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Literature on the History of Central Africa
Cameroon Sao Tome
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 6th 2013

1472-1875 . In 1472 Portuguese navigator Diogo Cao reached the mouth of the Congo. On March 24 1778 Portugal ceded its claim to Fernando Poo and Annobon, as well as to a corresponding stretch of the African coast, to Spain (Treaty of El Pardo). In 1778 the first Spanish expedition, under the Conde de Argelejo, arrived. Spanish settlers took up residence on Fernando Poo; until the 1880s Spain undertook no effort to establish outposts on the mainland. In 1815, the European powers had agreed on the abolition of the slave trade. In the following years British ships used Fernando Poo as a port for ships patroling the Guinea coast to stop the now illegal slave trade. In 1839-1841, Spain declined a British offer to purchase the island. The Vicariate Apostolic of Annobon, Corisco and Fernando Poo Islands was established in 1855. In the later 19th century, Spanish authorities deported Cuban prisoners to Fernando Poo (on Cuba several rebellions against Spanish rule took place). Also, freed Cuban slaves were settled on Fernando Poo.

1875-1968 . During the partition of Africa in the 1880s, Spain found its claim to possession on the mainland largely ignored; only a small territory, Rio Muni, in 1900 was ultimately recognized by France as Spanish possession. When Britain and France released their African colonies into independence in the 1960s, Spain held on to its colonies; Spanish Guinea (= Rio Muni) and Fernando Poo upon independence in 1968 merged to form Guinea Equatorial.
During the establishment of (British, French, German) colonies on the African mainland, Fernando Poo was of significant logistical importance.

Independence . The Nguema regime 1968-1979 was a period of brutal repression; he was ousted in a coup, and executed.

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook; countries Equatorial Guinea; from Index Mundi
Entries Elobey, Annobon & Corrisco, Spanish Guinea, Rio Muni, Fernando Po, Equatorial Guinea, from Sandafayre Stamp Atlas
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World, from BUBL, from African Studies Center, UPenn, from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
African Studies : Equatorial Guinea, from Columbia Univ. Library
on History
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Timelines, from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Pagina Oficial del Gobierno de la Republica de Guinea Equatorial, Cronologia Historica
Accounts of History Current Article History of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Category : History of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
History of Equatorial Guinea, from africanet.com, from newafrica.com, from Lonely Planet, from Africa Online
P.L.N. Andeke, Breve resumen historico de Guinea Equatorial Pt.1 Sept. 2008, Pt.2 Oct. 2008, Pt.3 March 2009, La Gaceta de Guinea Equatorial
A. Rodriguez Nunez, La Antigua Guinea Espanola : Analisis y Perspectivas n.d.
Specific Periods L. Crespi, Islas de Fernando Poo y Annobon. Dos intentos de presencia espanola an Africa a fines del siglo XVIII, 2011
B. Wharton, The impact and legacy of twentieth-century Spanish colonial policy on the socio-political development of Guinea Ecuatorial, Gefame 2006
D. Garcia-Cantus, Fernando Poo: una aventura colonial española en el África Occidental 1778-1900 , thesis 2003
J.B. Vilar, Espana en Guinea Espanola, 1778-1892
DADM : Spanish Guinea, 1950-1968, Equatorial Guinea (1968-present)
Specific Events J.L. Vila-San Juan, "El curioso alzamiento en Guinea" 1974 (on the situation in 1936)
Airlift to Biafra, Aviation History 1968
The hell-borne traffic, Geographical Magazine 2007; article on Captain William Owen, who a.o. patrolled the West African coast from the base of Fernando Poo
Historiography J. Nerin y Abad, Mito Franquista y Realidad de la Colonization de la Guinea Espanola, Estudios di Asia y Africa XXXII:1 1997
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Equatorial Guinea; Country Report : Equatorial Guinea, from Polity IV; For the Record : Eq. Guinea, from UN Human Rights System; Country Profile : Equatorial Guinea, from ISS; Article Politics of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia; Category : Politics of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Governments on the WWW : Equatorial Guinea
Military Wars of Equatorial Guinea, 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Equatorial Guinea, from ODM
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Equatorial Guinea 1969-1979
N.O. Asama Anque, Origen de las fuerzas terrestres de la República de Guinea Ecuatorial, La Gaceta de Guinea Equatorial Sept, 2008
Economy & Finances Article : Economy of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Global Currency History : Equatorial Guinea
Social History E. Martino, Clandestine Recruitment Networks in the Bight of Biafra: Fernando Po's Answer to the Labour Question, 1926-1945, IISH 2012
Kalagenesis, 1921 Liberia.The Fernando Po Incident.
Liberia Past and Present, The 1930 Forced Labour Scandal
A Pocket full of Wanderlust, Freed Cuban Slaves on Fernando Poo. (on an event of 1869), 2012
CubaGenWeb, Data Base of Prisoners and Deportees During the Ten Years War (1868-1878)
M.L. de Castro Antolin, Fernando Poo y Los Emancipados de La Habana, n.d., Scribd
A. Campos Serrano et al., Labour and Trade Union Freedom in Equatorial Guinea, 2006
Ethnography Languages of Equatorial Guinea (13), from Ethnologue
Category : Ethnic Groups in Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Category : Languages of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Equatorial Guinea : The Position of Refugees and Exiles in 2001, from UNHCR
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Equatorial Guinea
MAIB, La Historia del Pueblo Bubi
Religion Religion, from Guinea Equatorial, Growing Stronger (official)
Category : Religion in Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Equatorial Guinea, from Kirken i Norge
P.R. Dekar, Jamaican and British Baptists in West Africa, 1841-1888
E. Canals, Armengoll Coll y Armengoll : Missionary and Bishop for Africa
History of Regions Modern Provinces of Equatorial Guinea, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republic of Equatorial Guinea 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
W. Schippke, Annobon Island (Pagalu) [AF-039]
Sistema de Matriculacion Provincial Numerico, has codes for Fernando Poo and Rio Muni
Colonial Era J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Spanish Territories in the Gulf of Guinea, 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, United Colony of Spanish Guinea, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Autonomous Region of Equatorial Guinea 1968-07-08
Article : Elobey, Annobon and Corisco, Wikipedia
Mi Guinea Equatorial, La isla de Corisco, Annobon y Elobeyes
Local History Malabo, from Wikipedia
Ayuntamiento de Malabo, Historia de Malabo. De Port Clarence a Santa Isabel y finalmente Malabo
Institutions Contemporary African Database : Institutions, Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea, from Airline History
Rincon Historico, Vias Ferreas (Fernando Poo)
Rincon Historico, Patrulla Atlandida (on flight connection Melilla-Fernando Poo, 1926-)
Cultural History J.M. Lipski, The Spanish of Equatorial Guinea: research on la hispanidad's best-kept secret
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
R.J. Howgego, Richard Francis Burton - English Explorer, Scholar, Soldier and Diplomat (1821-1890); Burton was British consul on Fernando Poo 1861-1862
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
A. Oyos de Castro, Soil Evolution in Spanish Guinea, 1955
J. Juste et al., Impact of Market Hunting on Mammal Species in Equatorial Guinea, partially garbled scan

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Leaders of Equatorial Guinea, from ZPC, including party leaders
Heads of State of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Colonial Heads of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors Chinese Ambassadors to Equatorial Guinea, from PRC MOFA
Political Graveyard, U.S. diplomatic chiefs of mission to Equatorial Guinea
Lists of Consuls
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Direccion General de Estadistica y Cuentas Nacionales
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Equatorial Guinea, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Equatorial Guinea
Election Results from Psephos (since 2004); from African Elections Database, since 1963
Search IPU Parline for "Equatorial Guinea"
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes La Guinea Espanola 1903-1969
Collections of Newspaper Articles World History Archives : Equatorial Guinea
Specific Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
La Gaceta de Guinea Equatorial 2006-2013
Yearbooks International; Equatorial Guinea entries
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Cronicas de Guinea Equatorial, Fotos Antiguas
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Guinea Equatorial
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Equatorial Guinea
Archival Deposits Mundus : Baptist Missionary Society, Jamaica and Cameroons Missions, on Fernando Poo
Constitutions MAIB, Actas de Constitucion de Guinea, 1967
MAIB, Primera Constitucion de Guinea Equatorial 1968
Laws 1906 Reglamento del Trabajo Indigena Guinea Espanola , Google Docs
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Guinea Equatorial, from ILO, 14 docs. since 1981
Treaties MAIB, Tratado de San Ildefonso sobre Guinea Ecuatorial [1778]
MAIB, Tratado de 1900, sobre delimitación de la parte continental de Guinea Ecuatorial [1900]
Consular Reports
Document Collections Documents from the Equatorial Guinea Archive
Open Source Guinea; site difficult to navigate, lots of primary sources
Search IPU Parline for "Equatorial Guinea"
Asser Institute, Documents Equatorial Guinea
Individual Documents 1884 Report of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce on German trade on Africa's west coast and on market conditions there; paragraph on Fernando Poo, from Deutsche Reichstagsakten, posted by Bayrische Staatsbibliothek; scan, in German, Fraktur font
Pope Paul VI, Constitutio Apostolica de Fernando Poo (Rivi Muniensis) 1965
Open Source Guinea : Nigerian Parlament. Report of the Parliamentary Delegation to Fernando Poo & Rio Muni 1957. Federation of Nigeria. Lagos, 1958. AGA, (15)18 Caja 81/08215., Feb. 26 1957
IPU Election Report, Equatorial Guinea 1968
Letter from Capt. Richard Burton, F. R. G. S., H. M. Consul to Fernando Po, to Dr. Norton Shaw , Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London vol.6 1861, IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions Servicio Geografico, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Guinea Equatorial click here
Equatorial Guinea Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old maps of Equatorial Guinea, Wikimedia Commons
Atlas of Equatorial Guinea, from Wikimedia Commons
El Rincon Historico, Mapas de Fernando Poo
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Map of 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. ed. 1890, posted by Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, lists Fernando Poo as Spanish, but indicates Rio Muni territory as French
Africa map of 1892 from Gardiner's Atlas of English History, 1892
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Guinea Equatorial, Modern
Guinea Equatorial, contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 34. St. Libreville 1885, 34. St. Libreville 1891, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 22 French Congo (1958), PCL, UTexas
German Map (1911-1916) featuring Span. Guinea, posted by Jaduland
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Fernando Po, Muni River Settlements, Corisco, from EB 1911
Article Fernando Po, Corisco, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed., 1888-1890, in German, Retrobibliothek
Religious Article Vicariate Apostolic, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912; scroll down for Fernando Po
Parliamentary Debates
Travelogues F.W. Butt-Thompson, A Voyage to Fernando Poo underttaken in 1840, Baptist Quarterly vol.15 no.2 1953, pp.83-87
M.H. Kingsley, Fernando Poo and the Bubis, ch.2 in Wanderings in West Africa; she traveled 1893-1896
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Equatorial Guinea, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from World Currency Museum
Equatorial Guinea Coins, from African Coins and Tokens
Stamps Stamps Fernando Poo 1868-1907, Elobey, Annobon y Corrisco 1903-1909, Spanish Guinea 1903-1920, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Equatorial Guinea survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.193-238 in M. Liniger-Goumaz, Historical Dictionary of Equatorial Guinea, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1988 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliographie de l'Archeologie de l'Afrique Centrale : Guinee Equatoriale
serial publications
general bibliographies
Equatorial Guinea entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Äquatorialguinea-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Equatorial Guinea Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.29, pp.872-876 Article Western Africa : Equatorial Guinea. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.29
Specific Topics Richard Burton, Benin - Nun - Bonny River to Fernando Po (1863), pp.242-295 in : R.E. Burton, Wanderings in West Africa, Vol.2 New York : Dover 1991, KMLA Lib.Sign. 916.604 B974w
Historical Dictionary Max Liniger-Goumaz, Historical Dictionary of Equatorial Guinea, Metuchen : Scarecrow 1988, 238 pp.
Articles : Bioko pp.81-83, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Spanish Colonial Empire, 1945 p.656, 1946 p.694, 1947 p.716, 1948 p.693, 1949 p.600, 1950 pp.641-642, 1951 p.647, 1952 pp.648-649, 1953 p.657, 1954 pp.660-661, 1955 p.709, 1956 pp.646-647, 1957 pp.708-709 [G]
Spanish Colonies, 1958 p.651, 1959 p.650 [G]
Spanish Overseas Provinces, 1960 pp.651-652, 1961 pp.652-653, 1962 p.646, 1963 p.760 [G]
Colonies and Dependent Territories, 1964 p.265-268 (on events of 1963) [G]
Colonies and other Dependencies, 1965 p.255, 1966 p.206, 1967 p.221, 1968 p.219 [G]
Equatorial Guinea, 1970 pp.334-335, 1971 pp.317-318, 1972 p.291, 1973 pp.287-288, 1974 pp.306-307, 1975 p.289, 1976 p.330, 1977 p.329, 1978 p.374, 1979 p.368, 1980 p.366, 1981 pp.367-368, 1982 p.367, 1983 pp.361-362, 1984 p.366, 1985 pp.464, 673, 1986 pp.458-459, 669, 1987 pp.427, 639, 1988 pp.388, 591, 1989 pp.388, 591, 1990 pp.405, 606, 1991 pp.384, 591, 1992 pp.356, 591, 1993 pp.359-360, 602, 1994 pp.357-358, 602, 1995 pp.403, 602, 1996 pp.401, 602, 1997 pp.415, 600, 2002 pp.419, 598 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Spain : Colonies, 1878 pp.418-420, 1895 pp.959-962, 1898 pp.959-962, 1901 p.1060, 1905 p.1159, 1910 pp.1229-1230, 1924 p.1302-1303, 1925 pp.1310-1311, 1926 pp.1273-1274, 1928 pp.1313-1314, 1929 pp.1288-1289, 1932 pp.1303-1304, 1937 pp.1334-1335, 1943 pp.1281-1282 [G]
Equatorial Guinea, 1970-1971 pp.881-882, 1975-1976 pp.897-899, 1976-1977 pp.906-908, 1978-1979 pp.430-432, 1979-1980 pp.432-434, 1980-1981 pp.431-433, 1981-1982 pp.435-437, 1983-1984 pp.443-445, 1984-1985 pp.441-443, 1985-1986 pp.443-445, 1986-1987 pp.447-449, 1987-1988 pp.454-456, 1988-1989 pp.456-458, 1989-1990 pp.459-461, 1990-1991 pp.458-460, 1991-1992 pp.458-460, 1992-1993 pp.524-526, 1993-1994 pp.530-532, 1994-1995 pp.518-520, 1995-1996 pp.514-517, 1996-1997 pp.454-457, 1997-1998 pp.463-466, 1998-1999 pp.507-511, 2000 pp.584-588, 2001 pp.565-569, 2002 pp.589-593, 2003 pp.592-596, 2004 pp.592-596, 2005 pp.591-595, 2006 pp.585-589 [G]
(New) International Yearbook Spanish West Africa, 1939 p.726 [G]
Spain : Colonial Empire, 1940 pp.706-707, 1941 p.619, 1942 p.657, 1943 pp.604-605, 1944 p.586 [G]
Spanish Africa, 1945 pp.588-589 [G]
Americana Annual Spanish Colonial Empire - Spanish Guinea, 1946 p.687, 1947 p.664 [G]
Spanish Territories, 1962 p.717, 1963 pp.633-634, 1964 p.621 [G]
Equatorial Guinea, 1970 p.281, 1971 pp.283-284, 1972 p.274, 1973 p.280 [G]

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