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Puerto Rico British Virgin Islands
First posted on June 21st 2002, last revised on November 15th 2010







Today known as the US Virgin Islands, consisting mainly of St. John, St. Croix and St. Thomas.
Named by Columbus who discovered them in 1493, St. Croix was settled by the Dutch in 1625; in 1645 they left for Statia and Saba. In 1650 the Spanish occupied the island, only to abandon it. Then it was settled by the French who in 1653 passed on the islands to the Knights of St. John (Malta; sovereignty remained with France).
The Danish West India & Guinea Company had a plan for the settlement of St. Thomas approved in 1665. They claimed uninhabited St. John in 1684, yet settlement did not proceed before 1717. In 1733, St. Croix was purchased from France; in 1754 the islands were proclaimed a Royal Danish colony.
Denmark sold the Danish West Indies to the U.S. in 1917; henceforth they were called the U.S. Virgin Islands.






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Article : Danish West Indies, from Wikipedia
Historical, on the Windies A. Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main, 1860, GB
Historical, on Dan. Vestindien St. Thomas, pp.309-311 in Th.E.Lynch, The Wonders of the West Indies, 1856, GB
J. Parton, The Danish islands: are we bound in honor to pay for them ? (1869), posted on Internet Archive
Die dänisch-westindischen Inseln, pp.404-413 in vol.2 of A. Baggesen, Der dänische staat: oder das Königreich Dänemark mit dessen Nebenländern, 1847, in German, GB
Links on History Kategori : Dansk Vestindien, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Organizations Association of Caribbean Historians
Caribbean Contacts, from Caribbean Database of Documentary Heritage
St. Thomas Historical Trust : Hassel Island; St. John Historical Society; St. Croix Landmarks Society
USVI State Historic Preservation Office
Dansk Vestindisk Selskab
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws
Timeline of St. Croix history, from Visit St. Croix
Accounts of History Modern Danish West Indies, from Wikipedia; Dansk Vestindien, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Brief History of the Virgin Islands, from VI now; from Danish National Archives
Historical, of the Caribbean Th. Coke, A history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1808, vol.2, 1810, vol.3, 1811, GB
Th. Southey, Chronological history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1827, GB (out of 3 vols.)
C.E. Meinecke, Versuch einer Geschichte der europaischen Colonien in Westindien, Geschichte der dänischen Colonien bis zur französischen Revolution, pp.328-337, Geschichte der dänischen und schwedischen Colonien seit der französischen Revolution, pp.523-530, 1831, in German, GB
E. Regnault et al., Histoire des Antilles et des colonies françaises, espagnoles, anglaises .., 1849, in French, GB
Historical, of the Danish West Indies
Specific Periods S.J.M.P. Fogdall, Danish-American diplomacy, 1776-1920 (1922), posted on Internet Archive
W. Westergaard, The Danish West Indies Under Company Rule 1671-1754 (1917), posted on Internet Archive
U.S. Congress, Committee on Fioreign Affairs, Cession of Danish West Indies (1917), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
R. Lansing, Cession of the Danish West Indies : letter from the Secretary of State to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations transmitting a summary memorandum relative to certain articles of the proposed treaty with Denmark ceding to the United States the Danish West Indies (1916), posted on Internet Archive
Purchase of Danish islands (1902), posted on Internet Archive
Cession of Danish West Indies (1917), vol.1 vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive
U.S. Bank of Commerce in NY : The Virgin Islands: A Description of the Commercial Value of the Danish West (1917), posted on Internet Archive
Appropriation to pay for the Danish West Indies. Message from the President of the United States inviting the attention of the Congress to the necessity for making an appropriation of USD 25,000,000 as payment for the purchase of the Danish West Indies vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
Ophævelsen af slavehandelen 1803, from Rejsebureauet Dansk Vestindien, in Danish
US Virgin Islands' Emancipation, from World African Network, an essay dealing with the slave revolt of 1848 in the then Danish West Indies (title irritating)
Peter von Scholten, from Rejsebureauet Dansk Vestindien, in Danish
The Slave Ship Fredensborg : Monuments and Sites in St. Croix, from UNESCO.NO
Article : Danish West Indian Islands Sales Referendum, 1916, from Wikipedia
Politics Category : Politics of the United States Virgin Islands, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Web : US Virgin Islands; Governments on the WWW : Virgin Islands, U.S.
Military Category : Military in the United States Virgin Islands, from Wikipedia
In Pursuit of Pirates : West Indies. The Danish Navy versus Pirates in 5 Centuries, exhibition of Danish War Museum
Economy & Finances Entry Virgin Islands (United States), from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Article Economy of the United States Virgin Islands, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of the United States Virgin Islands, from Wikipedia
United States Virgin Islands, from Ministry of Rum
History of the Virgin Islands Energy Office
Social History Danish Colonies, pp.389-394 in A. Cochin, M.L. Booth, The results of emancipation, 1868, GB
Ethnography Languages of the U.S. Virgin Islands (3), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : U.S. Virgin Islands
Les Antilles danoises, pp.430-431 in J. Duval, Histoire de l'emigration Europeenne, Asiatique et Africaine aux XIX siecle, 1862, in French, GB
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - US Virgin Islands, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : St. Thomas, from Jewish Virtual Library
Danish West India Islands, pp.302-350 in J.B. Holmes, Historical sketches of the missions of the United Brethren, 1818, GB
Die Bruder-Mission auf den Dänisch-Westindischen Inseln, 1832, in German, GB
History of Regions Districts of the United States Virgin Islands, from www.statoids.com
History of St. Croix, from Seven Flags, from Wikipedia, from St. Croix Beaches
History of St. Thomas, from West Indies Online, from St. Thomas USVI, from Wikipedia
History of Saint John, from Wikipedia
S. Honey, Letters from the West Indies: relating especially to the Danish island St. Croix, and to the British Islands Antigua, Barbadoes and Jamaica, 1838, GB
J.P. Knox, A historical account of St. Thomas, W.I., 1852, GB
Local History
Institutions Virgin Islands (U.S.), from Airline History
Structurae : Virgin Islands (U.S.); Search Lighthouse Explorer for U.S. Virgin Islands
Culture Virgin Islands at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, H.F. Bargum vol.I pp.535-536, V.L. Birch vol.II p.289, H.C. Bodenhoff vol.II pp.457-458, P.C. Wessel-Brown vol.III pp.135-136, A. Christiansen, vol.III pp.560-561, P.Collett, vol.IV p.60-61, H.F.A. von Eggers vol.IV pp.438-439, Th.Chr. Faaborg vol.V pp.2-3, W.A. Graah, vol.VI pp.158-160, C. Hansen, vol.VI p.608, C.H. Holten, vol.VIII p.64, C.L.Chr.Irminger, vol.VIII pp.316-319, J. Iversen, vol.VIII pp.332-333, C.W. JessenE.Ph. Kirstein, vol.IX p.187, M. Levy vol.X pp.258-259, S. Lyche vol.X pp.495-496, Chr. MacEvoy, vol.11 pp.2-3, M. Melchior vol.XI pp.247-248, K.E. Mourier, vol.XI pp.498-499, B.F. von Mühlenfels, vol.XI pp.561-562, V.T. Oxholm, vo.,XII pp.508-509, O.Chr. Pedersen, vol.XII pp.633-634, N.Chr.K. Piehl, vol.XIII p.109, D. Reventlow vol.XIV pp.51-52, A. Riis vol.XIV pp.102-103, P.C.F. Scholten vol.XV pp.255-256, J.R. Schumacher vol.XV pp.370-371, U.A. Schønheyder vol.XV pp.448-449, F.W. Sponneck, vol.XVI pp.229-230, R.H. Tønder, vol.XVII p.631, E.F. von Walterstorff, vol.XVIII vol.238-240, H. Wied, vol.XVI p.539, P.L. Vogt, vol.XIX pp.144-145, posted by Project Runeberg, in Danish
Others Disaster History by Country : the Bahamas, from Relief Web; History with Tropical Systems : Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas, from Hurricane City
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Virgin Islands, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Documents Historical Newspapers Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Postcards from the Danish West Indies, from Art Market Pro, commercial site
Historical Photos, from St. Thomas Historical Trust
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
National Archives (U.S.) : Records of the Government of the Virgin Islands, 1672-1957
Danish National Archives : Virgin Islands History; Danish States Archives : Danish West Indies
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Convention between the United States and Denmark for cession of the Danish West Indies. 1916/1917, posted by Unitred Settlement
Cession of the Danish West Indies, pp.56-64 in Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1968, GB
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations Danish Colonial Possessions : Danish West Indies pp.51-53 in 1842, GB
Danish Dominions : St. Croix pp.294-297 in 1863, 1865, GB
Reports from Her Majesty's consuls on the manufactures, commerce ... vol.5 Denmark : St. Thomas, pp.411-415 in 1867, 1867, vol.7 Denmark : St. Thomas, pp.416-419, in 1868, 1869, GB
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Caribbean GenWeb Project, scroll down for U.S. Virgin Islands (none of the posted documents refers to the U.S. Virginb Islands; all 10 documents refer to the Danish West Indies)
St. Croix Population Database 1734-1917, posted by Virgin Islands Social History Associates
Virgin Islands Roots, see under documents, posted by Virgin Islands Social History Associates
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Virgin Islands, from EB 1911
Article Jungferninseln, Sainte Croix, Saint John, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious St. Croix p.360, St. Jan p.361, St. Thomas, pp.381-383 in B.B. Edwards, The Missionary Gazetteer, 1832, GB
Moravian Missions, Danish West Indian Islands, p.771 in H. Newcomb, A Cyclopedia of Missions, 1855, GB
The West Indies : St. Thomas pp.219-220, St.Croix pp.220-221, St.Jan p.221 in Cyclopaedia of Christian Missions, 1860, GB
Amerika : Dänische Besitzungen : Groenland, die Inseln St. Thomas, St. Jean und St. Croix, pp.747-749 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Thomas, St., pp.338-339 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Danish West India Company, p.106 in vol.2 of J.J. Oddy, European Commerce, 1807, GB
Danish Islands, p.440 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Danish Possessions, p.442 in J. Blunt, The merchant's and shipmaster's assistant, 1822, GB
Danish Islands, p.229 in F.G. Clarke, The Seaman's Manual, 1830, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Sanct Thomas, posted by DTBSWS
Danish Islands (Saint Thomas, Saint John and Santa Cruz), p.312 in G.Th. Flügel, The merchant's assistant, or, Merchantile instructer, 1834, GB
Commercial Regulations : West Indies : Danish Possessions, pp.639-641 in J. Blunt, The Shipmaster's Assistant, and Commercial Digest, 1837, GB
Danish Islands, p.231 in F.G. Clarke, The American ship-master's guide and commercial assistant, 1838, GB
Danish West India Colonies, pp.202-205 in J. McGregor, Commercial statistics, 1844, GB
Danish West India Colonies, pp.202-205 in J. McGregor, Commercial statistics, 1850, GB
Dependencies of Denmark : St. Thomas, p.549 in vol.3 of J.B. de Bow, The Industrial Resources, etc., of the Southern and Western States, 1853, GB
St. Thomas, St. Croix (Dänisch Westindien), pp.166-167 in O. Hübner, Die Zolltarife aller Länder gesammelt, übersetzt, geordnet, 1866, in German, GB
Geographical Danish Islands : St. Thomas, pp.514-516 in vol.8 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
St. Thomas, St. John, Sainte Croix, pp.93-95 in The Present State of the West Indies, 1778, GB
Danish Islands in America, p.708 in Th. Salmon, The new universal geographical grammar, 1782, GB
Danish West Indies, p.846 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1805, GB
Danish Antilles, p.424 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1825, GB
St. John, p.47, St. Thomas p.47, Santa Cruz p.48 in G. Long, America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
The Danish West Indies, pp.494-495 in R.S. Fisher, The Book of the World, 1853, GB
Historical Of the French Islands in the Atlantic Ocean : St. Croix, pp.608-609 in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
Saint Thomas pp.38-39, Isle St. Croix, pp.57-61 in vol.22 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persans, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1771, in French, GB
Histoire des Antilles Danoises, pp.219-229 in vol.119 of Histoire universelle, 1788, in French, GB
Of the Danish American Islands, Saint Thomas and Santa Cruz, pp.150-156 in J. Adams, A view of universal history, from the creation to the present time, 1795, GB
Danish West Indies, pp.329-330 in W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, commercial, and philosophical view of the United States of America and the Eurtopean Settlements in America and the West Indies, 1796, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues J. Robertson, Narrative of a secret mission to the Danish islands in 1808. Ed. by A.C. Fraser (1863), posted on Internet Archive
St. Thomas,, Sta Cruz pp.238-295 in T. Wentworth, The West India sketch book, 1834, GB
St. Thomas pp.190-193 in C.D. Tyng, The stranger in the tropics: being a hand-book for Havana and guide book for travellers in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Saint Thomas, 1868, GB
A.G. de Cassagnac, Voyage aux Antilles francaises, anglaises, danoises, espagnoles etc., vol.2 1844, in French, GB
St. Thomas, pp.211-215 in Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Guide to the Madeiras, Azores, British and foreign West Indies ..., 1844, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Danish National Archives; on archivalia on Danish West Indies
Museum Directory : United States Virgin Islands, from Caribbean Museums
Russ Rowlett, Lighthouses of the U.S. Virgin Islands
Royal Danish Navy Museum, Copenhagen
seven Arches Museum, St. Thomas
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Danish West Indies, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : from World Coin Gallery (Danish West Indies); Danish West Indies, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Steen's Residence, commented; click hobbies - paper money/coins/stamps - Danish areas/colonies
Stamps Danish West Indies Stamps 1855-1915, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Danish West Indies Postage Stamps, edited and commented by Torben Mehl Jorgensen
Steen's Residence, commented; click hobbies - paper money/coins/stamps - Danish areas/colonies

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliography General RHS Bibliography
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
on the Caribbean Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
A bibliography of the Virgin Islands of the United States. Formerly the Danish West Indies (1922), posted on Internet Archive
Library of Congress, A List of Books (with References to Periodicals) on the Danish West Indies (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Project Runeberg (Scandinavian)
on the Caribbean Digital Library of the Caribbean
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On the Caribbean
General Accounts Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1992) London : Penguin 1994 [G]
Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Kenneth R. Farr, Historical Dictionary of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Metuchen NJ. : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Yearbooks Article Denmark - Colonies, in : Statesman's Year Book 1878, pp.52-53 (data on 1877) [G]