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Literature on the History of West Africa
Central African Republic Cameroon
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 5th 2013

Pre-Colonial, until 1900 . The territory of modern Chad covers part of the Sahara region (desert), the Sahel region (savanna) and of tropical rainforest (southern border). In the 19th century, the African polities of Bornu, Bagirmi and Wadai held part of Chadian territory. In 1893, slave trader Rabih az-Zubayr conquered Bornu; his state was conquered by the French in 1900.

French Colonial Rule, c.1900-1960 . The French conquered the territory about 1900. Chad was a territory under military administration, and jointly administrated with Oubangi-Chari, which was placed under Moyen Congo. In 1910 the colonies of GabonMoyen Congo, Chad and Oubangi-Chari federated to form French Equatorial Africa (capital Brazzaville; until 1957). In 1911 in an agreement with Germany, the border with Cameroon was redrawn. Territory ceded by Chad to Cameroon was regained in 1919. In 1938 Chad was the first French colony to have a governor of African descent, Felix Eboue, born in French Guyana. In 1960, Chad became independent.

Independence, since 1960 . Chad experienced civil wars 1965-1979, 2005-2010 and a conflict with Libya over the Aouzou Strip, 1978-1987.

Historical Atlas : Chad Page

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook; countries Chad
from Index Mundi
Historical L. Hubert, Politique africaine : Maroc, Afrique occidentale, Algerie, Tchad, l'effort etranger, 1904, IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from BUBL, from African Studies Center, UPenn, from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
African Studies : Chad, from Columbia Univ. Library
Category : Chad, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Chad, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library History : Chad
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timeline, from BBC News; from timelines.ws; Timeline by Michael Benz (in German)
Accounts of History Current Article : History of Chad, from Wikipedia
G. Weddeye, Temoignage pour l'histoire du Tchad, RFI 2008
Tchad : Breve Histoire Politique jusqu'a 1990, Eglise de Mongo
Specific Periods E. Gentil, La chute de l'empire de Rabah : la mission Gentil du Congo au lac Tchad 1901, Gallica
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Chad; Country Profile : Chad, from ISS; Article Politics of Chad, from Wikipedia
Category : Politics of Chad, from Wikipedia
Governments on the WWW : Chad
Chad Profile, from International Crisis Group
Chad : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
Military Wars of Chad, 1800-1999, from ACED
Article Military History of Chad, Chadian-Libyan Conflict, Chadian Civil War 1965-1979, Civil War in Chad (2005-present), from Wikipedia
Civil War in Chad (1965-1979), Conflict in Chad 1975 to Present (1984), from Global Security
Chronological Index : Chad 1900-1960, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 31 decembre 1926 : Gide: "Le CFCO est un effroyable consommateur de vies humaines." (Tchad), 26 aout 1973: Assassinat d'Outel Bono a Paris (Tchad)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Chad 1965ff, Chad : Habre Regime, 1982-1990
Libya/Chad, from War History
CASCON Case CHA : Chad 1979-1994, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
H. Alis, A la conquete du Tchad, 1891, IA
G. Dujarric, La vie du sultan Rabah : les français au Tchad, 1902, Gallica
E. Gentil, La chute de l'empire de Rabah : la mission Gentil du Congo au lac Tchad 1901, Gallica
La vie militaire au territoire du Tchad, par un ancien Spahi 1908, Gallica
Col. Largeau, Situation du territoire militaire du Tchad au debut de 1912 1912, Gallica
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of Chad, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Chad, from Wikipedia
Global Currency History : Chad
M. Lahache, Le sel, le natron et les eaux de la region du Tchad 1911, Gallica
A. Abakar Kassambara, La Situation Economique et Sociale du Tchad de 1900 a 1960, thesis Strassburg 2010
Social History Crime and Society, a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Chad
A. Abakar Kassambara, La Situation Economique et Sociale du Tchad de 1900 a 1960, thesis Strassburg 2010
Rural Poverty Portal, Rural poverty in Chad
Ethnography Languages of Chad, from Ethnologue
Information by Country : Chad, from UNHCR Category : Ethnic Groups in Chad, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Chad, from Wikipedia
Chad, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Chad
G. Toque, Essai sur le peuple et la langue banda (reegion du Tchad) 1904, IA
C.J.A. Cornet, Au Tchad : trois ans chez les Senoussistes, les Ouaddaiens et les Kirdis 1911, IA
P.A. Benton, The languages and peoples of Bornu 1968, IA
M.F. le Clozel, Essai sur le peuple et la langue sara (bassin du Tchad) 1897, Gallica
Article Bongo-Bagirmi Languages, Sara-Bagirmi Languages, from Wikipedia
The Bagirmi Language (Chad), The Fulfulde, Bagirmi Language (CAR), from The Linguist
The Bagirmi Fulani, from Jamtan
Society - Kanuri, from Ethnoatlas
Kanuri Language, from dbpedia
Religion Category : Religion in Chad, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Chad, from Kirken i Norge
International Religious Freedom Report 2006 : Chad, from U.S. Department of State
Jesuites - Province de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, La Compagnie de Jesus au Tchad. Breve histoire de l'implantation
History of Regions Modern Articles : Aouzou Strip, Regions of Chad, from Wikipedia
Regions of Chad, from www.statoids.com, Departements of Chad, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republique du Tchad, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Colonial Era J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Comissariat français du Tchad 1900-07-08, Territoire militaire du Tchad, 1908-07-08, Territoire du Tchad, 1918-07-08, Colonie du Tchad 1928-07-08, Territoire du Tchad, 1938-07-08, Territoire françois d'outre-mer du Tchad, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08
Precolonial see Bagirmi, Bornu at this site
Articles : Ouaddai Kingdom (Wadai), Kingdom of Baguirmi (Bagirmi), Kanem-Bornu Empire, Borkou (Borku), from Wikipedia
A. Schultze, Das Sultanat Bornu mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Deutsch-Bornus 1910, IA
Kanem-Bornu, from Kingdoms of the Medieval Sudan
A Short History of the Kanem-Bornu Empire, by Detlef Gronenborn
Spread of Islam in West Africa, by A. Rahman I. Doi, scroll down to Islam in Kanem-Bornu Empire
Local History History of N'Djamena, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of the University of N'Djamena, from Wikipedia
Chad, from Airline History
Structurae : Chad
Cultural History Art and Life in Africa : Chad
Article Chad at the Olympics from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Chadians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Article : Rabih-az-Zubayr, from Wikipedia
G. Dujarric, La vie du sultan Rabah : les français au Tchad, 1902, Gallica
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Commission du Bassin du Lac Chad, Histoire du Bassin du Lac Chad

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
List of Heads of State of Chad, from Wikipedia
Regnal Chronologies : Northern Africa, scroll down for Wadai
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Chad, from NNDB
Chinese Ambassadors to Chad, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Institut National de la Statistique, des Etudes Economiques et Demographiques
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics, Chad, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Chad
Election Results from Psephos (since 2001); from IFES Election Guide (since 2001); from African Elections Database, since 1959
Search IPU Parline for "Chad"
EISA, Chad : Election Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Journal Officiel du Oubangui-Chari-Tchad 1907, Gallica
Collections of Newspaper Articles World History Archives : Egypt and the Maghrib, scroll down for Chad
Specific Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Yearbooks International; Chad entries Yearbook of the United Nations, 1946-2007
Africa : 1978, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1990
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Images du passe en Afrique de l'Ouest
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Chad
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Chad
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Chad, from ILO, 25 docs. since 1960
Consular Reports
Budgets Budget general, Budget special annexe sur fonds d'emprunt, Budget local [du Gabon, du Moyen-Congo, de l'Oubangui-Chari, du territoire du Tchad] : Exercice... / Ministere des colonies. Gouvernement general du Congo français 1891-1896, Gallica
Document Collections Information by Country : Chad, from U.S. Committee for Refugees, 4 reports 1987-2000
Truth Commissions : Chad, from United States Institute of Peace
Search IPU Parline for "Chad"
Asser Institute, Documents Chad
Security Council Report : UN Documents for Chad/CAR
Individual Documents 1994 judgment by International Court of Justice in border dispute between Chad and Libya, from International Court of Justice Contentious Cases
Leo Africanus, The Kingdom of Borno (833), from African History Sourcebook
Combat pres du Lac Tchad (1901), from Modern History Sourcebook, in French
UN Security Council Resolutions 2007 res. 1778, 2009 res. 1861, 2010 res. 1913, 1922, 1959
Historical Maps responsible institutions Centre de Recherche Geographique et de Cartographie (CERGEC), National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Chad click here
Atlas of Chad, from Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Map of Africa 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. edition, 1890, from Perry Castaneda Library, Utexas
Map of Africa 1892, from Gardiner's Atlas of English History
Chad, Modern
Chad, contemporary Map of Central Africa 1895 from Annales de Geographie IV, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, has borders between Chad/Oubangi-Chari and Kamerun
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 12. Mourzouk 1887, 13. Kebabo 1886, 13. Kebabo 1888, 13. Kebabo 1896, 19. Agadez 1888, 19. Agadez 1902, 20. Yayo 1886, 20. Yavo 1888, 26. Kouka 1888, 26. Kouka 1898, 27. El Facher, 27. El Facher 1887, 27. El Facher 1898, Gallica
Occupation des territoires militaires du Tchad. 1901, Gallica
Tchad. Portions navigables des cours d'eau 1931, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 8 Sabhah (1969), 9 Daklah Oasis (1969), 13 Fort Lamy (1973), 14 El Fasher (1973), PCL, UTexas
Baghirmi (Hottot Collection; c.1908), from Pitt Rivers Museum
Encyclopedia Entries
Article Baghermeh, Bornu, Affagay, Angornu, Kanem, Kukana, Loggene, from S. Anskjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish, Project Runeberg
Article Tsad (Tschad), Bagirmi, Borku, Bornu, Kanem, Massenja, Wadai, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Article Sudan, from EB 1902, has paragraphs on Bagirmi people and Baghirmi State
Article Chad, Bagirmi, Borku, Bornu, Wadai, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Religious Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 ed., Article Vicariate Apostolic of Sudan
Parliamentary Debates
Travelogues D. Denham et al., Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa vol.2 1826, IA
H. Barth, Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa : including accounts of Tripoli, the Sahara, the remarkable kingdom of Bornu, and the countries around lake Chad 1890, IA
J. Dybowski, La route du Tchad : du Loango au Chari 1893, IA
P. Brunache, Le centre de l'Afrique: autour du Tchad 1894, IA
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Category : Museums in Chad, from Wikipedia
Museums in Chad, from International Council of African Museums
Libraries National Libraries of Africa : Chad
Chad, from Directory of Libraries in North Africa
Libraries in Chad, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Chad, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from World Currency Museum
Chad Coins, from African Coins and Tokens
Stamps Stamps Oubangi-Chari-Tchad 1915-1924, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Chad survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Tchad / Chad, Bibliography
general bibliographies Bruel, Bibliographie de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1914, IA
pp.301-413 in S. Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Sub-Saharan Africa
serial publications
general bibliographies
Chad entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Tschad-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Chad Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.29, pp.835-839 Article Western Africa : Chad. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.29
Specific Topics The Chadian Insurgencies, 1975-1991, pp.166-178, in : John W. Turner, Continent Ablaze. The Insurgency Wars in Africa, 1960 to the Present, London : Cassell 1998
Historical Dictionary Samuel Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanman Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Chad, Republic of, 1960 p.148 [G]
Chad, 1961 p.157, 1962 p.140, 1963 pp.255-256, 1964 pp.233-234, 1965 p.224, 1966 p.177, 1967 p.194, 1968 p.190, 1969 p.190, 1970 p.192, 1971 p.184, 1972 p.169, 1973 pp.166-167, 1974 pp.174-175, 1975 pp.159-160, 1976 p.187, 1977 p.189, 1978 p.243, 1979 pp.241-242, 1980 pp.238-239, 1981 pp.236-237, 1982 p.234, 1983 pp.231-232, 1984 pp.227-228, 1985 pp.462-463, 655, 1986 pp.457-458, 651, 1987 pp.425-426, 620, 1988 pp.386-387, 572, 1989 pp.386, 572, 1990 pp.403, 587, 1991 pp.382-383, 572, 1992 pp.354, 572, 1993 pp.358, 582, 1994 pp.356, 582, 1995 pp.390, 582, 1996 pp.387, 582, 1997 pp.406-407, 580, 2002 pp.404-405, 577 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Chad, 1970-1971 pp.941-942, 1975-1976 pp.807-808, 1976-1977 pp.819-820, 1978-1979 pp.325-326, 1979-1980 pp.324-325, 1980-1981 pp.327-328, 1981-1982 pp.331-333, 1983-1984 pp.336-338, 1984-1985 pp.335-337, 1985-1986 pp.337-339, 1986-1987 pp.341-343, 1987-1988 pp.341-343, 1988-1989 pp.343-345, 1989-1990 pp.346-348, 1990-1991 pp.345-347, 1991-1992 pp.345-347, 1992-1993 pp.346-348, 1993-1994 pp.346-348, 1994-1995 pp.336-339, 1995-1996 pp.324-327, 1996-1997 pp.335-338, 1997-1998 pp.337-340, 1998-1999 pp.367-370, 2000 pp.429-433, 2001 pp.417-420, 2002 pp.433-437, 2003 pp.432-436, 2004 pp.432-436, 2005 pp.428-432, 2006 pp.421-425 [G]
Americana Annual Chad, 1927 p.159, 1928 p.143, 1930 p.157, 1931 p.181, 1932 p.148, 1933 p.144, 1934 p.137, 1935 p.135, 1936 p.128, 1937 p.115, 1938 p.115, 1939 p.123, 1940 p.118, 1943 p.139, 1944 pp.134-135, 1961 p.129, 1962 p.126, 1963 p.131, 1964 p.133, 1965 p.143, 1967 p.155, 1968 p.143, 1969 p.157, 1970 pp.48, 161, 1971 p.197, 1972 p.187, 1973 p.179, 1976 pp.72-73, 1988 p.180, 1989 pp.179 [G]

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