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Trinidad Barbados
First posted on June 17th 2002, last revised on November 14th 2010







Discovered in 1498. A Spanish attempt to settle failed in 1614. Settled by the Dutch 1628-1632, by Courlanders in 1637; English attempts to settle failed in 1640-1647. In 1659 the the W.I.C. annexed the part of the island held by Courland. The Dutch surrendered to pirates in 1666, but in 1667 W..I.C. rule was restored. In 1672 the island was ceded to England, restored to the W.I.C. in 1674. In 1677 after a damaging French attack the W.I.C. abandoned Tobago. In 1678 the Dutch Republic ceded Tobago to France; in 1814 France ceded the island to Britain. When the sugar plantation economy saw a decline in the 1880es, the colony of Tobago experienced a budget deficit; in 1888 it was merged with Trinidad. Trinidad and Tobago were released into independence in 1962.

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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Article : Tobago, from Wikipedia
Article : Tobago, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Historical, on the Windies A. Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main, 1860, GB
Historical, on Tobago Tobago, pp.300-302 in Th.E.Lynch, The Wonders of the West Indies, 1856, GB
Links General Category : Tobago, from Wikipedia
on History The Atlantic World and the Dutch : Trinidad & Tobago, Tobago
Organizations Association of Caribbean Historians
Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen
Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV, Leiden)
Caribbean Historical Society
Caribbean Contacts, from Caribbean Database of Documentary Heritage
British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group
Historical Dictionaries Herman Daniel Benjamins, Joh. F. Snelleman, Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië (1914-1917), in Dutch, posted on DBNL
Timelines
Accounts of History Modern History of Tobago, from My Tobago
Article : Tobago : History, from Wikipedia
Historical, of the Caribbean Th. Coke, A history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1808, vol.2, 1810, vol.3, 1811, GB
Th. Southey, Chronological history of the West Indies, vol.1, 1827, GB (out of 3 vols.)
C.E. Meinecke, Versuch einer Geschichte der europaischen Colonien in Westindien, 1831, in German, GB
E. Regnault et al., Histoire des Antilles et des colonies françaises, espagnoles, anglaises .., 1849, in French, GB
Historical, of Tobago Tobago, pp.257-265 in vol.2 : Possessions in the West Indies, of R.M. Martin, History of the British Colonies, 2nd ed. 1838, GB
H.I. Woodcock, History of Tobago (1867), IA
E. Williams, History of the People of Trinidad & Tobago (1962), IA
Specific Periods Marco Ramerini, Dutch and Courlanders in Tobago. A History of the First Settlements, 1628-1677
A. Boomert, Archaeological-historical survey of Tobago, West Indies, pp.246-254 in Journal de la Societe des Americanistes, Persee
Politics
Military Regiments of the British West Indies and Bermuda, by Frank Goodwill
Tobago Forts, from Guide to Caribbean Vacations
Economy & Finances Victoria Institute of Trinidad and Tobago, Industrial Trinidad (1903), IA
A Statistical, Commercial and Political Description of Venezuela, Trinidad, Marguerita .. (1820), IA
Social History J. Stephen, The slavery of the British West India colonies delineated, vol.1, 1824, vol.2, 1830, GB
W.G. Sewell, The ordeal of free labor in the British West Indies, 1861, GB; on Tobago pp.90-94
Ethnography
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Trinidad & Tobago, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Trinidad and Tobago, from Wikipedia
The Failure of the Jewish Settlement on the Island of Tobago
Local History
Institutions
Culture
Biographies List of Tobagonians, from Wikipedia
Others Trinidad & Tobago, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Caribbean Newspaper Digital Library
Newspaper Collection, from National Archives of Trinidad & Tobago
Trinidad & Tobago Digital Library Newspaper Clippings Database
Modern Newspapers Trinidad & Tobago Government News
Newsreels British Pathe
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits The Atlantic World and the Dutch : Trinidad & Tobago, Tobago; guide to archival deposits for the period of Dutch rule
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL combined search engine for many archives; Archief.NL, Dutch language site providing links to individual archives
Het Netionaal Archief
Nationaal Archief van Curaçao
Search National Archives (UK) for Tobago
Search Janus for Tobago
Constitutions, Laws Tobago, pp.225-235 in Charles Clark, A summary of colonial law, the practice of the Court of Appeals from the Plantations and of the Laws and their Administration of All the Colonies, 1834, GB
Tobago, pp.289-332 in vol.1 of J.H. Howard The laws of the British colonies, in the West Indies and other parts of America concerning Real and Personal Property and the Manumission of Slaves with a View of the Constitution of each Colony, 1827, GB
Treaties
Consular Reports
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Trinidad & Tobago, from Caribbean Register of Documentary Heritage
Search : Wikisource, English edition, Dutch edition
Trinidad & Tobago Digital Library : Historical Society Collection
Caribbean GenWeb Project, scroll down for Tobago
Historical Maps Search Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, Nederlandse Koloniaale Kaarten
Kaarten Johannes Vingboons, c.1665 : Tobago, from Beeldbank Nationaal Archief
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Tobago, from EB 1911
Articles Tobago, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Tobago, p.361 in W. Chapin, The Missionary Gazetteer, 1825, GB
Economic Tabago, pp.316-318 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Tobago, St. Vincent, Grenada etc., p.363 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Geographical Tobago, pp.60-61 in The Present State of the West Indies, 1778, GB
French West Indies : Tobago, p.843 in J. Morse, The American universal geography, 1805, GB
Tobago, pp.687-688 in vol.4 of J. Adolphus, The political state of the British Empire, 1818, GB
Tobago pp.427-428 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, GB
Tobago, pp.21-23 in G. Long, America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
Historical Of the Islands of St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Tobago, Barbuda and Anguilla, pp.590-591 in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
Grenada, Tobago, St. Vincent, Dominica, pp.511-522 in J.H. Wynne, A general history of the British empire in America, 1770, GB
Tabago, pp.135-136 in vol.22 of F.M. de Marsy et al., Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persans, des Turcs, des Russiens et des Americains, 1771, in French, GB
French West Indies : Tobago, pp.319-320 in vol.4 of W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, commercial, and philosophical view of the American United States and of the European Settlements in America and the West Indies, 1795, GB
Tobago, pp.446-447 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
Tobago, p.1190 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, 1866, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Tobago, pp.49-52 in Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., Guide to the Madeiras, Azores, British and foreign West Indies ..., 1844, GB
J.H. Stark, Stark's Guide-book and History of Trinidad: Including Tobago, Granada, and St. Vincent (1897), posted on Internet Archive
W. Young, A tour through the several islands of Barbadoes, St. Vincent, Antigua, Tobago, and Grenada, in the years 1791 & 1792 (1801) posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries National Archives of Trinidad & Tobago
Tobago Museum, from Tobagowi
Libraries in Trinidad and Tobago, from LibDex
Museum Directory : Trinidad & Tobago, from Caribbean Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes
Stamps Rare Tobago Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery, Tobago Stamps 1879-1898, with Trinidad & Tobago issues, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Postal History of Trinidad & Tobago, from Tradewinds

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliography General RHS Bibliography
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
Nederlandse Bibliografie Online (publications since 1974); Digitale Bibliografie Nederlandse Geschiedenis
on the Caribbean Bibliography : Trinidad & Tobago, from NNDB
Annotated Bibliography for the English Speaking Caribbean (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, The British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) (In order of importance.), from Florida Coastal School of Law
National Archives (UK) : Caribbean Histories Revealed : Bibliography
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
A Select Bibliography of Trinidad & Tobago, by P.E. Springer (1998)
RHS Bibliography, search for Tobago
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
P.E. Springer, A Select Bibliography on Trinidad & Tobago, 1998
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Koninklijke Bibliotheek - Digitization
Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren (DBNL)
on the Caribbean Digital Library of the Caribbean
Trinidad & Tobago Digital Library
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 1895-2000, Persee
On the Caribbean Nieuwe West Indische Gids 1919-2010
General Accounts Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1992) London : Penguin 1994 [G]
Steven Vertovec, Indian Indentured Migration to the Caribbean, pp.57-62 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Specific Topics Jewish Settlement in Tobago, pp.58-67 in : Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002 [G]
Historical Dictionaries
Yearbooks