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Literature on the History of West Africa
Guinea Equatorial Cameroon
First posted in April 2002, Last revised on November 6th 2013

1471-1875 . In 1471 Sao Tome was discovered by Portuguese navigator Diogo Cao. The Portuguese established sugar plantations on the island, worked by slaves they imported from the nearby mainland. In the 1530s sugar plantations were established in (Portuguese) Brazil, which demanded a steady influx of African slaves. Sao Tome gained importance as an entrepot in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.
In 1641 to 1644 Sao Tome was briefly held by the Dutch (WIC). In 1753 the capital was moved from Sao Tome to Santo Antonio on Principe. In 1778 Portugal ceded the islands of Fernando Poo and Annobon to Spain.
In 1815 the European powers agreed on banning slave trade, hitherto the dominant trade of Sao Tome. Coffee plantations were established on Sao Tome, and in 1852 the capital was moved back to Sao Tome. Slavery was formally outlawed in 1875 (but continually practiced until World War I).

1875-1975 . At the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, Portugal held on to Sao Tome and Principe. The islands gained independence in 1975.

Independence . The Portuguese settlers left; following a period of a one-party-state, in 1990 multiparty elections were held. In 1994 Principe was granted political autonomy.

Students' Paper : Lim, Seung Hwan, History of Sugar Plantations (Sept. 2008)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Kenya, from Wikipedia
Country Profile : Sao Tome, from ISS
Gerhard Seibert, Comrades, Clients and Cousins. Colonialism, Socialism and Democratization in Sao Tome and Principe, Leiden 1999, 455 pp.
Links General from from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL
Category : Sao Tome and Principe, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Sao Tome and Principe, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library History : Sao Tome and Principe
Historical Dictionary
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current from Wikipedia
Specific Periods DADM : Sao Tome and Principe (1975-present)
Politics Category : Politics of Sao Tome and Principe, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Sao Tome & Principe; For the Record : Sao Tome, from UN Human Rights System
Governments on the WWW : Sao Tome and Principe
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor, click for Sao Tome and Principe; Currency Boards and Dollarization by Kurt Schuler; click for Sao Tome and Principe
Article Economy of Sao Tome and Principe, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of Sao Tome and Principe, from Wikipedia
IMF, Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe and the IMF, 1998-2013
AFP, The Crumbling Colonial Plantations of Sao Tome and Principe, video
S. Kyle, Agriculture in Sao Tome and Principe : Policy and Investment Options 1999
Social History Rural Poverty Portal, Rural Poverty in Sao Tome and Principe
M. Lopes, The Fight to Save Traditional Medicine in Sao Tome and Principe, Global Voices Online 2013
Ethnography Languages of Sao Tome e Principe (4), from Ethnologue, click for Sao Tome e Principe
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Sao Tome and Principe
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Sao Tome, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Sao Tome e Principe, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Municipalities of Sao Tome e Principe, from www.statoids.com
Districts of Sao Tome e Principe, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Colonia da coroa portuguesa de Sao Tome e Principe 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, Provincia ultramarina de Sao Tome e Principe 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, Republica de Sao Tome e Principe 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History
Institutions Institutions in Sao Tome e Principe, from Contemporary African Database
Sao Tome and Principe, from Airline History
Cultural History
Biographies Chinese Ambassadors to Sao Tome and Principe, from PRC MOFA
African Women Bibliographic Database
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Others Luso-Brazilian Books

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors
Lists of Consuls
Statistical Data Responsible Institution
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Sao Tome
Election Results from Psephos, since 2001; from IFES Election Guide, since 1998; from African Elections Database, since 1975
Search IPU Parline for "Sao Tome and Principe"
Documents Document Surveys Ch.12 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Africanarum et Americanarum, pp.263-273, in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Scriptores de insulis Africae orientaliae adiacentibus : S. Helenae, S. Thomae, Promontoriae viridis, Canariis, Madera, Azoribus pp.211-220 in vol.3 pt.1 of B.G. Struve/J.G. Meusel, Bibliotheca historica 1787, in Latin, GB
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes
Collections of Newspaper Articles
Specific Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Sao Tome e Principe, from ABYZ; from World Newspapers (links)
Yearbooks International; Sao Tome entries UN Yearbook . UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
The Situation in Territories under Portuguese Administration : Sao Tome and Principe 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Cronicas de Guinea Equatorial, Fotos Antiguas
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Sao Tome
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Sao Tome and Principe
Archival Deposits
Treaties List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Sao Tome, from ILO, 12 docs. since 1982
Consular Reports
Document Collections Asser Institute : Documents Sao Tome and Principe
Individual Documents
Historical Maps responsible institutions Direction des services g?graphique et cadastral de Sao Tome-et-Principe, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
Missao Geografica-Hidrografica, Ministry of Social Equipt & Environment, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : S. Tome Sao Tome and Principe Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Sao Tome and Principe, from Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
S. Tome, Modern
S. Tome, contemporary Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 22 French Congo (1958), PCL, UTexas
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Sankt Thomas, Prinzeninsel, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, in German, Retrobibliothek
Article Sao Thome, Prinzeninsel, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 14th ed., 1894-1896, in German, Retrobibliothek
Religious Article Diocese of Saint Thomas, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Sao Tome and Principe p.355 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Parliamentary Debates Assembleia Nacional de S. Tome e Principe, Diarios da A.N., 2010-
Tourist Guides
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives
Libraries National Libraries of Africa : Sao Tome e Principe
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthems, Sao Tome, from National Anthems, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Sao Tome and Principe, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Kenyan coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page; from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Sao Tome and Principe Stamps 1870-1914, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Sao Tome and Principe survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications
general bibliographies
Sao Tome entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Sao Tome e Principe-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna

Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Sao Tome e Principe Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Biblioteca Digital, Memorias de Africa e do Oriente
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.15, pp.642-644 Article Central Africa : Sao Tome. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.15
Specific Topics Shubi L. Ishemo, Forced Labour and Migration in Portuguese African Colonies, pp.162-165 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Sources G.A. Pery, Geographia e estatistica geral de Portugal e colonias, com um atlas (1875) in Portuguese, posted on Internet Archive
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Portuguese Dependencies, 1913 pp.1125 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1945 pp.560-561 [G]
Portuguese Overseas Provinces, 1946, pp.591-592 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1947 p.614, 1948 p.600, 1949 pp.532-533, 1950 p.558, 1951 p.565 [G]
Portuguese Overseas Territories, 1952 p.567, 1953 p.575, 1954 pp.574-575, 1955 pp.623-624, 1956 pp.561-562, 1957 pp.624-625, 1958 pp.557-559, 1959 pp.556-557, 1960 pp.557-558 [G]
Portuguese Overseas Provinces, 1961 pp.569-570, 1962 pp.558-561, 1963, pp.662-664 [G]
Colonies and Dependent Territories, 1964, pp.265-268 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies, 1965, p.255, 1966, p.206, 1967, p.221, 1968, p.219 [G]
Dependent States : Sao Tome et Principe, 1969 pp.280-281, 1970 p.281, 1971 p.271, 1973 p.234 [G]
Dependent States : Africa, Portuguese, 1975 p.229 [G]
Sao Tome and Principe, 1976 p.608, 1977 p.608, 1978 p.624, 1979 pp.615-616, 1980 pp.612-613, 1981 p.613, 1982 pp.613-614, 1983 pp.608-609, 1984 p.611, 1985 pp.472, 772, 1986 pp.466, 771, 1988 pp.395-396, 691, 1989 pp.395, 691, 1990 pp.412, 707, 1993 pp.368, 707, 1994 pp.366, 706, 1995 pp.465-46, 706 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Portugal : Dependencies, 1895 pp.841-843, 1898 pp.839-842, 1901 pp.938-942, 1905 pp.1019-1023, 1910 p.1119 [G]
Portugal : Sao Tome and Principe, 1919 p.1164, 1924 p.1221, 1925 pp.1229, 1926 p.1191, 1928 p.1225, 1929 p.1202, 1932 p.1221, 1937 p.1253 [G]
Portugal : Sao Tome e Principe, 1943 p.1200, 1970-1971 p.1259, 1975-1976 pp.1263-1264 [G]
Sao Tome, 1978-1979 pp.1033-1034, 1980-1981 pp.1037-1038, 1983-1984 pp.1036-1037, 1984-1985 pp.1033-1034, 1985-1986 pp.1035-1036, 1987-1988 pp.1039-1040, 1988-1989 pp.1043-1044, 1989-1990, 1990-1991 pp.1056-1057, 1991-1992 pp.1057-1058, 1992-1993 pp.1145-1146, 1993-1994 pp.1143-1144, pp.1143-1145 (data of 1993-1994) [G]
Sao Tome e Principe, 1995-1996 pp.1135-1138, 1996-1997 pp.1111-1113, 1997-1998 pp.1113-1116, 1998-1999 pp.1214-1217, 2000 pp.1360-1363, 2001 pp.1323-1326, 2002 pp.1378-1381, 2003 pp.1377-1380, 2004 pp.1382-1385, 2005 pp.1392-1395 [G]
(New) International Yearbook
Americana Annual Sao Thome and Principe, 1927 p.781, 1928 p.714, 1930 pp.700-701, 1931 p.697, 1932 p.653, 1933 p.703, 1934 p.541, 1935 p.647, 1936 pp.662-663, 1937 p.636, 1943 p.650, 1944 p.626 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire - Sao Tome and Principe, 1945 p.591, 1946 pp.613-614 [G]
Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1947 pp.576-577 [G]
Portuguese Territories - Sao Tome and Principe, 1957 pp.637-638, 1961 pp.604-605 [G]
Portuguese Territories, 1962 pp.610-612, 1963 pp.541-543, 1964 pp.538-539 [G]

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