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Cuba Turks & Caicos Islands
First posted on June 22nd 2002, last revised on November 16th 2010







Settled by Arawaks between the 6th and 9th century. Discovered by Columbus in 1492, first permanent European (English) settlement established in 1647, England failed to take measures to protect the island group, which for a long time was controlled by pirates. In 1782 the islands came uinder Spanish occupation, but soon were returned to British rule (1783), and from 1783 to independence in 1973 (autonomy in 1964) the Bahamas enjoyed a period of political stability.

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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Les Bahamas, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Historical The Bahama Islands, pp.180-212 in Th.E.Lynch, The Wonders of the West Indies, 1856, GB
Links General from LANIC; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Bahamas, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Organizations Association of Caribbean Historians
Caribbean Contacts, from Caribbean Database of Documentary Heritage
British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group
The Bahamas Historical Society
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
Historical, of the Caribbean Th. Coke, A history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1808, vol.2, 1810, vol.3, 1811, GB
Th. Southey, Chronological history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1827, GB (out of 3 vols.)
C.E. Meinecke, Versuch einer Geschichte der europaischen Colonien in Westindien, 1831, in German, GB
E. Regnault et al., Histoire des Antilles et des colonies françaises, espagnoles, anglaises .., 1849, in French, GB
Historical, on the Bahamas Bahamas, pp.385-393 in vol.2 : Possessions in the West Indies, of R.M. Martin, History of the British Colonies, 2nd ed. 1838, GB
Specific Periods W.H. Siebert, The Legacy of the American Revolution to the British West Indies and Bahamas (1913), posted on Internet Archive
Politics Links Category : Politics of the Bahamas, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Web : Bahamas; Governments on the WWW : Bahamas
Foreign Policy Wikipedia : Caribbean Community (member since 1983), Wikipedia : Organization of American States (member since 1982); United Nations (since 1973)
Association of Caribbean States (since 1994)
Article : Foreign Relations of the Bahamas
Military Category : Military of the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of the Bahamas, from ODM
Regiments of the British West Indies and Bermuda, by Frank Goodwill
Economy & Finances Entry Bahamas, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Article Economy of the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Bahamas, from Ministry of Rum
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : The Bahamas
J. Stephen, The slavery of the British West India colonies delineated, vol.1, 1824, vol.2, 1830, GB
Ethnography Languages of Bahamas (3), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Bahamas
Les Bahamas, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Bahamas, pp.811-812 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Bahamas, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : the Bahamas, from Jewish Virtual Library
Category : Religion in the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Bahamas, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
History of Regions Districts of Bahamas, from www.statoids.com
Local History List of Cities in the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Institutions Bahamas, from Airline History
Structurae : The Bahamas
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Bahamas
Culture Bahamas at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Bahamians, from Wikipedia
Lists of Eastern Caribbean People, scroll down for the Bahamas
Others Disaster History by Country : the Bahamas, from Relief Web; History with Tropical Systems : Abaco Island, Acklins Island, Andros Island, Bimini, Cat Island, Eleuthera Island, Grand Bahama Island, Great Exuma Island, Great Inagua Island, Long Island, Nassau, San Salvador, from Hurricane City
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
A.C. Miller, Fire History of Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis (Griseb.) W.H. Barrett & Golfari) Forests on Abaco Island, The Bahamas, thesis 2007

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Article : United States Ambassador to the Bahamas, from Wikipedia; Heads of Post : Bahamas, from MOFA, Canada
List of High Commissioners from the United Kingdom to the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Bahamas, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls
Lists of Bishops
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos, since 2002; from IFES Election Guide, since 2002
IPU Election Archive : House of Assembly, 1977. 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Bahamas, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Newsreels British Pathe
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Old Bahamas in Photos and Postcards
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on the Bahamas
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Air Bahama, Bahamasair, Bahamas Airways, Caribbean International Airways, Flamingo Airlines, Out Island Airways, Trinity Air Bahamas
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Bahamas, from ILO, 33 docs. since 1976
Bahamas, pp.366-386 in Charles Clark, A summary of colonial law, the practice of the Court of Appeals from the Plantations and of the Laws and their Administration of All the Colonies, 1834, GB
Bahamas, pp.333-362 in vol.1 of J.H. Howard The laws of the British colonies, in the West Indies and other parts of America concerning Real and Personal Property and the Manumission of Slaves with a View of the Constitution of each Colony, 1827, GB
Treaties United Nations Treaty Database; OAS Treaties and Agreements
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, Treaties; Canada Treaty Information
European Commission Treaties Office
UK Treaties Online; Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NL) Treaty Database; Switzerland Database of International Treaties; Irish Treaty Series
Australian Treaty Database
Israel MOFA Bilateral Agreements
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations Nassau, pp.749-753 in 1857, GB
Annual report of the Commissioner of Patents, Part 2, Nassau, Bahamas p.526 in 1859 : Agriculture, 1860, GB
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Caribbean GenWeb Project, scroll down for Bahamas
Socviety of Genealogists : West Indies, scroll down for Bahamas
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Bahamas, from EB 1911
Article Bahamainseln, Andros, Nassau, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Entry Eleuthera, Nassau, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Religious Articles The Bahama Islands, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
Economic Of the Lucayos, or Bahama Islands, p.569 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
The Bahama Islands, p.367 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Bahama Islands, in Ch. Vere, The pocket cambist, 1836, GB
Bahamas, p.628 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest , 1837, GB
Bahamas or Lucayas p.83 in vol.1 of I.S. Homans, A cyclopedia of commerce and commercial navigation, 1859, GB
Geographical The Bahamas, pp.74-77 in The Present State of the West Indies, 1778, GB
British West Indies : Lucay's or Bahama Islands, pp.835-836 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1805, GB
The Bahamas, pp.659-663 in vol.4 of J. Adolphus, The political state of the British Empire, 1818, GB
Bahamas p.423 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
Bahama Islands or Lucatos, pp.63-66 in G. Long, America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
Bahamas, p.189 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical The Bahama or Lucayo Islands, pp.526-530 in J.H. Wynne, A general history of the British empire in America, 1770, GB
The Bahama Islands and Bermudas, pp.358-360 in W.F. Mavor, The history of the discovery and settlement: to the present time, of North and South America and the West Indies, 1804, GB
The Bahamas, p.447 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues D. MacKinnen, A tour through the British West Indies, in the years 1802 and 1803, 1804; pp.112-120, 134- on Bahamas
J. Sturge, Th. Harvey, The West Indies in 1837: Being the Journal of a Visit to Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica .. (1838), posted on Internet Archive
The Bahamas, pp.126-132 in Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Guide to the Madeiras, Azores, British and foreign West Indies ..., 1844, GB
H. MacLachan Bell, Bahamas Isles of June (1934), posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries National Archives, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Academic and Research Libraries - Caribbean, from UNESCO Libraries Portal
Bahamas, from LibDex
Museum Directory : Bahamas, from Caribbean Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, posted by kbears
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Bahamas, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Bahamas Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Bahamas 1859-1912, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on the Bahamas survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Article : Bibliography of the Bahamas, from Wikipedia
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Peter J. Roberts, Bibliography of Bahamian Genealogy
serial publications
general bibliographies
Bahamas entries
Annotated Bibliography for the English Speaking Caribbean (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, The British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (In order of importance.), from Florida Coastal School of Law
National Archives (UK) : Caribbean Histories Revealed : Bibliography
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
on the Caribbean Digital Library of the Caribbean
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On the Caribbean
General Accounts Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1992) London : Penguin 1994 [G]
Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries
Yearbooks Article : The Bahamas, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 p. 662 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1944 pp.93-94, 1945 p.92 [G]
Article : West Indies, British, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1946 p.823-824 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1947 pp.107-108, 1948 p.105, 1949 pp.87-88, 1950 p.97, 1951 p.94, 1952 p.91 [G]
Article : Bahama Islands, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1953 p.90, 1954 p.89, 1955 p.150, 1956 p.89, 1957 p.148, 1958 p.88, 1959 p.91, 1960 p.91, 1961 p.93, 1962 p.76, 1963 pp.238-239, 243 [G]
Article : Colonies and Dependent Territories, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964 pp.265-268 (on events in 1963) [G]
Article : Colonies and Other Dependencies, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1965 p.252, 1966 p.203, 1967 pp.218, 220-222, 1968 p.216 [G]
Article : Dependent States : Bahamas, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969 pp.273, 276-277, 1970 p.277, 1971 pp.266-267, 1972 pp.238-239, 243, 1973 pp.229-230, 234 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1974 p.114 [G]
Article : West Indies - Bahamas, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.227-234, 1898 pp.227-234, 1901 pp.260-270, 1905 pp.290-300, 1910 pp.264-265, 1919 pp.326-327, 1924 pp.325-327, 1925 pp.329-330, 1926 pp.329-330, 1928 pp.327-328, 1929 pp.332-333, 1932 pp.334-336, 1937 pp.359-360, 1943 pp.277-278 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.131-134 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.84-85, 1928 p.75, 1930 pp.89-90, 1931 pp.89-90, 1932 pp.89-90, 1933 pp.80-81, 1934 p.77, 1935 p.81, 1936 p.75, 1937 pp.62-63, 1943 p.87, 1944 pp.78-79, 1945 p.82, 1946 p.91, 1947 pp.68-69, 1957 pp.76-77, 1961 pp.72-73, 1962 pp.71-72, 1963 pp.82-83, 1964 pp.85-86 [G]
Article : British West Indies, in : Americana Annual 1946 p.129, 1947 pp.104-105 [G]
Article : West Indies - Bahamas, in : Americana Annual 1965 pp.744-745 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : The International Year Book 1899 p.95 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1975 p.98, 1976 p.158, 1977 p.161, 1978 p.215, 1979 p.214, 1980 p.210, 1981 p.209, 1982 p.209, 1983 p.205, 1984 p.202, 1985 pp.589, 632, 1986 pp.571, 628, 1988 pp.494, 549, 1989 pp.494, 549, 1990 pp.510, 565, 1993 pp.477, 558, 1994 pp.477, 558, 1995 pp.376, 558 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1975-1976 pp.218-220, 1978-1979 pp.178-181, 1980-1981 pp.176-180, 1983-1984 pp.177-181, 1984-1985 pp.177-181, 1985-1986 pp.176-180, 1987-1988 pp.174-178, 1988-1989 pp.174-178, 1989-1990 pp.175-179, 1990-1991 pp.174-178, 1991-1992 pp.173-177, 1992-1993 pp.172-176, 1993-1994 pp.175-179, 1994-1995 pp.172-175, 1995-1996 pp.162-165, 1996-1997 pp.173-176, 1997-1998 pp.178-181, 1998-1999 pp.203-206, 2000 pp.248-252, 2001 pp.245-249, 2002 pp.253-258, 2003 pp.253-257, 2004 pp.255-259, 2005 pp.248-252 [G]
Article : Bahamas, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.110-111, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.110-111, 4th ed. 1984 pp.110-111 [G]
Entry : Travel Warning - The Bahamas, pp.415-416, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : The Bahamas, Cabinet p.9, Background Notes : The Bahamas, pp.262-266, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Bahamas, pp.236-239 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : The Bahamas, in : Americana Annual 1974 p.116 (on events of 1973) [G]
Entry : Bahamas, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.118-124 [G]