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Antigua Montserrat
First posted on June 21st 2002, last revised on November 12th 2010







Discovered in 1493. English settlers arrived in 1623, French settlers in 1624; the island was split in an English and French half until France ceded its share to Britain in 1713. Part of the Leeward Islands Caribee Government 1671-1816. From 1816 to 1833 St. Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands formed a colony. 1833-1871 Leeward Islands Caribee Government restored; 1871-1956 Federated Colony of the Leeward Islands, 1956-1960 Territory of the Leeward Islands, 1960-1980 St.Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla associated state with the UK, 1980-1983 St;Kitts-Nevis same status, since 1983 independent

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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from Pax Gaea
Article : Saint Kitts and Nevis, from Wikipedia
Saint-Christophe-et-Nieves, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Historical, on the Windies A. Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main, 1860, GB
Historical, on St. Kitts Nevis and Saint Christopher, pp.290-293 in Th.E. Lynch, The Wonders of the West Indies, 1856, GB
Links General from LANIC; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Bahamas, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Saint Kitts and Nevis, from Wikipedia
Organizations Association of Caribbean Historians
Societe d'histoire de la Guadeloupe
Caribbean Contacts, from Caribbean Database of Documentary Heritage
Nevis Historical & Conservation Society
St. Christopher National Trust
St. Christopher Heritage Society
British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
Historical, of the Caribbean Th. Coke, A history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1808, vol.2, 1810, vol.3, 1811, GB
Th. Southey, Chronological history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1827, GB (out of 3 vols.)
C.E. Meinecke, Versuch einer Geschichte der europaischen Colonien in Westindien, 1831, in German, GB
E. Regnault et al., Histoire des Antilles et des colonies françaises, espagnoles, anglaises .., 1849, in French, GB
Historical, of St. Kitts St. Christopher's or St. Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, Tortola etc., pp.367-384 in R.M. Martin, History of the British Colonies : Possessions in the West Indies, 1834, GB
St. Christopher's, pp.454-467, Nevis pp.468-472 in vol.1 of B. Edwards, The history, civil and commercial, of the British West Indies, 1819, GB
Specific Periods F.G. Spurdle, Early West Indian government; showing the progress of government in Barbados, Jamaica, and the Leeward Islands, 1600-1783 (n.d.), posted on Internet Archive
Ch.Str.S. Higham, The development of the Leeward Islands under the Restoration, 1660-1688; a study of the foundations of the old colonial system (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Politics Category : Politics of Saint Kitts and Nevis, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Web : Saint Kitts and Nevis; Governments on the WWW : Saint Kitts and Nevis
Foreign Policy Wikipedia : Caribbean Community (member since 1974), Wikipedia : Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (founding member 1981); Wikipedia : Organization of American States (member since 1984); United Nations (since 1983)
Association of Caribbean States (since 1994)
Article : Foreign Relations of St. Kitts and Nevis
Military Category : Military of Saint Kitts and Nevis, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of St. Christopher & Nevis, from ODM
Regiments of the British West Indies and Bermuda, by Frank Goodwill
Economy & Finances Entry St. Kitts and Nevis, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Article Economy of Saint Kitts and Nevia, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of Saint Kitts and Nevis, from Wikipedia
St. Kitts & Nevis, from Ministry of Rum
Social History Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Saint Kitts and Nevis
J. Stephen, The slavery of the British West India colonies delineated, vol.1, 1824, vol.2, 1830, GB
Ethnography Languages of St. Kitts & Nevis (2), from Ethnologue
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : St. Kitts and Nevis
Saint-Christophe-et-Nieves, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - St. Kitts, from Kirken i Norge
M. Arbell, The Sefardim on the Island of Nevis
St. Kitts, pp.373-379 in J.B. Holmes, Historical sketches of the missions of the United Brethren, 1818, GB
Local History
Institutions St. Kitts & Nevis, from Airline History
Structurae : Saint Kitts & Nevis
Culture Saint Kitts and Nevis at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies Lists of Eastern Caribbean People, scroll down for Saint Kitts and Nevis
Others Disaster History by Country : Saint Kits & Nevis, from Relief Web
E. Wood, An account of the pirates executed at St. Christopher's, in the West Indies, 1830, GB

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Article : United States Ambassador to St. Kitts and Nevis, from Wikipedia; Heads of Post : St. Kitts and Nevis, from MOFA, Canada
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : St. Kitts and Nevis, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Article : Roman Catholic Diocese of Basse-Terre, from Wikipedia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos, since 1995; from IFES Election Guide, since 1998
IPU Election Archive : National Assembly, 1984, 1989, 1993, 1995, 2000, 2004
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library
Selected Articles History of St. Kitts & Nevis, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Saint Kitts and Nevis, from ABYZ; from World Newspapers (links)
Newsreels Search INA for Haiti
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Cartes St.Kitts-Nevis, from Antanlontan Antilles
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on St. Kitts
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Guadeloupe
Archives Nationales d'Outre Mer
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries, A Guide to the Letterbook for the Simon Plantation, St. Kitts (1765-1772)
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by St. Kitts Nevis, from ILO, 8 docs. since 1996
Nevis pp.150-158, St. Christopher and Anguilla, pp.159-168 in Ch. Clark, A summary of colonial law, the practice of the Court of Appeals from the Plantations and of the laws and their administration in all the colonies, 1834, GB
St. Christopher, pp.467-491, Nevis pp.493-518 in J.H. Howard, The laws of the British colonies, 1827, GB
The statutes of the islands of Saint Christopher and Anguilla, 1857, GB
Treaties United Nations Treaty Database; OAS Treaties and Agreements
U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, Treaties; Canada Treaty Information
European Commission Treaties Office
UK Treaties Online; Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NL) Treaty Database; Switzerland Database of International Treaties; Irish Treaty Series
Australian Treaty Database
Israel MOFA Bilateral Agreements
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations St. Christopher, pp.764-768 in 1857, GB
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections St. Kitts & Nevis, from Caribbean Register of Documentary Heritage
Socviety of Genealogists : West Indies, scroll down for Nevis, St. Kitts
Search : Wikisource, English edition
Overview over Historical Documents kept on St. Kitts, from St. Kitts and Nevis History Page
Monumental Inscriptions, from Jamaican Family Search Genealogical Research Library, scroll down for St. Christopher
St. Kitts Cemetery Records, from interment.net
Third Report of the Commissioner of Inquiry into the Administration of Civil and Criminal Justice in the West Indies : Antigua. Montserrat. Nevis. St. Christopher and the Virgin Islands. General Conclusions. October 5th 1826, pp.1-284 in West Indies, Two Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry ... 1827, GB
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Nevis, Leeward Islands, from EB 1911
Article Nevis, Saint Kitts, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Guadeloupe, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
St. Christopher, pp.302-303, Nevis p.245 in W. Chapin, The missionary gazetteer, 1825, GB
Economic St. Christopher, Nevis, p.567 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Tortola, the Saints, Barbuda, Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica etc., p.362 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
St. Christopher p.306 in vol.1 of I.S. Homans, A cyclopedia of commerce and commercial navigation, 1859, GB
Geographical British West Indies : St. Christopher's, p.830 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1805, GB
St. Christophers pp.672-674, Nevis p.674 in vol.4 of J. Adolphus, The political state of the British Empire, 1818, GB
St. Christopher's p.425 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
Nevis, pp.39-40, St. Christyopher pp.40-42 in G. Long, America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
Historical Of the Islands of Antego, St. Christopher's, Nevis and Montserrat, pp.591- in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
St. Christopher, Nevis, Montserrat and Antigua, pp.506-511 in J.H. Wynne, A general history of the British empire in America, 1770, GB
St. Christophe pp.61-67, L'Isle de Nevis, ou Nieves, pp.81-83 in vol.22 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persans, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1771, in French, GB
St. Christopher's, pp.249-252, Nevis pp.279-281 in vol.4 of W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, commercial, and philosophical view of the American United States and of the European Settlements in America and the West Indies, 1795, GB
St. Christopher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat and the Virgin Islands, pp.351-358 in W.F. Mavor, The history of the discovery and settlement: to the present time, of North and South America and the West Indies, 1804, GB
St. Christopher's, or St. Kitt's, p.439, Nevis p.439 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
St. Christopher, p.1190 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, 1866, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues J. Sturge, Th. Harvey, The West Indies in 1837: Being the Journal of a Visit to Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica .. (1838), posted on Internet Archive
Nevis, pp.196-200, St. Christopher pp.201-206 in Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Guide to the Madeiras, Azores, British and foreign West Indies ..., 1844, GB
Residence Memoirs F.W.N. Bayley, Four years' residence in the West Indies, 1830, GB
H.N. Coleridge, Six Months' Residence in the West Indies in 1825, 3rd ed. 1832, GB
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Museum Directory : St. Kitts & Nevis, from Caribbean Museums
Nevis Library and Archives
Alexander Hamilton Museum, Nevis
St. Christopher National Museum
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, posted by St. Kitts Tourism
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of East Caribbean States, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Saint Kitts Stamps, Nevis Stamps from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Nevis Stamps 1861-1880, St. Kitts 1870-1920, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on St. Kitts-Nevis survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies C. Cassell, St. Kitts and Nevis Bibliography 1990 - 2000: a preliminary annotated list
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
St. Kitts-Nevis entries
Annotated Bibliography for the English Speaking Caribbean (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, The British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (In order of importance.), from Florida Coastal School of Law
National Archives (UK) : Caribbean Histories Revealed : Bibliography
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
on the Caribbean Digital Library of the Caribbean
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On the Caribbean
General Accounts Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1992) London : Penguin 1994 [G]
Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
W.H. Siebert, The Legacy of the American Revolution to the British West Indies and Bahamas (1913), posted on Internet Archive
Bryan Edwards, The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies, Vol.1-5 (London 1819) NY : AMS Press 1966; St. Christopher Vol.1 pp.454-468
Gad Heuman, The British West Indies, pp.470-493 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Hilary McD. Beckles, Th Hub of Empire : The Caribbean and Britain in the Seventeenth Century, pp.218-240, in : Nicholas Canny (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.I : TheOrigins of Empire, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries
Yearbooks Article : West Indies, British, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1945 pp.760-761, 1946 p.823-824 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1947 p.455, 1948 p.437, 1949 pp.388-389, 1950 p. 411, 1952 pp.420-421, 1953 pp.416-417, 1954 p.421, 1955 p.464, 1956 pp.401-402, 1957 pp.463-464, 1958 p.403, 1959 pp.744-746, 1960 pp.744-746, 1961 pp.745-747, 1962 pp.734-736, 1963 pp.515-516 [G]
Article : Colonies and Dependent Territories, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964 pp.265-268 [G]
Article : Colonies and Other Dependencies : Leeward Islands, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1965 p.253, 1966 p.204 [G]
Article : Colonies and Other Dependencies : St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1968 p.216 [G]
Article : Dependent States : St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969 pp.273, 276, 278, 1970 p.278, 1971 pp.266-268, 1972 pp.238-239, 244, 1973 pp.229-230, 236, 1974 pp.246-247, 252, 1975 pp.230-231, 1976 pp.247-248, 253, 1977 pp.246-248, 253, 1978 p.306 [G]
Article : Dependent States : St. Kitts-Nevis, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1979 pp.306-307 , 1980 pp.300-301, 304-305, 1981 pp.301, 304-306, 1982 pp.298-301 [G]
Article : West Indies : Leeward Islands : St. Christopher and Nevis, in : Statesman's Year Book 1910 p.268, 1919 p.332, 1924 pp.332-333, 1925 pp.336-337, 1926 p.336, 1928 p.334, 1929 p.339, 1932 pp.341-342, 1937 p.366, 1943 p.285 [G]
Article : Leeward and Windward Islands : St.Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 p.168 (data of 1969-1970) [G]
Article : Leeward and Windward Islands : St.Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1975-1976 pp.512-513 (data of 1974-1975) [G]
Article : West Indies : St. Christopher (Kitts)-Nevis-Anguilla, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1978-1979 pp.1594-1595, 1980-1981 pp.1597-1599 [G]
Article : St. Christopher (Kitts)-Nevis, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1983-1984 pp.1025-1027 [G]
Gad Heuman, The British West Indies, pp.470-493 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Article : St. Kitts-Nevis and Anguilla, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 p.144, 2nd ed. 1978 p.144 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands - St. Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.496-497, 1928 p.451-452, 1930 pp.440-441, 1931 pp.441-442, 1932 pp.408-409, 1933 p.432, 1934 p.334, 1935 p.401, 1936 pp.403-404, 1937 p.408, 1943 p.426, 1944 pp.395-396 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands - St. Kitts-Nevis, in : Americana Annual 1945 pp.427-428, 1946 pp.445-446, 1947 pp.408-409 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands - St. Kitts-Nevis and Anguilla, in : Americana Annual 1957 p.453 [G]
Article : West Indies Federation - Leeward Islands - St. Kitts-Nevis and Anguilla, in : Americana Annual 1962 pp.827-830, 1963 pp.736-738 [G]
Article : Leeward Islands - St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, in : Americana Annual 1964 pp.388-389 [G]
Article Dependent States : St. Kitts-Nevis, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1983, p.298 (on events in 1982) [G]
Article St. Christopher and Nevis, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1984, p.609, 1985, pp.593, 768, 1986, pp.586, 767, 1988, pp.507-508, 687 [G]
Article Saint Kitts & Nevis, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1989, pp.509, 687 (on events in 1988) [G]
Article Saint Kitts and Nevis, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1990, pp.525, 703 (on events in 1989) [G]
Article : St. Christopher (Kitts) & Nevis, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1984-1985 pp.1022-1023, 1985-1986 pp.1024-1025, 1987-1988 pp.1028-1029, 1988-1989 pp.1031-1033, 1989-1990 pp.1043-1045, 1990-1991 pp.1044-1046, 1991-1992 pp.1044-1046 [G]
Article : St. Kitts & Nevis, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.1134-1136, 1993-1994 pp.1132-1134, 1994-1995 pp.1132-1134, 1995-1996 pp.1124-1126, 1996-1997 pp.1100-1102, 1997-1998 pp.1103-1105, 1998-1999 pp.1198-1201, 2000 pp.1342-1345, 2001 pp.1305-1308, 2002 pp.1359-1362, 2003 pp.1358-1361, 2004 pp.1363-1366, 2005 pp.1373-1376 [G]
Article : St. Kitts and Nevis, in : The World in Figures 4th ed. 1984 p.144 [G]
Entry : Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Cabinet pp.84-85, Background Notes : St. Kitts and Nevis, pp.1089-1092, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : St. Kitts and Nevis, pp.862-865 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Entry : St. Christopher and Nevis, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.312-314 [G]