
Museum Websites
Monuments List of Castles in Romania : Wallachia, from Wikipedia; Lista de Castele in Romania : Muntenia, Oltenia, from Wikipedia Romanian edition
Articles : Antim Monastery Bucharest, Brebu Monastery, Ciolanu Monastery, Cozia Monastery, Curtea de Arges Monastery, Dealu Monastery, Dealu Mare Monastery, Glavacioc Monastery, Horezu Monastery, Plaviceni Monastery, Radu Voda Monastery, Ratesti Monastery, Holy Trinity Monastery, Sinaia Monastery, Stavropoleos Monastery, Zamfira Monastery, from Wikipedia
Libraries Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flaggenlexikon, click for Walachei, bilingual German & English site; Flag, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Principaute de Valachie, from Heraldique Europeenne
Coins, Banknotes Search Coin Archive for Walachei, Wallachia
Wallachia Coins, from Zeno

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Wallachia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Wallachia Central and Eastern European Online Library
Electronic Text Archive, from DXARTS / CARTAH, Univ. of Washington
Biblioteca Digitala Nationala
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Online
General Accounts Dimitri Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth. Eastern Europe 500-1453, Crestwood NY : St. Vladimir's Seminary Press 1971 [G]
Specific Topics Carl Wilhelm Wutzer, Reise in den Orient Europas und einen Theil Westasiens zur Untersuchung des Bodens und seiner Producte, des Klimas, der Salubritäts-Verhältnisse und der vorherrschenden Krankheiten (Journey to the Orient of Europe and a Part of Western Asia to Examine the Soil and its Products, the Climate, Health Conditions and Leading Diseases), Elberfeld : Bädeker 1860-1861, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Historical Dictionaries Kurt W. Treptow e.a., Historical Dictionary of Romania, Methuen : Scarecrow 1996, 384 pp.