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Literature on the History of Central Africa
Gabon D.R. Congo
First posted on July 12th 2002, last revised on November 5th 2013






1880-1960 . In 1880 Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza established the nucleus of the French Congo Protectorate (Moyen Congo). At first, it was commonly administered with Gabon. It was quickly expanded, and its borders with other colonies established by treaties with Portugal (Angola) and the Congo Free State. In 1910, the French Congo became part of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, which had its seat in Brazzaville, the capital of the French Congo.
In 1940, Brazzaville gained worldwide attention because it became the seat of Chales de Gaulle's Free French government.
In 1957, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved. In 1960, French Congo, as the Republic of Congo, achieved independence.

Independence . In 1964, the Republic of Congo became a one-party state. In 1970 it was declared a People's Republic. An attempt to introduce multiparty elections in 1992 failed; the Republic of Congo since went through several internal military conflicts.









E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others



DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook; countries Rep. Congo
Historical L. Henrique, Les colonies françaises : notices illustrees. Le Gabon-Congo 1889, Gallica
F. Alexis, Le Congo français illustre : geographie, ethnographie et voyages 1892, Gallica
Capt. Renard, La Colonisation au Congo français, etude sur les concessions accordees au Congo en vertu du decret du 28 mars 1899 1901, Gallica
E. Richet, France au Congo, problemes actuels, un programme 1910, Gallica
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from African Studies Center, UPenn, from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
African Studies : Rep. Congo, from Columbia Univ. Library
on History
Organizations
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Timeline, from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current Article History of Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Category : History of Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Historical The Story of the French Congo, from E.D. Morel, The Black Man's Burden (1920), posted by boondocksnet
Specific Periods The Second World War in the French Overseas Empire, Timeline by Richard Doody
La France Libre et l'Afrique Noire, from Institut Charles de Gaulle, in French
DADM : Congo Brazzaville, 1960-present
Historiography
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Rep. Congo; Country Report : Rep. Congo, from Polity IV; For the Record : Congo Rep., from UN Human Rights System; Country Profile : Congo Rep., from ISS; Article Politics of Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Category : Politics of Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Congo Brazzaville : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
Military Uprising in the French Congo 1905, from Armed Conflict Events Data
J. Morel, Calendrier des crimes de la France outre-mer, 2005 : 7 aout 1928: "Les travaux du chemin de fer Congo-Ocean se poursuivent avec methode." (Congo)
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, French Colonies 1900-1940, Kongo-Wara War, 1927-1931, Congo-Brazzaville, Civil War, 1997-1998
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Global Currency History : Rep. Congo
E. Jung, Avenir economique de nos colonies. vol.1: Indo-Chine, Afrique occidentale, Congo, Madagascar. Conclusions, 1908, Gallica
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Französisch-Congo, pp.64-68
V. Pourbaix et al., Le regime economique et les societes commerciales du Congo français 1899, Gallica
J.B. Massiou, Les grandes concessions au Congo français 1920, IA
P.M. Martin, Power, Cloth and Currency on the Loango Coast
Social History L. Lejeune, Au Congo. La femme et la famille, 1900, Gallica
Rural Poverty Portal, Rural poverty in Congo
Ethnography Languages of Gabon (41), from Ethnologue
Category : Ethnic Groups in Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Rep. Congo, from UNHCR
Congo, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Congo
A.L. Cureau, Savage man in Central Africa; a study of primitive races in the French Congo 1915, IA
S. Bahuchet et al., Linguistique et histoire des pygmees de l'ouest du Bassin Congolais, Sprache und Geschichte ~n~fri~a 7.2 (1986) pp.73-103
F. Hagenbacher-Sacripanti, Les fondements spirituels du pouvoir au Royaume de Loango 1973
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Rep. Congo, from Kirken i Norge
Congo Brazzaville, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
History of Regions Regions of Rep. Congo, from www.statoids.com
Departements of Rep. Congo, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Territoire du Moyen Congo Republique du Congo 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Colonial Era J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Territoire du Moyen Congo 1900-07-08, Colonie du Moyen Congo 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, Territoire d'outre-mer du Congo 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08
Precolonial Article : Kingdom of Loango, from Wikipedia
Congopage, Historique du Royaume de Loango
L.B. Proyart, Histoire de Loango, Kakongo, et autres royaumes d'Afrique : redigee d'apres les memoires des prefets apostoliques de la Mission françoise... 1776, Gallica
Local History History of Brazzaville, from Wikipedia
Pointe Noire, from Wikipedia
Institutions Rep. Congo, from Airline History
Institutions in Rep. Congo, from Contemporary African Database
Cultural History Art and Life in Africa : Rep. Congo
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Others

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Leaders of Congo Brazzaville, from ZPC, including party leaders
Heads of State of the Republic of Congo, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors Chinese Ambassadors to Congo, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls Political Graveyard : Congo Brazzaville (list of U.S. consuls)
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Centre National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (CNSEE), Brazzaville
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Rep. Congo, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile Congo
Election Results from Psephos (since 2002); from IFES Election Guide; from African Elections Database, since 1959
Search IPU Parline for "Congo"
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Journal officiel du Gabon-Congo 1889 Jan.-May, Gallica
Journal officiel du Congo français 1891-1903, Gallica
Collections of Newspaper Articles History of Congo Brazzaville, from World History Archives
Specific Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Yearbooks International; Congo entries Statesman's Year-Book, Gabun-Congo 1890, p.503, IA, 1891, p.507, IA, 1892, p.515, IA, 1894, p.515, IA, 1895, p.515, IA, 1896, p.515, IA, 1898, p.514, IA, 1899, p.556, IA, French Congo 1903, p.617, IA, 1913, p.828, IA, 1919, p.861, IA, 1921, pp.886-888, IA
Staatskalender Congo Français. Rapport General pour 1899, Gallica
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Congo Brazzaville
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Congo Republic
Archival Deposits Archives nationales d'outre mer, France
Constitutions, Laws Constitution of 1992, from ICL
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Rep. Congo, from ILO, 25 docs. since 1960
Treaties Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Rep. Congo, from United States Institute of Peace
Consular Reports
Historiography
Budgets Budget general, Budget special annexe sur fonds d'emprunt, Budget local [du Gabon, du Moyen-Congo, de l'Oubangui-Chari, du territoire du Tchad] : Exercice... / Ministere des colonies. Gouvernement general du Congo français 1891-1896, Gallica
Budget local du territoire du Moyen-Congo 1925-1926, Gallica
Document Collections Search IPU Parline for "Congo"
Asser Institute, Documents Congo
Individual Documents Manifeste lance de Brazzaville, from Institut Charles de Gaulle
Concession du Congo. Cahier des charges 1899, Gallica
Colonie du Congo français et dependances. L'Enregistrement au Congo, memento alphabetique des droits etablis et des operations imposees par le decret du 1er juin 1903. instituant la taxe d'enregistrement sur les actes et les jugements 1904, Gallica
Syndicat industriel français de l'Indo-Chine. Rapport sur le Congo français 1891, Gallica
Historical Maps responsible institutions Centre de Recherche Geographique et de Cartographie (CERGEC), National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Rep. Congo Atlas of the Republic of the Congo, from Wikimedia Commons
Congo Republic Maps, PCL, UTexas
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Map of Africa 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. edition, 1890, from Perry Castaneda Library, Utexas
Map of Africa 1892, from Gardiner's Atlas of English History
Rep. Congo, Modern U.S. Geological Survey : Congo Brazzaville : Minerals
African Linguistic Maps : Central and Eastern Africa, Muturzikin
Rep. Congo, contemporary French Equatorial Africa 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Map of Central Africa 1895 from Annales de Geographie IV, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, has borders between Congo and Kamerun
Lt. Avelot, Ethnographie et migrations au Gabon et au Congo Franšais 1 : 4 000 000 1905, 5 maps, Gallica
J. Hansen, Pays compris entre l'Ogooue et le Congo 1885, Gallica
J. Hansen, Congo français ou France equatoriale 1886, Gallica
J. Chavanne, Carte de l'Afrique equatoriale entre le Congo et l'Ogooue 1884, Gallica
Service geographique des colonies. Carte du Congo français au 1/150000e. Notice et index alphabetique 1895, Gallica
M. Payeur-Didelot, Gabon. - Colonie franšaise du Gabon-Congo, 1/3 700 000 1895, Gallica
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 34. St. Libreville 1885, 34. St. Libreville 1891, 35. Inguimma 1884, 35. Inguimma 1885, 35. Bangala 1892, 39. San Salvador 1885, 39. San Salvador 1889, 39. San Salvador 1896, 39. San Salvador 1899, 40. Ounya-N'Zingue 1884, 40. Loulouabourg 1891, 40. Loulouabourg 1895, 40. Loulouabourg 1899, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 22 French Congo (1958), PCL, UTexas
A. Courtry, Carte du Congo français et Haut Oubanghi, 12 maps 1897
Carte de l'invasion allemande au Congo français 1907, Gallica
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article French Congo,, from EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Religious
Economic French Congo pp.350-351 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, French Congo Region pp.136-137
Geographical
Ethnological
Historical
Parliamentary Debates
Travelogues P. Crampel, Au pays des M'Fans : voyage d'exploration de M. Paul Crampel dans le nord du Congo français 1888, Gallica
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues Gabon, Congo Ó l'Exposition, 1889 1889, Gallica
Institutions Archives
Musea Museums in Congo Brazzaville, from International Council of African Museums
Monuments UNESCO, World Heritage Center, Tentative List : Ancien port d'embarquement des esclaves de Loango
Libraries National Libraries of Africa : Republic Congo
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Congo Rep. banknotes, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from World Currency Museum
Congo Rep. Coins, from African Coins and Tokens
Stamps French Congo Stamps 1891-1900, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Congo-Brazzaville survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Ethno-Net Africa Database : Congo Brazzaville, Bibliography
general bibliographies Bruel, Bibliographie de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1914, IA
pp.131-139 in V. Thompson, R. Adloff, Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of the Congo, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1974 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliographie de l'Archeologie de l'Afrique Centrale : Congo
serial publications
general bibliographies
Congo Brazzaville entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Kongo-Brazzaville-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Rep. Congo Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Online Journals Annales du Musee de Congo 1902-1906, Gallica
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.15, pp.633-637 Article Central Africa : Congo Rep., KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.15
Specific Topics see also under French Equatorial Africa
Historical Dictionary Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff, Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of the Congo, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1974 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Congo, Republic of, 1960 pp.180-181, 1961 p.187, 1962 pp.175-176, 1963 pp.288-289, 1964 pp.276-277, 1965 pp.264-265, 1966 pp.210-211, 1967 p.234, 1968 p.234, 1969 p.225, 1970 p.229, 1971 p.216, 1972 p.200 [G]
Congo, People's Republic of the, 1973 p.193, 1975 pp.188-189, 1976 p.206, 1977 p.209, 1978 pp.259-260, 1979 p.265, 1980 p.260, 1981 p.257, 1982 pp.254-255, 1983 pp.251-252, 1984 pp.247-248, 1985 pp.463, 661, 1986 pp.458, 657, 1987 pp.426, 626, 1988 pp.387, 578, 1989 pp.387, 578, 1990 pp.404, 593, 1991 pp.383, 578, 1992 pp.354-355, 578, 1993 pp.359, 588, 1994 pp.357, 588, 1995 pp.396, 588, 1996 pp.394, 588, 1997 pp.410, 586, 2002 pp.410-411, 584 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook French Congo and Gabun, 1895 p.515, 1898 p.514 [G]
French Congo, 1901 pp.589-591, 1905 pp.650-652, 1910 pp.796-797, 1919 pp.861-863, 1924 pp.909-911, 1925 pp.921-923, 1926 pp.893-896, 1928 pp.909-911, 1929 pp.896-898, 1932 pp.898-901, 1937 pp.940-942 [G]
Congo, 1970-1971 pp.933-934, 1975-1976 pp.839-840, 1976-1977 pp.850-851, 1978-1979 pp.360-361, 1979-1980 pp.360-361, 1980-1981 pp.362-363, 1981-1982 pp.367-368, 1983-1984 pp.371-373, 1984-1985 pp.370-372, 1985-1986 pp.372-374, 1986-1987 pp.376-378, 1987-1988 pp.377-380, 1988-1989 pp.379-382, 1990-1991 pp.381-384, 1991-1992 pp.381-384, 1992-1993 pp.444-447, 1993-1994 pp.450-453, 1994-1995 pp.440-443, 1995-1996 pp.434-437, 1996-1997 pp.372-376, 1997-1998 pp.382-385 [G]
Congo, Republic of, 1998-1999 pp.423-427, 2000 pp.489-493, 2001 pp.475-479, 2002 pp.495-499, 2003 pp.493-497, 2004 pp.494-498, 2005 pp.492-496, 2006 pp.486-490 [G]
(New) International Yearbook French Congo and Gaboon, 1898 pp.335-336, 1899 pp.348-349 [G]
French Congo, 1900 p.368, 1907 p.286, 1908 pp.266-267, 1909 p.285 [G]
Americana Annual Congo, Republic of, 1961 p.178, 1962 pp.179-180, 1963 pp.174-175, 1964 pp.174-175 [G]
Congo Brazzaville, 1965 p.188 [G]
Congo, Republic of, 1967 p.207, 1968 p.196, 1969 p.208, 1970 p.213 [G]
Congo, People's Republic of, 1971 p.222, 1972 p.210 [G]
People's Republic of the Congo, 1973 p.204 [G]