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Dominican Republic Cuba
First posted on June 24th 2002, last revised on November 10th 2010







The island of Hispaniola was "discovered" by Cristpher Columbus in 1492, the site of Isabella, the first European settlement in the Caribbean. Conquered and settled by the Spanish. In 1659 Spain ceded the western parts of the Island to France. The French part of the island, Saint-Domingue, became the site of a flourishing sugar and coffee plantation economy based on slave labour. From 1791 to 1804 Haiti (Hayti) saw a slave revolt which caused the white plantation owners to flee the island. Independence was proclaimed in 1804 (recognized by France in 1838). From 1821 to 1844 Haiti occupied the eastern part of the island (the present-day Dominican Republic). From 1915 to 1934 under U.S. occupation.

Haiti 1945-1986 . Haiti 1915-1945 . Haiti 1859-1918 . Haiti 1804-1859
Revolution in Haiti, 1789-1804 . St. Domingue 1659-1789

For earlier history, see under Hispaniola

Students' Papers : Na, Kunho, A World History of Synchretic Religions, 1450-1750 (2011)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Haiti, from Wikipedia; Haiti, from Wikipedia French edition; Haiti, from Speedy Look
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Haiti
Haïti, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Historical, on the Windies A. Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main, 1860, GB
Historical, on Haiti F. Barbe-Marbois, Reflexions sur la colonie de Saint-Domingue, 1796, in French, GB
S. J. Ducoeurjoly, Manuel des habitans de Saint-Domingue, vol.1, 1803, vol.2, 1803, in French, GB
J. Abeille, Essai sur nos colonies et sur le retablissement de Saint Domingue, 1805, in French, GB
Dr. de Bercy, De Saint-Domingue: de ses guerres, de ses revolutions, de ses ressources, et des moyens a prendrepour y retablir la paix et l'industrie, 1814, in French, GB
A. Rouzeau, De la Republique d'Ha?i: ile de Saint-Domingue, 1818, in French, GB
J. Franklin, The present state of Hayti (Saint Domingo), 1828, GB
B. Ardouin, Geographie de l'ile d'Haiti, 1832, in French, GB
J. Candler, Brief notices of Hayti, 1842, GB
R. Lepellier de St.Remy, Saint-Domingue: Etude et solution nouvelle de la question haitienne, vol.1, 1846, vol.2, 1846, in French, GB
C.M.B., A glimpse of Hayti and her negro chief, 1850, GB
Santo Domingo, pp.61-97 in Th.E.Lynch, The Wonders of the West Indies, 1856, GB
J. Redpath, Guide to Hayti, 1861, GB
International Bureau of the American Republics : Haiti, a Handbook, 1892, IA
J.W. Johnson, Self-determining Haiti, 1920, IA, GB
Richard H.S. Crossman, Haiti, The Black Republic, 1960, IA
Links General from LANIC; from Latin American Studies; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Haiti, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Haiti, from Wikipedia French edition
on History Category : History of Haiti, Categorie : Histoire d'Haiti, from Wikipedia
Links to the History of Haiti, from Haiti Central, from Virtual Library History; from Bob Corbett
Organizations Association of Caribbean Historians
Toussaint Louverture Historical Society
Association de Genealogie d'Haiti
Haitian Numismatic Society; Haiti Philatelic Society
Caribbean Contacts, from Caribbean Database of Documentary Heritage
Historical Dictionaries Haiti Reference, in French
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News; from Ambassade d'Haiti
Bob Corbett's Haiti Page, many chapters, documents
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from Speedy Look
M. Goodman, History of Haiti (c.2000), posted on Internet Archive
Historical, of the Caribbean Th. Coke, A history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1808, vol.2, 1810, vol.3, 1811, GB
Th. Southey, Chronological history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1827, vol.3, 1827, GB (out of 3 vols.)
C.E. Meinecke, Versuch einer Geschichte der europaischen Colonien in Westindien, 1831, in German, GB
E. Regnault et al., Histoire des Antilles et des colonies françaises, espagnoles, anglaises .., 1849, in French, GB
Historical, of Haiti P.F.X. de Charlevoix, Histoire de l'Isle Espagnole ou de S. Domingue, 1730, in French, GB
M. Rainsford, An historical account of the black empire of Hayti, 1805, GB
C. de Gastine, Histoire de la republique d'Haïti ou Saint-Domingue, 1817, in French, GB
J. Barskett, History of the island of St. Domingo, 1818, GB
M.P. Justin, Histoire politique et statistique de l'?e d'Hayti, Saint-Domingue, 1826, in French, GB
F. Philippi, Geschichte des freistaats von St. Domingo, (Hayti), vol.1, 1826, vol.2, 1826, in German, GB
S.L., A brief history of the island of Hayti, 1831, GB
Th. Madiou, Histoire d'Haiti (1847) in French, IA, GB
J.B. Bird, The black man; or, Haytian independence, 1869, GB
H.P. Davis, Black Democracy The Story of Haiti (1928), posted on Internet Archive
J.N. Leger, Haiti, her history and her detractors (1907), posted on Internet Archive
W. Bellegarde, Manuel d'histoire d'Haiti : conforme aux programmes officiels a l'usage des ecoles de la republique (1906) in French, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Haiti 1986-1994. Who will rid me of this man ?, from William Blum, Killing Hope, posted by Third World Traveller
Articles : Saint-Domingue, U.S. Occupation of Haiti 1915-1934, Haitian Revolution 1791-1804, 2004 Haitian Rebellion, from Wikipedia
P. de Lacroix, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la revolution de Saint-Domingue, vol.1, 1819, vol.2, 1819, in French, GB
L.J. Clausson, Precis historique de la revolution de Saint-Domingue, 1819, in French, GB
P.V. Vastey, An essay on the causes of the revolution and civil wars of Hayti, 1823, GB
E. Nau, E. Nau, D. Viard, Histoire des caciques d'Haiti (1894) in French, IA
The seizure of Haiti by the United States; a report on the military occupation of the Republic of Haiti and the history of the treaty forced upon her (1922), IA
J.Dr. Kuser, Haiti; its dawn of progress after years in a night of revolution (1921), IA
A.M.Th. Metral, Histoire de l'expedition des Français ?Saint-Domingue sous le consultat de Napoleon Bonaparte, 1805, in French, GB
A.J.B.B. de Cresse, Histoire de la catastrophe de Saint-Domingue, 1824, in French, GB
F.M. Faulcon, Nouveau syst?e de colonisation pour Saint-Domingue, 1817, in French, GB
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Haiti; Governments on the WWW : Haiti
Category : Politics of Haiti, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Politique d'Haiti, from Wikipedia French edition
General Politics of Haiti, from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia French edition
Foreign Relations Wikipedia : Caribbean Community (member since 2002), Wikipedia : Organization of American States (member since 1948); United Nations (since 1945)
Association of Caribbean States (since 1994)
Article : Foreign Relations of Haiti
J.B.G. Wallez, Precis historique des negociations entre la France et Saint-Domingue , 1826, in French, GB
Relations Politiques, from Ambassade de France en Haiti
W.W. Arthus, Retablissement des relations culturelles et economiques franco-haitiennes apres la Seconde Guerre mondiale, 2008, in French
Article : United States - Haiti Relations, from Wikipedia
R. Hill, Haiti and Spain : a Memorial, 1862, GB
Military Wars of Haiti, from Armed Conflict Events Data
Regiments of the British West Indies and Bermuda, by Frank Goodwill
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Haiti, from ODM
History of US Military, CIA Involvement in Haiti, from Peace No War
American Occupation of Haiti 1915-1934, from Military History
Jean-Philippe Belleau, Chronological Index : Massacres perpetrated in the 20th Century in Haiti , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Ph.A. de Lattre, Campagnes des Français a Saint-Domingue, 1805, in French, GB
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 6 mai 1687: Promulgation du Code Noir a Saint-Domingue., 25 fevrier 1791 : Le mulatre Oge subit le supplice de la roue pour avoir cru a l'egalite (Haiti), 18 novembre 1801: Bonaparte entreprend d'aneantir a Saint-Domingue le gouvernement des Noirs (Haiti), 7 juin 1802: Toussaint Louverture arrete par traitrise (Haiti), 5 avril 1803: Rochambeau : "Vous devez leur donner des negres a manger"(Haiti), 7 avril 1803: Mort de Toussaint Louverture emprisonne au fort de Joux (Haiti), 17 avril 1825: La France reconnait Haiti, contre l'indemnisation des planteurs (Haiti)
Economy & Finances Article Economy of Haiti, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Haiti, from Wikipedia
Political and Economic History of Haiti, by Thayer Watkins
R. Perito, E. Hsyu, Haiti's Economic Challenge (2006), from USI Peace Briefings
W. Walton, Report on the mines known in the eastern division of Hayti, and the facilities working them, 1825, GB
J. Conder, Wages or the whip: An essay on the comparative cost and productiveness of free and slave labor, 1833, GB (Hayti used as an example)
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Haiti
Ethnography Category Languages of Haiti, from Wikipedia
Languages of Haiti (3), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Haiti
Exile Destinations : St. Domingue, from Acadian-Cajun Genealogy & History
L.D. Dewey, Correspondence relative to the emigration to Hayti: of the free people of colour, 1824, GB
Hayti, pp.20-25 in Report on colonization and emigration: made to the secretary of the interior, 1862, GB
Haïti, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Hayti, p.820 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Haiti, pp.2559-2576 in vol.4A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Haiti, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Haiti, from Wikipedia
Haiti, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Eglise Episcopale d'Haiti : Histoire
History of Regions Departments of Haiti, from www.statoids.com
Arrondissements of Haiti, from www.statoids.com
Local History List of Cities in Haiti, from Wikipedia
History of Port au Prince, of Gonaives, Cap Haitien, from Wikipedia
Institutions Haiti, from Airline History
Allen Morrison, The Tramways of Port-au-Prince, Haiti; Article Rail Transport in Haiti, from Wikipedia
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Haiti; search Lighthouse Depot for Haiti
Culture Haiti at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
History of Haitian Carnival, from Heritage Konpa
Biographies List of Haitians, from Wikipedia
J.R. Beard, The life of Toussaint L'Ouverture: the negro patriot of Hayti , 1853, GB
Haiti Reference; scroll down for 6400 Personalites de l'histoire
Others Disaster History by Country : Haiti, from Relief Web; History with Tropical Systems : Cap Haitien, Jacmel, Mole St. Nicolas, Port au Prince, Port Salut, from Hurricane City
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors US Ambassadors to Haiti, from NNDB; Heads of Post : Haiti, from MOFA, Canada
List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the Dominican Republic and Haiti, from Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls Political Graveyard : Haiti, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls
Lists of Bishops Roman Catholic Archdiocese Port-au-Prince, Roman Catholic Diocese of Les Cayes, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cap Haïtien from Wikipedia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos, since 2000; from IFES Election Guide, since 2000
IPU Election Archive : Chamber of Deputees, 1973, 1979, 1984, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2006; Senate 1990, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2009
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Index alphabetique et chronologique du journal officiel de la R?ublique d'Haiti "Le moniteur" fonde en 1844 : 1900-1944 1945, IA
Hemerotheques Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library
ICON, International Coalition on Newspapers, Newspaper Digitization Projects, scroll down for Haiti
Specific Newspapers Gazette de Saint-Domingue, vol.1 1791, vol.2 1791, IA
Selected Articles History of Haiti, from World History Archives
Life Magazine 1936-1972, GB, search for Haiti
Newspapers Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Haiti, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Search INA for Haiti
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
John Henley/The Guardian, The History of Haiti in Pictures, 2011
Cartes Haiti, from Antanlontan Antilles
Accidental Collections Webshots : Haiti in 1916, 1934, 1944
Universal Collections
Items on Haiti
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : CoHata d'Haiti
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Haiti; several 1,000 items
Search National Archives (U.S.) (210 items), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv (9 items) for Haiti
Archives Nationales d'Outre Mer
Inventaris van het archief van het Consulaat-Generaal te Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 1939-1945, Nationaal Archief, NL
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Haiti, from ILO, 23 docs. since 1919
GlobaLex : Haiti
1805 Constitution, 1807 Constitution, 1811 Constitution, at Webster
The rural code of Haiti, 1827, in French and English, GB
Treaties Category : Treaties of Haiti, from Wikipedia
EU Treaties Office Database : Haiti
ICRC Treaties : Haiti
United Nations Treaty Database; OAS Treaties and Agreements
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, Treaties; Canada Treaty Information
European Commission Treaties Office
UK Treaties Online; Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NL) Treaty Database; Switzerland Database of International Treaties; Irish Treaty Series
Australian Treaty Database
Israel MOFA Bilateral Agreements
Search United States treaties and other international agreements (34 vols. 1950-1981, GB) for Haiti
Haiti, pp.614-860 in vol.8 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations Haiti, pp.399-403 in 1857, GB
Chamber of Commerce Reports Boston Board of Trade, Annual Report : Trade with Hayti, 1857, p.94, 1858, p.87, GB
Document Collections Truth Commissions : Haiti, from United States Institute of Peace
H. Christoph, Haytian Papers, a collection of the very interesting proclamations 1816, GB
Haiti Reference; scroll down for 6500 Documents Historiques
Search : Wikisource, French edition, English edition, for Haiti
Search Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States for Haiti
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Haiti, Port au Prince, Cap Haitien, from EB 1911
Article Haiti, Port au Prince, Gonaives, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Haiti, Cayes, Cap Haitien, Archdiocese of Port-au-Prince, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Hayti, Hispaniola or Sto Domingo, pp.152-154 in W. Chapin, The Missionary Gazetteer, 1825, GB
Economic French America : St. Domingo, pp.694-695 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
French America : S. Domingo, pp.694-695 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
St. Domingo, or Hayti, p.438 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The universal cambist, and commercial instructor, 1811, GB
Hispaniola, or Hayti, pp.616-619 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest, 1837, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Hayti, vol.4 1844 pp.91-92, posted by DTBSWS
Hayti, Haiti, San Domingo or Hispaniola, pp.957-964 in vol.1 of I. Smith Homans, A cyclopedia of commerce and commercial navigation, 1858, GB
Geographical French Santo Domingo, pp.77-82 in The Present State of the West Indies, 1778, GB
French West Indies : Hispaniola or Santo Domingo, pp.839-842 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1805, GB
S. Domingo, French Settlement, p.422 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
Hayti, pp.301-303 in H. Murray et al., The encyclopaedia of geography, 1839, GB
Haiti, pp.54-56 in G. Long, America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
Hayti, pp.191-192 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Republique d'Haiti, pp.457-460 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Of the French Islands in the Atlantic Ocean : Hispaniola, p.609 in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
French West Indies : Hispaniola, pp.320-326 in vol.4 of W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, commercial and philosophical view of the American United States and the European Settlements in America and the West Indies, 1795, GB
Hayti, pp.121-125 in S. Whelpley et al., A compend of history from the earliest times, 1826, GB
Der Freistaat Hayti, pp.317-318 in vol.3 of J.N. Uschold, Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Geschichte f? Gymnasien und höhere Schulen, 1833, in German, GB
Hayti, pp.464-466 in Peter Parley's Universal history, 1837, GB
Hayti, pp.484-486 in H. White, Elements of universal history, on a new and systematic plan, 1844, GB
Hayti, or St. Domingo, pp.433-437 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Hayti, pp.1188-1190 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, 1866, GB
Biographical Josephine Dessalines, the Empress of Hayti, pp.96-133 in L.G. Stewarton, The female revolutionary Plutarch, 1803, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Hayti, pp.63-68 in Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Guide to the Madeiras, Azores, British and foreign West Indies ..., 1844, GB
Residence Memoirs Ch. MacKenzie, Notes on Haiti: made during a residence in that republic, vol.1, 1830, vol.2, 1830, GB
F.W.N. Bayley, Four years' residence in the West Indies, 1830, GB
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Archives Nationales d'Haiti
Museum Directory : Haiti, from Caribbean Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Haiti, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Numismondo
Collections of Coins : Haiti, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Haiti 1881-1917, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer; Haiti Postage Stamp Gallery, from Numismondo

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Haiti survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Haiti, from The Online Books Page
Haiti Reference; scroll down for 6700 Histoire : References bibliographiques
L. Delenne, Y. Lassard, Bibliographie sur l'histoire d'Haiti, principalement depuis 1953
E.W. Vedrine, F. Palli, Haitian Biblkiography
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Haiti and Santo Domingo Bibliography, from Navy Department Library
Bibliography of Works on the Haitian Revolution, by Bob Corbett 2001
Ritimo, Haiti Un pays en quete de stabilite, Bibliographie
serial publications
general bibliographies
Haiti entries
Annotated Bibliography for the English Speaking Caribbean (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, The British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (In order of importance.), from Florida Coastal School of Law
National Archives (UK) : Caribbean Histories Revealed : Bibliography
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
on the Caribbean Digital Library of the Caribbean
Online Journals On the Caribbean
General Accounts Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1992) London : Penguin 1994 [G]
Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
Specific Topics Haiti, pp.288-300 in : Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
Historical Dictionaries Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbooks Article : Haiti, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1988 pp.503-504, 614, 1989 pp.503-504, 615, 1990 pp.519, 630 [G]
Article : Haiti, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1988-1989 pp.592-596, 1989-1990 pp.597-601, 1990-1991 pp.597-601, 1991-1992 pp.596-600, 1992-1993 pp.669-673, 1993-1994 pp.673-677, 1994-1995 pp.665-669, 1995-1996 pp.664-668, 1996-1997 pp.607-610, 1997-1998 pp.616-620, 1998-1999 pp.666-669, 2000 pp.769-773, 2001 pp.747-751, 2002 pp.778-782, 2003 pp.780-784, 2004 pp.783-787, 2005 pp.783-787 [G]
Entry : Travel Warning - Haiti, pp.499-500, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Republic of Haiti, Cabinet pp.45-46, Background Notes : Haiti, pp.650-657, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Haiti, pp.536-539 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Haiti, in : Americana Annual 1989 p.262, 1990 pp.258-259, 1992 p.266, 1993 p.266, 1994 pp.265-267 [G]