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Literature on the History of West Africa
Gabon Nigeria
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 7th 2013

Precolonial History, to 1884 . The territory which was to become Kamerun/Cameroon/Cameroun during the Scramble for Africa was neither a political nor cultural unity before the Germans appeared. In the southern, coastal areas political units were rather small and the religion practised animistic. Further north the Muslim Sultanbate of Sokoto, with it's center in Northern Nigeria, extended into Cameroon (the province of Ademaua). It's dominant ethnic group were the Muslim Fulani; Islam was state religion, but they ruled over many animistic peoples.
The northernmost stretch of Cameroon, adjacent to Lake Chad, was part of the Kotoko which were conquered by the Empire of Bornu late in the 19th century and converted to Islam.
Protestant mission, by British, West Indian and American missionaries, began in 1845 at Victoria near Bimbia, in the coastal region. The chiefs of Duala offered to cede stretches along the coast to Britain as early as 1833; an offer which was repeated several times. The natives hoped the British would guarantee, and at the same time respect the Dualans' monopoly in the trade with the interior. The British, however, hesitated, fearing a protectorate over Cameroons would become a financial burden. When Britain, fearing French attempts for a colonial acquisition, acted, they were surprised by a German "coup".
In 1884, Gustav Nachtigal arrived, obtained treaties from local chiefs and proclaimed Kamerun (at that time only a coastal stretch of territory) a German colony. Germany had trading interests in the area, second only to the British.

German Colony, 1884-1917
ESTABLISHMENT . German explorer Gustav Nachtigal in 1884 obtained a treaty of chiefs from the coastal region asking for German protection, and a German protectorate was proclaimed the same year, which gained international recognition at the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885. Agreements fixing Cameroon's borders were signed with France in 1894, with Britain in 1906. Until 1891 the colony officially was referred to as Deutsch-Westafrika and consisted of two parts, Kamerun and Togoland; the Governor resided in Buea (Kamerun); in 1891, Togoland was made a separate colony. From 1896 to 1901 the colony was referred to as Deutsch-Nordwestafrika (German Northwest Africa).
In the early years the colony lacked funding and consequently developed slowly. The geography was a major obstacle - few, short stretches of navigable rivers; mountain ranges with deep valleys - the terrain made railway construction extremely difficult and thus made the development of many hinterland resources unprofitable. In addition, the native coastal population resisted attempts by the whites to penetrate into the interior, as they regarded the trade with the interior their monopoly.
The Germans established their seat of administration at Buea, on the slopes of Mount Kamerun, in plantation country. Duala, located less excentrally, often provided the place for council meetings.
At the head of the colony was the Governor, the first of whom was von Soden who arrived in 1885. In 1903 a Gouvernementsrat (Advisory Council) was established, consisting of planters, traders and missionaries - all whites.
In the various districts, the government was represented by the District Officials, on a lower level by Station Heads. These officials were responsible for administration and jurisdiction and even could impose the death penalty, which required the governor's countersignature.
ADMINISTRATION . The colonial administration respected, with certain limitations, traditional law as applied by the chieftains. The station heads or district officials functioned as a higher instance, if applied to, For whites, the basic court was the Bezirksgericht (District Court); the highest court in the country the Obergericht in Duala. For natives, the higher instance was the governor or a judge appointed by him.
A Polizeitruppe (police force) was established in 1891, recruited mainly abroad, most notably from Dahomeyans. A Schutztruppe (protective troops) was created in 1895.
RELIGION . Ecclesiastically, Kamerun was seceded from the Apostolic Vicariate of Gabon in 1890 and established as a separate Apostolic Prefecture, which in 1904 was elevated to an Apostolic Vicariat. Its area of responsibility, however, was limited to Kamerun's south; the north formed part of the Apostolic Vicariate of Sudan/Central Africa, from which it was separated and declared the Apostolic Prefecture of Adamaua in 1914.
ECONOMY . The most important export product was Natural Rubber, growing wild in the forest, collected mostly by natives who sold it to German traders; the government profitted by raising duties on exported rubber, the colony's major revenue. The Germans established a plantation economy (Cocoa, Bananas, Palm Oil, Tobacco). Demand for African labour was great; the natives unwilling to take upon themselves regular hard work. Labor shortage was a constant complaint of plantation owners and businessmen.
Almost every year the German government had to subsidize the colony in order to balance it's budget. Construction material for the railways, for administration buildings etc. had to be imported. The Germans did establish an infrastructure - they developed Duala into a city, built railroads, schools and hospitals. The colony's population in 1912 was 2,600,000.
TREATMENT OF THE NATIVES . The native peoples of the Cameroons were sceptical of the German colonial masters. The coastal population long had desired a protectorate, understanding it would guarantee peace amongst themselves and protect them against other foreign powers' pressure as well as against slave raids. On the other hand they were determined to preserve their trading monopoly with the interior; they were very sceptical of Germans attempting to penetrate into what they regarded their hinterland. Many were also unwilling to work on plantations, on the railway construction lines or in mines for longer periods of time.
In the early years, the British enjoyed a high reputation and some British traders succeeded in causing coastal villages to resist German rule. Later, German attempts to penetrate into the interior were repeatedly attacked; the station at Yaunde repeatedly was cut off from communication with the coast.
The colonial administration, attempting to teach the native population to focus more on agriculture, to make up for losses in trade, as well as to introduce civilisation (discourage polygamy, for example), had to proceed with patience. In the early years of the 20th century, the colony was pacified, civilian district officers had replaced military commanders almost everywhere. Armed resistance had ceased.
The policy as regards treatment of the natives differed from governor to governor. Acting governor Leist (-1895) was accused of cruelty; under him the Dahomeyan soldiers of the Polizeitruppe rebelled. Governor Seitz aimed at protecting the rights of the natives and integrating them in the lower levels of the administration.
EXPANSION 1911 . In 1911 in the Second Moroccan Crisis, Germany finally gave up it's claim for the Moroccan port of Agadir in exchange for a large stretch of territory in northern Gabon and Northern Moyen Congo, ceded by France (Germany also ceded a stretch of Cameroonese territory in the North, which extended far east). The newly acquired territory - 195,000 square km - was of limited value, most of it overgrown by the jungle. Germany had little time to either develop or exploit it.
In 1914, World War I broke out and the colony of Kamerun was surrounded by enemy territory - British Nigeria in the west, French Equatorial Africa in the east and south. Only Spanish Guinea and the Portuguese islands of Sao Tome and Principe were neutral neighbours. In 1916, the colony was invaded by British, Belgian and French troops, which established their respective military administrations; the lion's share fell to the French.

French/British Mandate, 1917-1960 . In 1916, Kamerun was occupied by British, Belgian and French troops. The British took two stretches of territory along the Nigerian border under military administration; the area, called Cameroons, was for decades treated as an annex to Nigeria.
The lions share of Cameroon was occupied by French troops. France reintegrated the territories ceded to Germany in 1911 and took the remainder, as Cameroun Colony, under military administration, in 1919 officially granted to France as a League of Nations Mandate.
French Cameroun became a part of French Equatorial Africa, the capital of which was Brazzaville. In 1922, the capital of Cameroun was moved from Duala to Yaounde.
The French extended the railway system, established more plantations, developed the colony's economy.
Reflecting the political reality, British Cameroons, as the Apostolic Prefecture of Buea, was separated from the Apostolic Vicariate of Cameroon. In 1931 the Apostolic Vicariate of Cameroun was renamed AV of Yaounde; the Apostolic Prefecture of Duala was split off. In 1932, Duala was elevated an Apostolic Vicariate, in 1934 the AP Adamawa was elevated an AV and rechristened Foumban; in 1939, Buea was elevated an AV.
In the early 1920es, Germans had repurchased some property in British Cameroons; in the 1930es, German interest groups lobbied for the return of Germany's ex-colonies, a matter which was diplomatically discussed during the Appeasement years. In 1938, in Cameroun the Jeucafra movement was founded, being vehemently opposed to the return of German rule.
With the outbreak of World War II, German property was confiscated. In 1940, the capital of French Cameroun was moved back from Yaounde to Douala; in 1946 again to Yaounde. The colony of French Cameroun soon recognized the Free French administration at Brazzaville. From 1940 to 1946, Cameroun was administrated by governors.
After World War II, Cameroun was given an assembly (1946), the African population the right to vote; French Equatorial Africa was represented in the French National Assembly. However, the political tendency favoured independence over integration. The status of the country was elevated from a colony to an overseas territory, the administration now laid in the hands of a high commissioner. In fact, the countries administration continued to be dominated by whites.
In 1948, the UPC (Union des populations du Cameroun) was founded; dissatisfied with the progress of democratization, it went underground in 1955 and took up armed struggle.
In 1957, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved. The country's assembly was given legislative powers; the office of prime minister was introduced, to be filled by Camerounians.
Cameroun declared independence in 1960, as did neighbouring British Nigeria. In British Cameroons, a plebiscite was held regarding the areas future (1961). The northern part voted for integration into Nigeria, the southern part for reintegration into Cameroun.
Ecclesiastically, in 1949 AP Doume was detached from AV Garoua; in 1953, Buea was elevated a bishopric, in 1955 Yaounde, Duala, Doume, Garoua followed, as did Foumban under the new name Nkongsamba.

Independence, 1960- . In 1960, Cameroun became an independent republic, and Ahmadou Ahidjo the country's first president. Government was dominated by the Union Camerounaise, which represented the Northerners; Southerners felt ill-represented and the country soon was in rebellion, which was put down with French military assistance.
Ahidjo transferred Cameroun into a One-Party-State. In 1962, a federal constitution was passed, which was replaced by a unified, centralized state in 1972. In the 1970es, oil was found, boosting the economy. In 1991/1992, transition to multiparty democracy took place.

Historical Atlas : Cameroon Page

Students' Paper : Chang, HyeJin, Environmental History of West Africa (2012)

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Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Cameroon, from ISS
Historical A. Reichenow, Die deutsche Kolonie Kamerun: Landesbeschaffenheit, Pflanzen- und Tierleben, Jahreszeiten ... 1884, IA
K. Hager, Kamerun. Land, Volk und Handel 1885, IA
The Cameroons District of West Africa, Science 14 1889, jstor
A. Seidel, Deutsch-Kamerun: Wie es ist und was es verspricht, historisch, geographisch, politisch ... 1906, IA
Comite de l'Afrique française, Les Colonies allemandes d'Afrique d'apres les rapports consulaires anglais 1916, Gallica
A.F. Calvert, The Cameroons, 1917, IA
Commissariat de la Republique Française au Cameroun, Guide de la Colonisation de Cameroun 1927, Gallica
Naval Intelligence Commission (UK), French Equatorial Africa & Cameroons, vol.1 1942, vol.2 1942, IA
Links General from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Cameroon, from Wikipedia
on History Virtual Library History of Cameroon
Category : History of Cameroon, British Cameroons, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary Deutsches Kolonial Lexikon 1920, click Recherche, K, Kamerun; has numerous other articles on the colony; site in German
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current from Wikipedia
'The World in Miniature': Cameroon in World History as seen through Documents, Film, Literature and Photographs, by Marc Gilbert
CamFaith, Histoire du Cameroun
Specific Periods History of Cameroon : the Colonial Period, 1916-1960, from Ambafrance
Cinquantenaire du Cameroun 1946 to present
Wikipedia French edition : Histoire precoloniale du Cameroun
Wikipedia French edition : Histoire coloniale du Cameroun
H.B.M.D. le Prince, Nguelemendouka et la colonisation allemande 2005
A. Lee et al., Comparing British and French Colonial Legacies: A Discontinuity Analysis of Cameroon n.d.
DADM : British/French Cameroon 1948-1961, Cameroon 1961-present
C.A. Njumbe, The United Nations and Britain in the Independence Process of the Trust Territory of British Southern Cameroons: politics of independence, assimilation and neo-nationalism in the Cameroons since 1946 2011
H.R. Rudin, Germans in the Cameroons, 1884-1914: a case study in modern imperialism 1938, IA
Historiography M. Chetima, Sources orales et contribution a l'histoire des peuples montagnards du Cameroun (Monts Mandara). Une expérience personnelle de terrain Strata 3 2011
M. Tchindjang et al., La cartographie linguistique, traceuse de l'histoire, des civilisations et des cultures: une application au Cameroun, n.d.
C. Walker-Said, Invisible Histories in Cycles of Revolutionary Resistance in Cameroon: The Politics of Remembering and Historicizing Catholic Activism, Subjecting History, n.d.
Politics Category : Politics of Cameroon, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Cameroon; For the Record : Cameroon, from UN Human Rights System
Governments on the WWW : Cameroon
Indirect Rule in German Northern Cameroon, in : German Images of Islam in West Africa, by Holger Weiss (scroll down); Islam in German Cameroon, scroll further down in the same file
German administration of the Bamenda District, from Mama for Story, review of publications by Chilver
S. Sindjoun, Elections et Politique au Cameroun: Concurrence Deloyale, Coalitions de stabilite Hegemonique et Politique d'Affection, African Journal of Political Science 1997
I. Mouiche, Chefferies traditionnelles, culture et developpement local au Cameroun, n.d.
E. Rouard de Card, Les mandats français sur le Togoland et le Cameroun, etude juridique, 1924, Gallica
Military Wars of Cameroon 1800-1999, from ACED
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 24 septembre 1945: Les colons tirent sur les grevistes (Cameroun), 3 septembre 1958: Ruben Um Nyobe, dirigeant de l'UPC, est abattu (Cameroun), 15 octobre 1960: Assassinat de Felix Moumie, chef de l'UPC (Cameroun), 1er fevrier 1962: Asphyxies dans un wagon entre Douala et Yaounde (Cameroun), 10 mars 1966: Ossende Afana, dirigeant de l'UPC, est tue par les forces de repression franco-camerounaises (Cameroun), 15 janvier 1971: Execution publique de Ernest Ouandie, leader de l'UPC (Cameroun)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Cameroon, 1950s, 1960s
Bakweri Resistance against German Colonial Rule; The German Expropriation Campaign, both from bakwerilands.org
Deployment of German Colonial Troops, 1914, from Miniatures.de, for Kamerun scroll down
B. Nitcheu, Campagne Militaire Fran&ccaise au Cameroun
La guerre du Cameroun 1948-1971
Gen. Aymerich, La conquete du Cameroun, 1er aout 1914-20 fevrier 1916, Collection des Memoirs, Etudes et Documents pour Servir a l'Histoire de la Guerre Mondiale 1933, Gallica
German Colonial Uniforms : German West Africa
Economy & Finances Entry Cameroon, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Cameroon
Article Economy of Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Coinage History of Cameroon, from African Coins and Tokens
Global Integrity : Cameroon 2007
P.R. Oyono, The Narratives of Capitalist Land Accumulation and Recognition in Coastal Cameroon, LDPI Working Paper 29, 2013
N.M. Penzer, Cotton in British West Africa, including Togoland and the Cameroons 1920, IA
E. Zimmermann, Neu-Kamerun, Reiseerlebnisse und wirtschaftspolitische Untersuchungen 1913, IA
K. Wilke, Die deutsche Banane : Wirtschafts- und Kulturgeschichte der Banane im Deutschen Reich 1900 - 1939, thesis Hannover 1939, DDB
Social History M.S. Ndangoh, The Impact of French and British Colonial Rule on the He System in Cameroon - from the Perspective of Students, thesis Aalborg 2011
H. DeKorne, The Builders of Identity: Education, Language, and the Elites of Cameroon, 1916-1961, thesis Wesleyan Univ. 2012
M. Adams, Colonial Policies and Women's Participation in Public Life: The Case of British Southern Cameroons, African Studies Quarterly 8/3 2006
M. Pelican, Die Arbeit der Mbororo-Frauen früher und heute: eine Studie zum Wandel der sozio-ökonomischen Situation semi-nomadischer Fulbe-Frauen in Nordwest Kamerun 2011, DDB
S. Utermark, "Schwarzer Untertan versus schwarzer Bruder". Bernhard Dernburgs Reformen in den Kolonien Deutsch-Ostafrika, Deutsch-Südwestafrika, Togo und Kamerun, thesis Kassel 2012
Ethnography Category Languages of Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Languages of Cameroon (279), from Ethnologue
Worldwide Refugee Information : Cameroon, from U.S. Committee for Refugees
Cameroon : Bamileke, Kirdi, Westerners, from Minorities at Risk
Art and Life in Africa : Cameroon
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Cameroon
Pallotinermissionar, An der Südküste Kameruns; Skizzen und Plaudereien aus dem Leben der Schwarzen. Von einem Pallottinermissionar 1914, IA
Article Bongo-Bagirmi Languages, Sara-Bagirmi Languages, from Wikipedia
The Bagirmi Language (Chad), The Fulfulde, Bagirmi Language (CAR), from The Linguist
The Bagirmi Fulani, from Jamtan
Society - Kanuri, from Ethnoatlas
Kanuri Language, from dbpedia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Cameroon, from Kirken i Norge
S.M. Nsotaka, History of the Church in Cameroon
History of Regions Modern Provinces of Cameroon, from www.statoids.com
Departments of Cameroon, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Federal Republic of Cameroon, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Ambazania or Ambazonia (formerly Southern British Cameroons), proclaimed independent in 1999; unrecognized
Article : Ambazonia, from Wikipedia
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Southern Cameroons Peoples Organization : Independent Republic of Ambazania, 2008-07-08
Colonial Era Article : British Cameroons, Wikipedia
K. Ritter, Neu-Kamerun, 1912, IA
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : German Crown-land of North-West Africa 1900-07-08, German Crown-land of Kamerun, 1908-07-08, 1913-07-08, British-French Occupied Cameroon, 1918-07-08, League of Nations Mandate of French Cameroon 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, United Nations Trust Territory of French Cameroon 1948-07-08, United Nations Trust Territory of the State of Cameroon : Autonomous Republic of Cameroon, 1958-07-08, Autonomous Province of British Cameroons, 1958-07-08
Precolonial Article : Adamawa Emirate, from Wikipedia
Article : Kingdom of Baguirmi, from Wikipedia
V. Paques, Origine et caracteres du pouvoir royal au Baguirmi, Journal de la Societe des Africanistes 1967 vol.37 Issue 37-2 pp.183-214, Persee
Article : Kingdom of Bamum, from Wikipedia
A.L. Nchare, Language, Cultural Forms and History: The Case of the Bamum Kingdom
Experience-Rich Archaeology : The Kingdom of Bum
Kanem-Bornu, from Kingdoms of the Medieval Sudan
A Short History of the Kanem-Bornu Empire, by Detlef Gronenborn
Spread of Islam in West Africa, by A. Rahman I. Doi, scroll down to Islam in Kanem-Bornu Empire A. Schultze, Das Sultanat Bornu mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Deutsch-Bornus 1910, IA
The Jihad in Adamawa and Bauchi, Chapter o of H.A.S. Johnson, The Fulani Empire of Sokoto (1967)
R.C. Henning, The Rise and the Fall of the Adamawa Emirate, from Africa Online
Local History List of Cities in Cameroon, from Wikipedia
History of Douala, of Yaounde, from Wikipedia
Institutions Institutions in Cameroon, from Contemporary African Database
Cameroon, from Airline History
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Kamerun, pp.41-47
Cultural History African Alphabets, by Saki Mafundikwa, on the Bamum syllabary and the Nsibidi alphabet (Cameroon)
P. Konings et al., The Anglophone Problem in Cameroon, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 35, 2 (1997), pp. 207-229
I. Osayimwese, Architecture and the Myth of Authenticity during the German Colonial Period, TDSR 24 2013, on the Kingdom of Bamum
Biographies List of Cameroonians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
G. Hawker, An Englishwoman's twenty-five years in tropical Africa: being the biography of Gwen Elen Lewis, missionary to the Cameroons and the Congo 1911, IA
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Others Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Sub-Saharan Africa

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Political Leaders, from ZPC
Regnal Chronologies : Central Africa, scroll down for Douala; North Africa, click Bagirmi, Kanem-Bornu
Lists of Ambassadors Chinese Ambassadors to Cameroon, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Institut National de la Statistique de Cameroun
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
La population du Cameroun occidental. Résultats de l'enquete demographique de 1964. vol.1 and vol.2 1964, Note de synthese, 1964, Epsilon
World Life Expectancy : Cameroon
Economic Statistics Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun, vol.1 : 1938-1945, 2012, vol.2 : 1946-1956, 2012, Epsilon
Le commerce extérieur du Cameroun français : année 1946, 2012, Epsilon
Statistiques du commerce exterieur du Cameroun, vol.1 : 1946-1949, 2012, vol.2 : 1950-1951-1952 2012, vol.3 : 1953-1954, 2012, vol.4 : 1955-1956-1957 2012, vol.5 : 1958 2012, Epsilon
Donnees essentielles de l'economie de la Republique federale du Cameroun. Comptes economiques : 1959, 1962-63, 1963-64 2012, Epsilon
Comptes nationaux du Cameroun : 1965-66, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 2012, Epsilon
Republique federale du Cameroun. Comptes economiques : 1951-1956-1957-1959, 2012, Epsilon
Election Results from Psephos, since 1997; from IFES Election Guide, since 2002; from African Elections Database
Search IPU Parline for "Cameroon"
Documents Document Surveys D.C. Dorward, Annual Departmental Reports relating to Nigeria and British Cameroons, 1887-1960 1979
Colonial Film : British Cameroons
Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Journal officiel des territoires occupes de l'ancien Cameroun , 1916-1936, Gallica
Deutsches Kolonialblatt 1890, 1891, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, IA; 1918, Univ. Frankfurt
Collections of Newspaper Articles The History of the Republic of Cameroon, from World History Archives
Specific Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Cameroon, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Agence economique des territoires africains sous mandat, Togo-Cameroun 1929-1934, Gallica
Yearbooks International; Cameroon entries UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Conditions of Trust Territories in West Africa, UN Yearbook 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, Conditions in Individual Trust Territories : Cameroons under British administration, Cameroons under French administration, UN Yearbook 1956, Conditions in Trust Territories : Cameroons under British administration, Cameroons under French administration,, UN Yearbook 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, Conditions in Trust Territories : Cameroons under British administration, UN Yearbook 1961, 1962
Staatskalender Deutscher Kolonialatlas mit Jahrbuch (German Colonial Atlas with Yearbook), Kamerun section, in English translation 1905 pp.9-11, 1906 pp.9-12, 1907 pp.10-13, 1908 pp.9-12, 1909 pp.13-17, 1910 pp.13-18, 1913 pp.18-23, 1914 pp.21-25, 1918 pp.14-16, posted on psm-data
Rapport annuel du Gouvernement français a l'Assemblee generale des Nations Unies sur l'administration du Cameroun 1921-1938, Gallica
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Der Bildbestand der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft in der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Bundesarchiv, The Digital Picture Archives, Berlin
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
Systematic Collections
Goethe-Institut : Schwarz auf Weiss, Kamerun in Bildern 1884-1915
Images of Colonial Africa : Amer. Presbyterian Mission, Cameroon, c.1900, 9 images, from Billy Graham Center Archives at Wheaton College, photos taken by Laura Neva Collins
German Colonial Uniforms : Scroll down for Cameroons
Accidental Collections Category : Historical Images of Cameroon, from Wikimedia Commons
Search V Like Vintage for Kamerun, Cameroon, Cameroun
Universal Collections
Items on Cameroon
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Postcards from Cameroon, by J.D. Niat
Airline Timetable Images : Cameroon
Uniforms of King Njoya of Bamum's Private Army 1904-09, German Colonial Uniforms
Archival Deposits Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
Basel Mission Archives
Laws Legislation de la guerre de 1914-1918 : Lois, decrets, arretes ministeriels et circulaires ministerielles vol.6 : Jan. 1917 - May 5 1917, Gallica
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Cameroon, from ILO, 49 docs. since 1960
Treaties The Kamerun Lease Contract, 1911, The American Journal of International Law 6 1912, IA
Convention Between Germany and France to Define Precisely the Boundary Lines Between the Kamerun and the French Congo 1911, The American Journal of International Law 6 1912, IA
Consular Reports
Budgets Budget du Cameroun : exercice, 1922, 1924-1926, 1929-1938, Gallica
Historiography Africanus (M.C. Cariston), The Prussian Lash in Africa: The Story of German Rule in Africa 1918, IA
Document Collections Cinquantenaire du Cameroun, scroll down for documents
Documents on the history of Kamerun, from psm-data
'The World in Miniature': Cameroon in World History as seen through Documents, Film, Literature and Photographs, by Marc Gilbert
Documents from Protokolle des Reichstags, facsimiles posted by Bayrische Staatsbibliothek
Sammlung von Aktenstücken betreffend die Unterstellung einiger an der Biafra Bai belegenen Küstenstriche unter den Schutz Seiner Majestaet des Kaisers (Collection of documents concerning placing a number of coastal stretches on Biafra Bai under the protection of His Imperial Majesty the Kaiser), 1884, click : 1871-1895, click : 1884-1887, click : Band 91 1885/1885 Anlagen 1-161, click Anlagen 40,41, pp.113-142, in German, Gothic font; the English translation is posted on psm-data
UK War Cabinet, January 1940-July 1941, British Cameroons, Hack the Record
Individual Documents Information by Country : Cameroon, from U.S. Committee for Refugees 1 report from 2000
Wilhelm von Puttkamer, Der gegenwärtige Stand der Eisenbahnbauten in unseren Kolonien,from : Süssenrotters Illustrierter Kolonial-Kalender 1912, posted on the web by Rado Jadu
Documents from Protokolle des Reichstags, facsimiles posted by Bayrische Staatsbibliothek
(2) Debatte ueber den mündlichen Bericht der Kommission fuer den Reichshaushaltsetat über Petitionen, betreffend die Deutschen Schutzgebiete in Südwestafrika resp. die Bekämpfung des Sklavenhandels (debate about the oral report by the budget commission on petitions regarding the German protectorates in Southwest Africa respectively combat of slavery), 1890, click : 1871-1895, click 1887-1890, click Band 126 : 1889/1890 Sitzungen 26-52, p.1221, in German, Gothic font, Kamerun not mentioned, but Westafrika
(3) Denkschrift ueber die Deutschen Schutzgebiete (Memorandum concerning the German protectorates), 1885, click : 1871-1894, click : 1884-1887, click : Band 98 Anlagen 1-112, click : Anlagen 43-44, pp.134-137 and Anlagen 45 p.138 contain the text, in German, Gothic font; on Kamerun and Togo pp.134-135
(4) Denkschrift betreffend das Schutzgebiet Kamerun (Memorandum concerning the protectorate of Kamerun), Dec. 9th 1893, click : 1871-1895, click : 1893-1895, click : Band 156 Anlagen 1-117, click : Anlage 105, pp.699-717
(5) Denkschrift betreffend Kamerun (Memorandum concerning Kamerun), Dec. 20th 1894, click : 1871-1895, click : 1893-1895, click : Band 162 Anlagen 1-171, click : Anlage 89, pp.416-426, text in German, Gothic font
Trusteeship Agreement for the Territory of the Cameroons under British Administration (n.d.), posted on Cameroon 50
Trusteeship Agreement for the Territory of the Cameroons under French Administration (n.d.), posted on Cameroon 50
Mandat Britannique sur le Cameroun, July 20 1922, posted on Cameroon 50
Mandat Français sur le Cameroun, July 20 1922, posted on Cameroon 50
Great Britain. Foreign Office, Correspondence relative to the alleged ill-treatment of German subjects captured in the Cameroons 1915, IA
Leo Africanus, The Kingdom of Borno (833), from African History Sourcebook
Combat pres du Lac Tchad (1901), from Modern History Sourcebook, in French
Denkschriften betreffend I. das ostafrikanische Schutzgebiet, II. Kamerun, III. das südwestafrikanische Schutzgebiet, IV. das Schutzgebiet der Marshall-Inseln 1894, Beilage zum Deutschen Kolonialblatt, DDB
Historical Maps responsible institutions Direction du Cadastre, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
Institut National de Cartographie (INC), National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : West Africa Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of West Africa
collections : Cameroon David Rumsey Map Collection : Cameroon
Cameroon Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Cameroon, Maps of the History of Cameroon, from Wikimedia Commons
West Africa, Modern
West Africa, Contemporary d'Anville, Carte de la Cote de Guinee, 1729, Gallica
H. Moll 1729 : West Africa, Urhobo Historical Society
Map of Africa 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. edition, 1890, from Perry Castaneda Library, Utexas, features Adamawa and Bornu as yet independent
Map of Africa 1892, from Gardiner's Atlas of English History
Westermann Schulatlas : German West Africa (1911/1922 borders), Wikimedia Commons
Imago Mundi, Carte de l'Afrique occidentale française, Vidal de la Blache c.1910
West Africa 1914, from Heritage History
Humtec, AOF c. 1930s
AOF 1936
Missions protestantes en A.O.F., 1950, Carte d'implantation des differentes societes de missions protestante, 1952, DEFAP
Carte des fuseaux horaires de l'Afrique occidentale française 1912, Gallica
Carte zootechnique de l'Afrique occidentale française 1906, Gallica
Repartition approximative des peuplements naturels de caoutchouc (AOF) 1906, Gallica
AOF 1936, Wikipedia
Guinea (i.e. most of French West Africa) 1936, Probert Encyclopedia
Cameroon, Modern Linguistic Map of Benin-Nigeria-Cameroon
Unimaps, German Cameroons 1914
Cameroon, Boundary, from Wikimedia Commons
Map British Cameroons, britishempire.co.uk
M. Tchindjang et al., La cartographie linguistique, traceuse de l'histoire, des civilisations et des cultures: une application au Cameroun, n.d.; contains excellent thematic maps
Cameroon, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 26. Kouka, 1888, 34. Libreville 1891, Gallica
Carte du Congo français et Haut Oubanghi (parties du Cameroun et de l'Etat independant du Congo) 1897/1898, 1897/1898, Gallica
Sprigade/Moisel, Wirtschafts- und Verkehrskarte von Kamerun, 1900, Gallica
Moisel, Kamerun 1901, Gallica
Deutsche Schutzgebiete, Kamerun 1912
Missions protestantes, 1954 (Cameroon), DEFAP
Bundesarchiv, Neukamerun (c.1914)
Kamerun administrative (pre-1911), Univ. Greifswald
Wirtschaftskarte Kamerun, pre 1911, Univ. Greifswald
Traditionsverband, Kamerun 1913
Kamerun, Kolonialatlas 1896, posted by History of Germany
Map of Central Africa 1895 from Annales de Geographie IV, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, has borders between Congo and Kamerun
Map of Haussaland 1896, from Perry Castaneda Library, Map Coll., UTexas; features Nigerian-Kamerunese border, Adamawa
Map of 1912, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete, shows pre-1911 borders
Map featuring Kamerun economically during the colonial period, posted at Jaduland
Map featuring Kamerun in the borders of 1912, posted at Jaduland
Map speculating on border changes of 1911, posted by Jaduland
Map featuring Kamerunbucht (Cameroon Bay), posted by Jaduland
Die Neugestaltung Kameruns auf Grund des Marokko Abkommens, mit Darstellung der Grenzen der französischen Konzessions-Gesellschaften und der Freihandelszone 1911, Gallica
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary Cameroun, Region de la Saslaga Inferieure, Region du Wouri, DEFAP
Baghirmi (Hottot Collection; c.1908), from Pitt Rivers Museum
Encyclopedia Entries
Articles : Baghermeh, Bornu, Affagay, Angornu, Kanem, Kukana, Loggene, from S. Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish, Project Runeberg

Article Camerun, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th edition 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Articles Adamaua, Bagirmi, Bornu, Kanem, Massenja, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th edition 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Article Kamerun, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 14th ed. 1894-1896, in German, Retrobibliothek
Article Sudan, from EB 1902, has paragraphs on Bagirmi people and Baghirmi State
Articles Cameroon, from EB 1911, Wikisource
Articles : Adamawa, Bagirmi,
Bornu, from EB 1911, Wikisource
Religious Article Vicariate Apostolic of Kamerun, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Kamerun pp.349-350 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Parliamentary Debates Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags, 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942, in German
Documents from Protokolle des Reichstags, facsimiles posted by Bayrische Staatsbibliothek
(2) Debatte ueber den mündlichen Bericht der Kommission fuer den Reichshaushaltsetat über Petitionen, betreffend die Deutschen Schutzgebiete in Südwestafrika resp. die Bekämpfung des Sklavenhandels (debate about the oral report by the budget commission on petitions regarding the German protectorates in Southwest Africa respectively combat of slavery), 1890, click : 1871-1895, click 1887-1890, click Band 126 : 1889/1890 Sitzungen 26-52, p.1221, in German, Gothic font, Kamerun not mentioned, but Westafrika
Search Hansard for Cameroons
Resident Memoirs H. Nekes, Vier Jahre im Kameruner Hinterland 1912, IA
A. Rein-Wuhrmann, Vier Jahre im Grasland von Kamerun 1917, IA
Travelogues H. Zöller, Forschungsreisen in der Deutschen Colonie Kamerun 1885, IA
H. Barth, Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa : including accounts of Tripoli, the Sahara, the remarkable kingdom of Bornu, and the countries around lake Chad (1890), IA
C. von Morgen, Durch Kamerun von Süd nach Nord: Reisen und Forschungen im Hinterlande, 1889 bis 1891 1893, IA
E. Zintgraff, Nord-Kamerun. Schilderung der im Auftrage des Auswärtigen Amtes zur Erschlieszung des nördlichen Hinterlandes von Kamerun während der Jahre 1866-1892 unternommenen Reisen 1895, IA
S. Passarge, Adamaua: Bericht über die Expediton des Deutschen Kamerun-komitees in den Jahren 1893-94 1895, IA
M.H. Kingsley et al., Travels in West Africa: Congo Francais, Corisco and Cameroons 1897, IA
F.K. Hutter, Wanderungen und Forschungen im Nord-Hinterland von Kamerun 1902, IA
E. Zimmermann, Neu-Kamerun, Reiseerlebnisse und wirtschaftspolitische Untersuchungen 1913, IA
F. Thorbecke, Im Hochland von Mittel-Kamerun, vol.1 1914, vol.2 1914, vol.3 1914, vol.4.2 1914, IA
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives Bamum Scripts and Archives Project
Musea Museums in Cameroon, from International Council of African Museums
Libraries National Libraries of Africa : Cameroon
Libraries in Cameroon, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, posted by National Athems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Cameroon, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from World Currency Museum, from numismondo
Cameroonian coins from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Cameroon Stamps 1897-1921, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Cameroon survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
U. Holtz, Ehemalige deutsche Kolonien. Vom Kolonialstatus zum wirtschaftlichen Partnerland Deutschlands ?, Bibliographie/Webliographie 2003
D. Köster, Bibliographie zur deutschen Kolonialgeschichte, Colonial Voyage
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Cameroun / Cameroon, Bibliography
general bibliographies Bruel, Bibliographie de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1914, IA
pp.213-297 in M.W. Delaney, H.M. Mokeba, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1990 [G]
Clio, Voyages Culturels, Bibliographie Cameroun
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliographie de l'Archeologie de l'Afrique Centrale : Cameroun
African Studies Center, Leiden, Country Dossier : Cameroon, bibliography 2013
The Virtual Institute of Mambila Studies Mambila Bibliography
serial publications Ch. Links, Schlaglichter der Kolonialgeschichte, Studien zur Kolonialgeschichte
general bibliographies
Cameroon entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Kamerun-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica; Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
International Boundary Studies
on Cameroon Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek, Sammlungen, click : Kolonialbibliothek
Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.29, pp.864-868, Article Western Africa : Cameroon. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.29
Specific Topics Harry Rudin, Germans in the Cameroons 1884-1914. A Case Study in Modern Imperialism, New Haven : Yale Univ. Press 1938, 456 pp. [G]
A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, Adamawa past and present - an Historical Approach to the Development of a Northern Cameroons Province, Oxford : University Press 1958, 230 pp. [G]
Historical Dictionary Mark W. DeLancey and H. Mbella Mokeba, Historical Dictionary of Cameroon, Metuchen : Scarecrow 1991, 297 pp. [G]
Articles : Bamilekeland pp.60-62, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Cameroon, 1913 p.1012 [G]
Cameroun, 1960, p.136, 1961, p.134, 1962, p.124, 1963, p.240, 1964, p.215, p.211, 1966, p.168, 1967, pp.184-185, 1968, pp.182-183, 1969, pp.183-184, 1970, p.183, 1971, p.178, 1972, p.163, 1973, p.160, 1974, p.168, 1975, p.152, 1976, p.180, 1977, p.182, 1978, p.235, 1979, p.233, 1980, p.230, 1981, p.228, 1982, pp.226-227, 1983, p.224, 1984, p.221, 1985, pp.461-462, 650, 1986, pp.456-457, 646, 1988, pp.386, 567, 1989, pp.385-386, 567, 1990, pp.402, 582, 1993 pp.357, 577, 1994 pp.355-356, 577, 1995 pp.386-387, 577 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Cameroons, 1895 p.569, 1898 pp.567-568 [G]
Kamerun, 1901 pp.652-653, 1905 pp.723-724, 1910 pp.859-860, 1919 pp.913-914 [G]
British Cameroons, 1924 pp.264-265, 1925 pp.270-271, 1926 pp.271-272, 1928 pp.271-272, 1929 pp.274-275, 1932 pp.277-278, 1937 pp.300-301, 1943 pp.263-264 [G]
Cameroon (Fr.), 1924 pp.926-927, 1925 pp.937-938, 1926 pp.910-912, 1928 p.927, 1929 pp.914-916, 1932 pp.917-918, 1937 p.958, 1943 pp.942-944 [G]
Cameroun, 1970-1971 pp.949-950, 1975-1976 pp.804-805, 1978-1979 pp.256-258, 1980-1981 pp.257-259, 1983-1984 pp.263-266, 1984-1985 pp.261-264, 1985-1986 pp.263-266, 1987-1988 pp.264-268, 1988-1989 pp.265-268, 1989-1990 pp.265-269, 1990-1991 pp.265-269, 1991-1992 pp.266-270, 1992-1993 pp.268-272, 1993-1994 pp.267-271, 1994-1995 pp.261-265, 1995-1996 pp.253-257, 1996-1997 pp.270-274, 1997-1998 pp.274-278, 1998-1999 pp.300-305, 2000 pp.357-362, 2001 pp.344-348, 2002 pp.360-364, 2003 pp.357-362, 2004 pp.358-362, 2005 pp.353-358 [G]
(New) International Yearbook Cameroon, 1898 pp.149-150 [G]
Americana Annual Cameroon, 1927 pp.138-139, 1928 p.126, 1930 pp.139-140, 1931 p.134, 1932 p.130, 1933 p.124, 1934 p.123, 1935 p.119, 1936 p.108, 1937 p.96 [G]
Cameroons, 1943 pp.120-121, 1944 p.116, 1945 pp.123-124 [G]
Cameroons, Cameroun, 1946 pp.136-137, 1947 pp.112-113 [G]
Cameroons, 1957 pp.122-123 [G]
British Cameroons, 1961 p.92; 1962 p.90
Cameroun, 1961 pp.109-110, 1962 pp.106-107, 1963 pp.114-115, 1964 pp.115-116 [G]
Cameroon, 1965 p.132, 1967 p.142, 1968 p.131, 1969 p.143, 1970 p.147, 1971 p.172, 1972 p.174, 1973 p.167 [G]
Other Article : Cameroons, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 p.129 [G]

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