1550-1821 1903-1918

Colombian Panama, 1821-1903

Since 1821, Panama formed a part of Grand Colombia, since 1830 of Colombia. While it was no more an artery of Spain's colonial Empire, it continued to be of strategic importance.
Both the United States as well as Great Britain were interested in opening improved transportation across the isthm. In 1848-1855, the TRANS-PANAMA RAILROAD was built by W.H. ASPINALL. In 1850, Britain and the USA signed the CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY, according to which neither country should have exclusive rights to a transcontinental transportation line. A NICARAGUA CANAL was discussed. In 1878, FERDINAND DE LESSEPS acquired a concession to construct the Panama Canal. Work began in 1881, yet the project suffered from maladministration, tropical diseases and insufficient funding. The company went bankrupt in 1889. The French rights were sold to the U.S. in 1901.
In 1900 the Diocesis of Cartagena (Colombia) was elevated to an archdiocesis, the diocesis of Panama being transferred from Lima to the new archdiocesis of Cartagena.
US troops landed in the Colombian state of Panama in 1856, 1860, 1865, 1873, 1885, 1901 and 1902 to protect US interests. In 1902 they took control of the railway stations and deployed troops to prevent the landing of Colombian forces.

Articles from Infoplease : Panama Canal, Panama
Articles from Catholic Encyclopedia : Panama, Cartagena
Minor Military Deployments and Actions, from Simonides Warzone US troop deployments 1833-1992
DOCUMENTS European Interference on the American Continent. The Mission to Panama, The American Whig review. / Volume 3, Issue 1, Jan. 1846, pp.1-17, from Cornell Digital Library
M. de Lesseps and his Canal, by Rear-Admiral Daniel Ammen, U.S. Navy, from The North American review. / Volume 130, Issue 279pp.130-147, Feb. 1880, from Cornell Digital Library
The Panama Canal, by Count Ferdinand De Lesseps, in : The North American review. / Volume 131, Issue 284 pp.75-79, July 1880, from Cornell Digital Library Sidney Webster, Diplomacy and Law of the Isthmian Canals, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1893 pp.602-609, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
REFERENCE Panama vs. Nicaragua Canal, from The Great Round World and What is Going on in it, Vol.1 No.15, 1897

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on October 17th 2007

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