1826-1848 1867-1893

Ireland 1848-1867

In 1847, Daniel O'Connell had died; in 1848, John Mitchell and William Smith O'Brien had been sentenced and deported to Australia. Thus suddenly the Irish national movement was deprived of her most prominent leaders.
Among the new political organizations formed were the non-denominational IRISH TENANT LEAGUE of 1850, which aimed at legislation securing tenant's rights (protection against eviction). The IRISH REPUBLICAN BROTHERHOOD, founded in Ireland in 1858, and the FENIAN BROTHERHOOD, founded by Irish emigrants in the USA in 1859, were secret societies. The Irish community within the United States now became a factor influencing Irish politics, and if it was by funding political organizations.
Another important factor was the increasing influence the Catholic church gained on the Irish population. Archbishop PAUL CULLEN resented both republicanism and Irish nationalism, for the latter threatened to integrate Protestant and Catholic Irishmen, thus diminishing the influence of the Catholic church.
In February 1867 an uprising was simultaneously launched by the IRB in several Irish cities; it was easily suppressed by the British authorities.

Massive emigration continued in the 1850es, mainly to the United States. The Catholic Church, by propagating couples to marry at a higher age and by propagating temporary sexual abstinence, even celibacy, contributed to a lowering of the high birth rate.

DOCUMENTS List of Irish statesmen, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
REFERENCE Daniel Webster Hollis, The History of Ireland, Westport : Greenwood 2001, 232 pp.
David Fitzpatrick, Ireland and the Empire, pp.495-521, in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3

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First posted on April 25th 2002, last revised on May 19th 2006

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