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Literature on the History of Central Africa
Gabon D.R. Congo
First posted on April 7th 2007, last revised on November 4th 2013

Pre 1910 . In 1843 France established a colony in Libreville (Gabon), for the purpose of settling freed slaves. It became the nucleus of the colony of Gabon, which expanded along the coast and along the Ogooue River. In 1880 Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza established Brazzaville, nucleus for the French colony of Moyen Congo (French Congo). In 1894 the colony of Oubangi-Chari was proclaimed, in 1906 Oubangui-Chari was merged with Chad.

1910-1957 . The public attention to colonial mismanagement created by the Congo Free State Propaganda War (1903-1910) caused France to federate its Central African colonies (Gabon, French Congo, Oubangi-Chari and Chad) to French Equatorial Africa, capital Brazzaville.
In 1911 part of its territory was ceded to Germany (Cameroon), in the context of a Franco-German agreement in which Germany accepted France's claim over Morocco. During World War I, French troops occupied most of Cameroon, which was administrated as an annex to French Equatorial Africa. The constituent colonies maintained their separate administrations.
In June 1940, France surrendered to Germany and a new French government was formed with seat in Vichy. French general Charles de Gaulle set up a Free French administration in Brazzaville, which continued the war with Germany. The Free French administration, dependent on the support of the African population, promised a change in the treatment of the Africans. French propaganda advocated integration and assimilation. Yet in the years 1945-1960, France needed large sums of money to facilitate its debt, pay for reconstruction and develop the country; instead of investing significantly in the colonies, revenue was drawn from them to be invested in the motherland.
The French defeat in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 came at a point when many Africans no longer believed in French promises, and the demand for independence quickly spread. In 1957, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved.

Post 1957 . In 1960, Chad, the Central African Republic (hitherto Oubangi-Chari), the Republic of Congo (French Congo or Moyen Congo), Gabon and Cameroon became independent.

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current Article French Equatorial Africa, from Wikipedia
Historical Depenses pour la creation et l'entretien de deux stations françaises dans l'Afrique equatoriale 1879, Gallica
R. Rodet-Saint, L'Afrique equatoriale française 1911, IA
F. Rouget, L'Afrique equatoriale illustree 1913, IA
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary
Accounts of History Current History of FEA, from asnom.org
Specific Periods The Second World War in the French Overseas Empire, Timeline by Richard Doody
La France Libre et l'Afrique Noire, from Institut Charles de Gaulle, in French
Military Histoire Militaire de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1931, Gallica
Une etape de la conquete de l'Afrique equatoriale française 1908-1912. Historique des operations militaires en Afrique equatoriale française de 1908 a 1912, fait par des officiers de l'etat-major des troupes a Brazzaville 1921, Gallica
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Congo Brazzaville, has data on French Equatorial Africa
Gouvernement General de A.E.F., Evolution economique des possessions françaises de l'Afrique equatoriale 1913, Gallica
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Gabon (41), from Ethnologue
Languages of the C.A.R. (70), from Ethnologue
Languages of Rep. Congo (62), from Ethnologue
Languages of Chad (134), from Ethnologue
Languages of Cameroon (286), from Ethnologue
Category : Ethnic Groups in Gabon, from Wikipedia
Category : Ethnic Groups in Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Category : Ethnic Groups in the C.A.R., from Wikipedia
Category : Ethnic Groups in Chad, from Wikipedia
Category : Ethnic Groups in Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Gabon, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Chad, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Azande, from Ethno Atlas
J.B. Rueher, Les Abeilles de l'Afrique equatoriale française. Leurs moeurs, leur culture. Instructions et methodes pratiques et faciles pour l'apiculture rationnelle et moderne 1929, Gallica
Religion Category : Religion in Gabon, from Wikipedia
Category : Religion in the C.A.R., from Wikipedia
Category : Religion in Chad, from Wikipedia
Category : Religion in Rep. Congo, from Wikipedia
Category : Religion in Cameroon, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Gabon, from Kirken i Norge
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : C.A.R., from Kirken i Norge
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Chad, from Kirken i Norge
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Cameroon, from Kirken i Norge
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Congo Brazzaville, from Kirken i Norge
History of Regions see Rep. Congo (Brazzaville; Moyen Congo), Central African Republic (Oubangi-Chari), Chad, Gabon, Cameroun, at this site
Articles Kingdom of Baguirmi, Kanem-Bornu Empire, Ouaddai Kingdom, from Wikipedia
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Federation de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1912-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08
Local History History of Libreville, from Wikipedia
History of Brazzaville, from Wikipedia
Pointe Noire, from Wikipedia
History of Bangui, from Wikipedia
History of N'Djamena (Fort Lamy), from Wikipedia
Sarh (Fort Archambault), from Wikipedia
Cultural History
Biographies Felix Eboue, from The World at War, from Wikipedia
Environmental History

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
Colonial Heads of FEA, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Journal officiel de l'Afrique equatoriale française 1905-1906, Gallica
Yearbooks International; Congo entries
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base (France)
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Fr. Equatorial Afr.
Archival Deposits Archives nationales d'outre mer, France
Constitutions, Laws
Budgets Projets de budgets exercice ... (Gouvernement general de l'Afrique equatoriale française) 1912, 1915, 1917, Gallica
Comptes definitifs des recettes et des depenses (Gouvernement general de l'Afrique equatoriale française) 1910-1936, Gallica
Budget general / Gouvernement general de l'Afrique equatoriale française, 1911, 1919, 1921, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931, Gallica
Document Collections
Individual Documents Manifeste lance de Brazzaville, from Institut Charles de Gaulle
Historical Maps collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : AEF BIUSJ, Catalogue de la Cartotheque Afrique Equatoriale (listing of maps only; no links)
WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Gabon, C.A.R., Chad, Cameroon
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
AEF, Modern
AEF, contemporary French Equatorial Africa 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
A.E.F., Carte Ethnographique, 1913, 1 : 5.000.000, Gallica
A.E.F., Carte Geologique 1913, 1 : 5.000.000, Gallica
Barralier, Afrique equatoriale francaise. Carte geologique 1913, Gallica
Barralier, Afrique equatoriale francaise. Carte ethnographique 1918, Gallica
H. Barrere, Afrique Equatoriale Française 1930, Gallica
E. Desbuissons, Partie de l'Afrique equatoriale pour suivre les travaux de la conference de Berlin 1884, Gallica
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 12. Mourzouk 1887, 13. Kebabo 1886, 13. Kebabo 1888, 13. Kebabo 1896, 19. Agadez 1888, 19. Agadez 1902, 20. Yayo 1886, 20. Yavo 1888, 26. Kouka 1888, 26. Kouka 1898, 27. El Facher, 27. El Facher 1887, 27. El Facher 1898, 28. El Obeid 1888, 28. El Obeid 1892, 34. St. Libreville 1885, 34. St. Libreville 1891, 35. Inguimma 1884, 35. Inguimma 1885, 35. Bangala 1892, 36. Lado 1889, 36. Lado 1892, 39. San Salvador 1885, 39. San Salvador 1889, 39. San Salvador 1896, 39. San Salvador 1899, 40. Ounya-N'Zingue 1884, 40. Loulouabourg 1891, 40. Loulouabourg 1895, 40. Loulouabourg 1899, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 8 Sabhah (1969), 9 Daklah Oasis (1969), 13 Fort Lamy (1973), 14 El Fasher (1973), 18 Douala (1963), 19 Bangui (1963), sheets 22 French Congo (1958), 23 Kisangani (1968), PCL, UTexas
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Gabun, French Congo, French Equatorial Africa, Cameroon, Niam-Niam (Azande), Bagirmi, Bornu, Adamawa, Wadai, Borku from EB 1911
Article Gabun, Brazza, Niam-Niam, Camerun, Bagirmi, Wadai, Bornu, Borku, Baele (Ennedi), from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888-1890, in German
Religious Article Gaboon, Ubanghi, Ubangho-Chari, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912
Parliamentary Debates
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of FEA, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from World Currency Museum
FEA Coins, from World Coins Image Gallery

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on AEF survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
Most Ethno-Net Africa Database, Chad Congo Brazzaville, Cameroon, bibliography
general bibliographies Bruel, Bibliographie de l'Afrique Equatoriale Française, 1914, IA
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
AEF entries
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on AEF Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
General Accounts Naval Intelligence Division : French Equatorial Africa (Geographical Handbook Series), London 1942, 524 pp. [G]
Specific Topics Naval Intelligence Division : French Equatorial Africa (Geographical Handbook Series), London 1942, 524 pp.
North and West French Africa, in : Jasper H. Stembridge, The Oxford War Atlas Volume II, 1 September 1941 to 1 January 1943, Oxford : UP 1943 [G]
Chapter 34 : French Rule in Black Africa, pp.691-712; 35 : A Visit to Dr. Albert Schweitzer, pp.712-734, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionary David E. Gardinier, Historical Dictionary of Gabon, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1981 [G]
Pierre Kalck, Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1980 [G]
Samuel Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff, Historical Dictionary of the People's Republic of the Congo, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1974 [G]
Mark W. DeLancey and H. Mbella Mkeba, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow, 2nd edition 1990 [G]
Historical Atlas
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year (French) Equatorial Africa, 1913 p.1006 [G]
French Colonial Empire, 1945 pp.301-302, 1946 pp.329-330, 1947 pp.344-345 [G]
French Overseas Territory, 1948 pp.330-332, 1949 pp.287-290 [G]
French Union, 1950 pp.305-308 [G]
French Equatorial Africa, 1951 p.309, 1952 pp.301-302, 1953 pp.297-298, 1954 p.296, 1955 pp.342-343, 1956 p.280, 1957 p.342, 1958 p.278, 1959 pp.277-278 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook French Congo, 1910 pp.796-797 [G]
French Congo (French Equatorial Africa), 1919 pp.861-863, 1924 pp.909-911, 1925 pp.921-923, 1926 pp.893-896, 1928 pp.909-911, 1929 pp.896-898, 1932 pp.898-901, 1937 pp.940-942 [G]
French Equatorial Africa, 1943 pp.924-926 [G]
(New) International Yearbook French Equatorial Africa, 1913 p.267, 1914 p.273, 1916 p.248, 1918 p.232, 1919 pp.271-272, 1920 pp.259-260, 1921 p.259, 1923 p.265, 1925 p.260, 1928 p.276, 1930 pp.288-289, 1932 p.304, 1933 pp.288-289, 1934 p.252, 1935 p.259, 1938 p.270, 1939 pp.292-293, 1940 p.290, 1941 pp.222-223, 1942 pp.266-267, 1943 p.227, 1944 pp.238-239, 1945 pp.222-223 [G]
Americana Annual French Equatorial Africa, 1927 p.364, 1928 p.323, 1930 pp.340-341, 1931 p.337, 1932 p.307, 1933 p.335, 1934 p.264, 1935 p.306, 1936 p.312, 1937 p.305, 1938 p.297, 1939 p.321, 1940 p.322, 1943 p.307, 1944 pp.294-295, 1945 p.303, 1946 pp.305-306, 1947 p.273, 1957 p.302 [G]
Other French Equatorial Africa, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 p.271, 1933 p.226, 1934 pp.249-250, 1935 p.241, 1936 p.213, 1937 p.216, 1938 pp.222-223, 1940 p.256, 1941 p.268, 1942 p.184, 1943 p.186, 1944 p.128, 1946 p.180, 1952 p.171 [G]

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