1867-1911 1945-1970

Mexico 1911-1945

In 1910 dissatisfaction with the quasi-dictatorship of President PORFIRIO DIAZ as well as the adversities under which the population on the countryside had to live with resulted in the outbreak of the MEXICAN CIVIL WAR (1910-1920). Rebel leaders such as EMILIO ZAPATA and more dubious warlords such as PANCHO VILLA emerged, the latter staging cross-border raids into the United States and causing a U.S. expedition against him into Mexico.
During World War I, Mexico stayed neutral. Central Powers' hopes to draw Mexico into the war on their side did not materialize, because Mexico politically was paralyzed through the ongoing civil war.
In 1920 the civil war ended and the ONE PARTY SYSTEM was established, according to which the NATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (PNR) monopolized political power, but also guaranteed political stability, a precondition for economic development. Political succession was, from now on, decided behind closed doors within the party. In the crisis of 1940, the party was rechristened REVOLUTIONARY PARTY OF MEXICO (PRM); it was to dominate Mexican policy throughout the remainder of the century.
In 1938, Mexico's petrol industry was nationalized.
Mexico entered the League of Nations in 1931. In World War II, German diplomats again hoped to draw Mexico into the war on the side of the Axis Powers. In vain, as Mexico declared war on Germany in 1942.

Statistics of Mexican Democide : Estimates, Calculations, and Sources, from Statistics of Democide by R.J. Rummel
DOCUMENTS List of Presidents of Mexico, from World Statesmen
Revolutionary coins and paper money from Oaxaca, 1915, from Joel's Coins
Villista Coins (Ejercito del Norte), from Coins from Famous People in History
The Tampico Incident, 20 April 1914, from First World war.com
General Pershing on Military Operations in Mexico, 30 March 1916, from First World War.com
General Funston on Military Operations in Mexico, 15 April 1916, from First World War.com
President Carranza on Military Operations in Mexico, 22 May 1916, from First World War.com
Newton Baker on Military Operations in Mexico, 18 June 1916, from First World War.com
Robert Lansing on Military Operations in Mexico, 20 June 1916, from First World War.com
REFERENCE A Concise History of Mexico, by Brian Hamnett, 1999, 336 pp., Cambridge Concise Histories
Evelyn Hu-Dehart, The Chinese of Peru, Cuba and Mexico, pp.220-222 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Chapter III : Avila Camacho Succeeds Cardenas, pp.34-53; Chapter IV : Mexico : Land, Revolution, People, pp.53-77, Chapter V : Cardenas Days and Years, pp.78-86, Chapter VI : Mexicans Left and Right, pp.87-106, Chapter VII : Foreign Policy and Axis Influence in Mexico, pp.117, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Article : Mexico, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.1087-1090, 1944 pp.439-442, 1945 pp.445-448 [G]
Article : Mexico, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1918 pp.1069-1075, 1919 pp.1046-1053, 1924 pp.1094-1103, 1925 pp.1103-1112, 1926 pp.1069-1078, 1928 pp.1098-1107, 1929 pp.1081-1090, 1932 pp.1097-1106, 1937 pp.1134-1143, 1943 pp.1081-1090 [G]
Article : Mexico, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.554-563, 1928 pp.512-520, 1930 pp.513-517, 1931 pp.491-495, 1932 pp.464-466, 1933 pp.494-497, 1934 pp.374-377, 1935 pp.455-457, 1936 pp.453-456, 1937 pp.452-454, 1938 pp.435-437, 1939 pp.500-502, 1940 pp.502-504, 1943 pp.478-480, 1944 pp.454-456, 1945 pp.471-473, 1946 pp.491-493 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on September 13th 2008

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