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Literature on the History of Central Africa
Chad Rep. Congo
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 5th 2013

1894-1960 . French Congo's province of Oubangi-Chari proclaimed in 1894; as a separate colony soon jointly administrated with Chad. In 1908 the Congo Free State was converted into the Belgian Congo; in 1909 the Congolese protectorates Sultanate of Zemio and Sultanate of Rafai were ceded by Belgium to France, and annexed into the Colony of Oubangi-Chari-Tchad. In 1910 the French colonies of Moyen Congo, Gabon, Oubangi-Chari and Chad federated to form French Equatorial Africa (1910-1957). In 1960, Oubangi-Chari was released into independence, under the name of Central African Republic.

Independence . The Central African Republic made worldwide headlines when President Bokassa proclaimed himself Emperor (1976) and on the occasion of his overthroe (1979), wehen the republic was restored.

Historical Atlas, C.A.R. Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook; countries Central African Republic
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from BUBL, from African Studies Center, UPenn, from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
African Studies : C.A.R., from Columbia Univ. Library
on History
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Current Article History of the C.A.R., from Wikipedia
Category : History of the C.A.R., from Wikipedia
History of the Central African Republic, from Infoplease, from Lonely Planet, from Baptist Mid-Missions, from Bensenville Community Public Library
Specific Periods DADM : Central African Republic (1960-present)
Politics Political Resources on the Net : CAR; Country Profile : C.A.R., from ISS; Article Politics of the C.A.R., from Wikipedia
Category : Politics of the C.A.R., from Wikipedia
Central African Republic Profile, from International Crisis Group
Military Wars of the CAR, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of the C.A.R., from ODM
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 14 juillet 1904: La cartouche sanglante du 14 juillet Fort-Crampel (Oubangui-Chari), 8 septembre 1926: Ceux qui refusent de recolter le caoutchouc sont convies au "bal de Bambio" (Oubangui-Chari), 21 octobre 1926: Massacre de Bodembere (Oubangui-Chari)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Kongo-Wara War 1927-1931, Central African Republic/Empire 1965-1979
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of the Central African Republic, from Wikipedia
Global Currency History : Central African Republic
Social History D.D. Cordell, Warlords and Enslavement : A Sample of Slave Raiders from Eastern Ubangi-Shari, 1870-1920
World Bank Group, Understanding Access to Justice and Conflict Resolution at the Local Level in the Central African Republic, 2012
Ethnography Languages of the CAR (68), from Ethnologue
Ethnic Groups in the Central African Republic, from Wikipedia
Languages of the Central African Republic, from Wikipedia
Articles Azande, from Ethno Atlas
Central African Republic, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Central African Republic
Article : Zande People, from Wikipedia
Ethnoatlas : Azande
The Azande. Witchcraft and Oracles in Africa; E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande 1976
E.E. Evans-Pritchard, The social organization of the Azande of the Bahr-el-Ghazal province of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, thesis LSE 1928
E.E. Evans-Pritchard, The Ethnic Composition of the Azande of Central Africa, Anthropological Quarterly 1958
E.E. Evans Pritchard, Consulting the Poison Oracle among the Azande
E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Zande Kings and Princes, 1957
Religion Category : Religion in the Central African Republic, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : CAR, from Kirken i Norge
Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bangui, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Modern Prefectures of the Central African Republic, from www.statoids.com
Sub-Prefectures of the C.A.R., from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republique Centrafricaine 1968-07-08, Empire Centrafricaine 1978-07-08, Republique Centrafricaine 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Colonial Era J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Province du Haut-Oubangi, 1900-07-08, Colonie de l'Oubangi-Chari-Tchad, 1908-07-08, Colonie de l'Oubangi-Chari, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, Territoire d'Outre-Mer de l'Oubangi-Chari, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08
Precolonial R.A. Bradshaw, Sultanate Dar-al-Kuti
R.A. Bradshaw, Sultanate of Bangassou, Sultanate of Rafai, Sultanate of Zemio
Local History History of Bangui, from Wikipedia
Institutions Central African Republic, from Airline History
Cultural History X. Luffin, The Use of Arabic as a Written Language in Central Africa. The Case of the Uele Basin in the Late Nineteenth Century, Sudanic Africa 15 2004
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Leaders of Gabon, from ZPC, including party leaders
Heads of State of the Central African Republic and Central African Empire, from Wikipedia
Regnal Chronologies : West Africa, scroll down for CAR
Traditional States in the C.A.R., from World Statesmen
Lists of Ambassadors Chinese Ambassadors to Central African Republic, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Division de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques et Sociales (DSEES)
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Central African Republic, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Central African Republic
Election Results from Psephos (since 1993); from IFES Election Guide (since 1998); from African Elections Database, since 1959
Search IPU Parline for "Central African Republic"
EISA : C.A.R., Election Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Journal Officiel du Oubangui-Chari-Tchad 1907, Gallica
Collections of Newspaper Articles World History Archives : Central African Republic
Specific Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Yearbooks International; Equatorial Guinea entries
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Central African Republic
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Central African Republic
Budget general, Budget special annexe sur fonds d'emprunt, Budget local [du Gabon, du Moyen-Congo, de l'Oubangui-Chari, du territoire du Tchad] : Exercice... / Ministere des colonies. Gouvernement general du Congo français 1891-1896, Gallica
Archival Deposits
Constitutions Constitution of 1994
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Central African Republic, from ILO, 37 docs. since 1960
Consular Reports
Document Collections Search IPU Parline for "Central African Republic"
Security Council Report : UN Documents for the Central African Republic; UN Documents for Chad/CAR
Individual Documents Information by Country : C.A.R., from U.S. Committee for Refugees
UN Security Council Resolutions 1997 res. 1125, 1136, 1998 res. 1152, 1155, 1159, 1182, 1201, 1999 res. 1230, 1271, 2007 res. 1778, 2009 res. 1861, 2010 res. 1913, 1922, 1923, 2011 res. 2031,
Historical Maps responsible institutions Direction de la topographie et cartographie , National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : C.A.R. click here
Atlas of the Central African Republic, from Wikimedia Commons
Central African Republic Maps, PCL, UTexas
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
C.A.R., Modern U.S. Geological Survey : Central African Republic : Minerals
African Linguistic Maps : Central and Eastern Africa, Muturzikin
C.A.R., contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 27. El Facher, 27. El Facher 1887, 27. El Facher 1898, 28. El Obeid 1888, 28. El Obeid 1892, 35. Inguimma 1884, 35. Inguimma 1885, 35. Bangala 1892, 36. Lado 1889, 36. Lado 1892, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 22 French Congo (1958), PCL, UTexas
French Equatorial Africa 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Niam-Niam (= Zande), EB 1911, Wikisource
Article : Ubangi, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Parliamentary Debates
Travelogues A.H.S. Landor, Across widest Africa : an account of the country and people of Eastern, Central and Western Africa as seen during a twelve months' journey from Djibuti to Cape Verde, vol.2 1907, IA
Wilhelm Junker, Travels in Africa during the years 1875[-1886], vol.1 1890, vol.2 1890, vol.3 1890, IA
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Museums in the C.A.R., from International Council of African Museums
Libraries Libraries in the Central African Republic, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the CAR, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from World Currency Museum
Central African Republic Coins, from African Coins and Tokens
Stamps Stamps Oubangi-Chari-Tchad 1915-1924, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on C.A.R. survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies Bruel, Bibliographie de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1914, IA
pp.137-152 in P. Kalck, Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1980 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliographie de l'Archeologie de l'Afrique Centrale : Centrafrique
serial publications
general bibliographies
C.A.R. entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Zentralafrikanische Republik-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on the Central African Republic Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
on CAR Sudanic Africa 1990-2005
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.15, pp.630-632 Article Central Africa : C.A.R.. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.15
Specific Topics see also under French Equatorial Africa
Historical Dictionary Pierre Kalck, Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1980 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Central African Republic, 1961 p.156, 1962 p.139, 1963 p.254, 1964 p.232, 1965 p.223, 1966 p.176, 1967 p.192, 1968 p.188, 1969 pp.188-189, 1970 p.191, 1971 pp.182-183, 1972 pp.167-168, 1973 p.165, 1974 p.174, 1975 p.159, 1976 p.186, [G]
Central African Empire, 1977 pp.188-189, 1978 p.242, 1979 p.241 [G]
Central African Republic, 1980 pp.237-238, 1981 p.236, 1982 pp.233-234, 1983 p.231, 1984 p.227, 1985 pp.462, 654, 1986 pp.457, 650, 1987 pp.425, 619, 1988 pp.386, 571, 1989 pp.386, 571, 1990 pp.403, 586, 1991 pp.382, 571, 1992 pp.354, 571, 1993 pp.358, 581, 1994 pp.356, 581, 1995 pp.390, 581, 1996 pp.387, 581, 1997 pp.406, 579, 2002 pp.404, 576 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Central African Republic, 1970-1971 pp.932-933, 1975-1976 pp.806-807, 1976-1977 p.818, Central African Empire 1978-1979 pp.323-324, 1979-1980 pp.322-323, Central African Republic 1980-1981 pp.325-326, 1981-1982 pp.329-330, 1983-1984 pp.333-335, 1984-1985 pp.332-334, 1985-1986 pp.334-336, 1986-1987 pp.338-340, 1987-1988 pp.338-340, 1988-1989 pp.340-342, 1989-1990 pp.342-345, 1990-1991 pp.341-344, 1991-1992 pp.341-344, 1992-1993 pp.342-345, 1993-1994 pp.342-345, 1994-1995 pp.332-335, 1995-1996 pp.320-323, 1996-1997 pp.331-334, 1997-1998 pp.333-336, 1998-1999 pp.363-366, 2000 pp.424-428, 2001 pp.413-416, 2002 pp.428-432, 2003 pp.427-431, 2004 pp.427-431, 2005 pp.423-427, 2006 pp.416-420 [G]
Americana Annual Central African Republic, 1961 pp.125-126, 1962 p.123, 1963 p.128, 1964 pp.130-131, 1965 pp.142-143, 1967 pp.153-154, 1968 pp.141-142, 1969 p.156, 1970 p.160, 1971 p.196, 1972 p.186, 1973 pp.177-178 [G]
Entry : Central African Republic, pp.340-343 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]

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