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Panama Nicaragua
First posted on June 16th 2002, last revised on January 31st 2009

Spanish conquest in the 1520s. Part of the Captaincy of Guatemala 1538-1821, of the United Provinces of Central America (UPCA) 1821-1839; independent Republic of Costa Rica aince 1838.

Captaincy of Guatemala, 1538-1821
Conquest of Central America

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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Historical E.G. Squier, The states of Central America, 1858, GB ; C\osta Rica pp.445-480
William Eleroy Curtis, The Smallest of American Republics, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine Oct. 1887 pp.668-682, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
J.B. Calvo Mora, The Republic of Costa Rica (1889), posted on Internet Archive
G. Niederlein, The Republic of Costa Rica (1898), posted on Internet Archive
L.G. Valentine, The case of Costa Rica (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from LANIC; from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from Sources and General Resources on Latin America
Category : Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; Category : History of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Historical Text Archive : Costa Rica
Organizations Asociacion de Genealogia et de Historia de Costa Rica
Universidad de Costa Rica, Escuela de Historia
Historical Dictionaries C. Gagini, Diccionario de barbarismos y provincialismos de Costa-Rica (1893) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Portals Methexis. Portal de los blogs de los profesores Escuela Historia, in Spanish
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
History of Costa Rica, by Christopher Baker; from Costa Rica Travel Net
Historical H.H. Bancroft, History of Central America, vol.1 (1887), vol.2 (1887), vol.3 (1887), posted on Internet Archive
F.M. Barrantes, Elementos de historia de Costa Rica (1892) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Articles : Pre-Columbian History of Costa Rica, Federal Republic of Central America, from Wikipedia
Politics Politics of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Costa Rica; Governments on the WWW : Costa Rica
Category : Elections in Costa Rica, from Wikipedia;
Military Wars of Costa Rica, 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
Category : Military History of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Costa Rica Revolt, Life Magazine Aug. 25 1947, GB
Costa Rican Revolt, or is it an invasion ? Life Magazine Jan. 24 1955, GB
Costa Rica : The Withering Away of the Army and the Welfare State, pp.189-194 in A. Rouquie, The military and the state in Latin America, 1989, GB
Article : Costa Ricam Civil War, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Entry Costa Rica, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Article Economy of Costa Rica, Category : Economy of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Costa Rica
Global Integrity : Costa Rica 2007
Mexico, Costa Rica and Colombia, pp.27-30 in St. Haggard, R. Kaufman, World Bank, Country Economics Dept., The Political Economy of Inflation and Stabilization in Middle-Income Countries, 1990, GB
Social History Costa Rica, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
I.M. Jimenez, Educacion y sociedad en Costa Rica: de 1821 al presente,
Ethnography Languages of Costa Rica (10), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Costa Rica : Antillean Blacks, from Minorities at Risk
K. Russell Lohse, Africans and Their Descendants in Colonial Costa Rica, 1600-1750 (), posted on Internet Archive
Costa Rica, pp.798-799 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Costa Rica, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Costa_Rica, from Wikipedia
Patron Saint Index : Costa Rica
Costa Rica, from The Virtual Jewish History Tour
La Evangelizacion Costa Rica, p.236 in P. Ceinos, Abya-Yala: escenas de una historia india de America, 1992, in Spanish, GB
History of Regions Article Provinces of Costa Rica, Cantons of Costa Rica, Districts of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Category : Provinces of Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Provinces of Costa Rica, from www.statoids.com
Cantons of Costa Rica, from www.statoids.com
Local History List of Cities in Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
San Jose, Costa Rica : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Costa Rica, from Airline History
Structurae : Costa Rica
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Costa Rica
F. Kurtze, The interoceanic railroad route through the republic of Costa Rica, 1866, GB
Costa Rica, pp.8-9 in Report on interoceanic canals and railroads between the Atlantic and Pacific, 1867, GB
C. Butterfield, United States and Mexican mail steamship line: and statistics of Mexico, 1860, GB; serviced port of Punta Arenas, Costa Rica
Allen Morrison, The Tramways of Costa Rica
Culture Articles Costa Rica at the Olympics, Sport in Costa Rica, Football in Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Biographies Search NNDB for Costa Rica
Others Costa Rica, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Disaster Costa Rica : Panama, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
World Casino Directory : Costa Rica
International Boundary Studies, search for Costa Rica
Nicaraguan-Costa Rican Dispute, in "The Great Round World and What is Going on in it" Vol.1 No.50, October 1897, posted in Gutenberg Library Online
CASCON Case NCR : Nicaragua - Costa Rica 1955-1956, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
S. Moret et al., Costa Rica-Panama arbitration: Opinion concerning the question of boundaries between the Republics of Costa Rica and Panama, 1913, GB
F. Molina, Costa Rica and New Granada: An inquiry into the question of boundaries, 1853, GB
F. Molina, Memoir on the Boundary Question Pending between the Republic of Costa Rica and the State of Nicaragua, 1851, GB

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon ; from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Article : United States Ambassador to Costa Rica, from Wikipedia; List of Canadian Heads of Post in Costa Rica, from MOFA Canada; Embajadores de Mexico en Costa Rica, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
List of Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Costa Rica, from Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls Political Graveyard : Costa Rica, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls
Lists of Bishops Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Jose de Costa Rica, Roman Catholic Diocese de Alajuela, Roman Catholic Diocese of Cartago, Roman Catholic Diocese of Ciudad Quesada, Roman Catholic Diocese of Limon, Roman Catholic Diocese of Puntarenas, Roman Catholic Diocese of San Isidro de El General, Roman Catholic Diocese of Tilaran, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Costa Rica
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Population of the New World : Central America, pp.81-83 in Memoirs Read before the Anthropological Society of London, 1865, GB
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Election Results from Costa Rica (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide
Lijphart's Elections Archive : Costa Rica
IPU Election Archive : Costa Rica, Asamble 1970, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques ICON, International Coalition on Newspapers : Newspaper Digitization Projects, scroll down for Costa Rica
Selected Articles World History Archives : The History of Costa Rica, recent newspaper articles
on Historical Newspapers P. Biolley, Revista de Costa Rica en el siglo XIX (1902) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Costa Rica, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Films on History/Society Most Popular Documentaries with Country of Origin : Costa Rica, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
A photographic journey into Costa Rica between 1910-1940s
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Costa Rica
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Costa Rica, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Aero Costa Rica, LACSA, Nature Air, Sansa
Search Scripophily for Costa Rica
Archival Deposits Costa Rica Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
National Security Archive (U.S.)
Nationaal Archief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van het Consulaat te San Jose (Costa Rica), later Gezantschap in Costa Rica te San Jose, 1938-1954
Costa Rica, p.201 in Guide to the Materials in London Archives for the History of the United States since 1783, 2010, GB
Constitutions, Laws Constitution of 1949/2001, from Base de Datos Politicos de las Americas at Georgetown; in Spanish
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Costa Rica, from ILO, 50 docs. since 1920
Coleccion de leyes, decretos, acuerdos y resoluciones (Costa Rica) 1869, in Spanish, GB
Constitucion politica de la Republica de Costa Rica, 1869, in Spanish, GB
Codigo general de la republica de Costa Rica, emitido en 30 de julio de 1841, 1858, in Spanish, GB
Treaties Environmental Treaties : Costa Rica, from Pop Planet
Convention between the British Government and the Government of Costa Rica for the submission to arbitration of certain claims against the government of Costa Rica, signed at San Jose de Costa Rica, January 12, 1922, posted by Hugh M. Kindred, Dalhousie Univ.
Costa Rica, pp.1013-1105 in vol.6 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Consular Reports Costa Rica pp.237-243 in Accounts and papers of the House of Commons, 1862, GB
Costa Rica, pp.1-6 in vol.67 of Accounts and papers of the House of Commons, 1867, GB
Costa Rica, pp.174-177 in vol.7 of Reports from Her Majesty's consuls on the manufactures, commerce ... 1869, GB
Search Bulletin Consulaire Français (GB) for Costa-Rica
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections R.F. Guardia (ed.), Coleccion de documentos para la historia de Costa-rica (1883) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Documents relative to Central American affairs, and the enlistment question, 1856, GB
Correspondence relative to the permission given to the Consul-General in London for Guatemala and Costa Rica to purchase arms in England for the use of those Governments, 1854-1856, pp.784-804 in vol.46 of British and foreign state papers, 1865, GB
Correspondence and other papers relative to the Republics of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito Indians, and the Convention between the United States and Great Britain of April 19 1850, pp.1-146 in Senate Documents, 1856, GB
Historical Maps Responsible Authority Mapoteca Virtual, Costa Rica
collections Mapas e Foto Satellite de Costa Rica, posted by Zonu
Category : Old Maps of Central America, Maps of the History of Central America, from Wikimedia Commons
Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of Central America
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Central America, Costa Rica
Costa Rica Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Costa Rica, from Wikimedia Commons
PRINT : Carolyn Hall, Hector Perez Brignoli, Historical Atlas of Central America, Norman : University of Oklahoma Press 2003 [G]
Central America, Modern Map : Mesoamerican Languages, from Titus
Central America, Contemporary Map of Central America 1892, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas
Costa Rica, Modern
Costa Rica, Contemporary
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary Map of Northern Costa Rica 1861, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas, taken from Petermann's Geographische Mitteilungen
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, from EB 1911
Articles Costarica, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Costa Rica, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Central America, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Economic Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Guatemala and Central America, vol.4 1844 pp.112-113, posted by DTBSWS
Captaincy General of Guatemala, pp.1154-1155; Spanish American Republics : Central America, or Guatemala pp.1233-1241 in vol.3 of J. MacGregor, Commercial Statistics, 1847, GB
Costa Rica, pp.432-433 in vol.1 of I.S. Homans, A cyclopedia of commerce and commercial navigation, 1859, GB
Costa Rica, p.442 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, 1937, GB
Geographical The Isthmus of Panama and Nicaragua, pp.109-119; Central America pp.119-136 in G. Long et al., America and the West Indies: geographically described, 1845, GB
Central America, pp.551-556 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
Costa Rica, p.187 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Central America, pp.565-570 in W.L. Bevan, The student's manual of modern geography, 1869, GB
Costa Rica p.442 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnological Central America pp.156-186, in vol.11 of L.H. Gray, The Mythology of all Races, 1920, GB
The Chiriqui Potters and Veragua Goldsmiths pp.280-281 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Historical Costa Rica, p.275 in S.G. Goodrich, Peter Parley's Pictorial History of North and South America, 1868, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues F. Boyle, A ride across a continent: wanderings through Nicaragua and Costa Rica, 1868, GB
R.G. Dunlop, Travels in Central America: being a journal of nearly three years' residence, 1847, GB
J. Fröbel, Seven years' travel in Central America, northern Mexico, and the far West of the United States, 1859, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Libraries in Costa Rica, from LibDex
Costa Rica, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Direccion General Archivo Nacional
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW : Costa Rica; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Costa Rica, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : Costa Rica, bilingual Russian-English page
Costa Rica Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Costa Rica; Costa Rica, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Costa Rica Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Stamps Costa Rica 1862-1907, and Guanacaste issues, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920, by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Costa Rica survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.301-338 in T.S. Creedman, Historical Dictionary of Costa Rica, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1991 [G]
Bibliography Costa Rica, from NNDB
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Invasion desde Nicaragua a Costa Rica : Octubre 1954 - Diciembre 1955, Bibliograf?
serial publications
general bibliographies
Costa Rica entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Latin American Books
Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish)
on Costa Rica Latindex y las Revistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica
Thesis Server TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Costa Rica
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On Central America Dialogos. Revista Electronica in Spanish, on Costa Rican & Central American Historiography
Revista de Historia 2004, 2005 online
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Thomas L. Pearcy, The History of Central America, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 972.8 P359h
Specific Topics Clifford Krauss, Inside Central America, Its People, Politics and Culture, NY : Summit 1991; on Costa Rica pp.210-244 [G]
Chapter IX : The Banana Republics, pp.131-146, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
L. Bethell, Central America since Independence, Cambridge : UP 1991 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Theodore S. Creedman, Historicakl Dictionary of Costa Rica, 2nd ed., Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1991 [G]
Historical Atlas Carolyn Hall, Hector Perez Brignoli, Historical Atlas of Central America, Norman : University of Oklahoma Press 2003 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Article : Costa Rica, 1913 pp.1079-1080 [G]
Article : Central America, 1944 pp.167-168, 1945 pp.168-169 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, 1944 pp.212-213, 1945 p.213, 1946, pp.237-238, 1947, pp.188-189, 1948, p.227, 1949, pp.239-240, 1950, pp.206-207, 1951, pp.208-209, 1952, p.204, 1953, p.201, 1954, pp.204-205, 1955, pp.253-254, 1956, pp.189-190, 1957, p.249, 1958, p.188, 1959, pp.186-187, 1960, p.186, 1961, pp.195-196, 1962, p.184, 1963, pp.295-296, 1964, p.285, 1965, pp.270-271, 1966, pp.222-223, 1967, p.244, 1968, p.247, 1969, pp.235-236, 1970, pp.239-240, 1971, pp.229-230, 1972, pp.207-208, 1973, pp.200-201, 1974, pp.211-212, 1975, pp.194-195, 1976, p.210, 1977, pp.213-214, 1978, p.263, 1979, pp.266-267, 1980, pp.263-264, 1981, pp.261-262, 1982, pp.257-258, 1983, p.255, 1984, pp.252-253, 1985, pp.575, 662, 1986, pp.575-576, 658, 1988, pp.499, 579, 1989, pp.498-499, 579, 1990, pp.515, 594, 1993, pp.481, 589, 1994, pp.481, 589, 1995, pp.396, 589 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook 1878 pp.533-536, 1895 pp.444-447, 1898 pp.442-446, 1901 pp.509-513, 1905 pp.557-562, 1919 pp.774-780, 1924 pp.769-774, 1925 pp.779-785, 1926 pp.756-761, 1928 pp.767-772, 1929 pp.759-764, 1932 pp.765-770, 1937 pp.803-809, 1943 pp.802-807, 1970-1971 pp.833-837, 1975-1976 pp.840-844, 1978-1979 pp.362-366, 1980-1981 pp.364-368, 1983-1984 pp.374-378, 1984-1985 pp.373-377, 1985-1986 pp.375-379, 1987-1988 pp.381-385, 1988-1989 pp.383-387, 1989-1990 pp.386-390, 1990-1991 pp.385-389, 1991-1992 pp.385-389, 1992-1993 pp.448-452, 1993-1994 pp.454-457, 1994-1995 pp.444-447, 1995-1996 pp.438-441, 1996-1997 pp.377-380, 1997-1998 pp.386-389, 1998-1999 pp.428-431, 2000 pp.494-498, 2001 pp.480-484, 2002 pp.500-504, 2003 pp.498-502, 2004 pp.499-503, 2005 pp.497-501 [G]
Other Article : Central America, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1863 pp.173-174 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.273-274 [G]
Article : Central America, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.169-171 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.220-222 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.234 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.229-230, 1928 pp.206-207, 1930 pp.227-228, 1931 pp.236-237, 1932 pp.197-198, 1933 pp.208-209, 1934 p.178, 1935 pp.189-190, 1936 pp.192-193, 1937 pp.181-182, 1938 pp.189-190, 1939 pp.216-217, 1940 p.214, 1943 pp.213-214, 1944 pp.205-206, 1945 pp.218-219, 1946 pp.217-218 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : Americana Annual 1947 pp.192-193, 1957 pp.204-205, 1961 pp.191-192, 1962 pp.194-195, 1963 pp.183-184, 1964 pp.183-185, 1965 p.198, 1967 pp.219-220, 1968 pp.208-209, 1969 pp.216-217, 1970 pp.220-221 (on events of 1969) [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.122-123, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.122-123, 4th ed. 1984 pp.122-123 [G]
Entry : Travel Warning - Costa Rica, pp.457-459, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Republic of Costa Rica, Cabinet pp.29-30, Background Notes : Costa Rica, pp.448-453, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Article : Costa Rica, in : Americana Annual 1971 p.223, 1972 p.216, 1973 p.209 [G]
Article : Central America - Costa Rica, in : Americana Annual 1974 p.165, 1976 pp.163-164, 1989 pp.170-178, 1990 pp.167-174, 1992 pp.178-184, 1993 pp.172-177, 1994 pp.176-180 [G]
Entry : Costa Rica, pp.382-387 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]

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