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Mexico
First posted on January 29th 2009, last revised on November 22nd 2010







In 1821 the Central American deputations, hitherto part of Captaincy of Guatemala, 1538-1821 , declared independence from Spain and adherence to Mexico. Mexico's Emperor Agustin de Iturbide was toppled in 1823, and in 1824 the United Provinces of Central America were proclaimed, with Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica being founder member republics; in 1838 Los Altos was recognized as the 6th member republic.
Even within the republics there was rivalry between urban centers, controlled by the Criollo elite - in Guatemala between Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango (1838-1840 capital of Los Altos), in Honduras between Tegucigalpa and Comayagua, in Nicaragua between Managua and Leon. Until 1830 Guatemala City served as federal capital, from 1830 San Salvador exercised this function.
The border to British Honduras was not defined, neither was the border to the Mosquito Coast, a de-facto British protectorate not recognized by the United Provinces of Central America.
Political dissent within the United Provinces of Central America escalated into civil war, and in 1839 the United Provinces of Central America dissolved, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Los Altos achieving political independence.

Students' Papers : Ko, Hae Uk, An Overview Study of the Federal Republic of Central America (2013)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Modern Article : Federal Republic of Central America, from Wikipedia; Provincias Unidas deln Centro de America from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historical
Links Category : Colonial Central America, from Wikipedia
Organizations Asociacion para el Fomento de los Estudios Historicos en Centroamerica
Universidad de Costa Rica, Escuela de Historia
Historical Dictionaries Diccionario, from AFEHC
Timelines
Accounts of History Modern Article : Federal Republic of Central America, from Wikipedia; Provincias Unidas deln Centro de America from Wikipedia Spanish edition; from Wikibooks
Historical H.H. Bancroft, History of Central America, vol.1 (1887), vol.2 (1887), vol.3 (1887), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods
Administration
Military Civil War in the United Provinces of Central America 1826-1829, Revolt of Rafael Carrera 1837-1840, from ACED
Economy & Finances Eastern Coast of Central America Commercial and Agricultural Company, Brief statement: supported by original documents, of the important grants, 1839, GB
Social History
Ethnography
Religion
History of Regions see Guiatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mosquito Coast
Article Los Altos, Central America
R.A. Cinta, Lecciones de historia general de Guatemala (1899) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
F.A. de Fuentes y Guzman, Historia de Guatemala : O recordacion Florida (1882) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
F.M. Barrantes, Elementos de historia de Costa Rica (1892) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
P. Biolley, Revista de Costa Rica en el siglo XIX (1902) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
G.F. Oviedo y Valdes, Histoire du Nicaragua (1840) in French, posted on Internet Archive
H. Jalhay, La republique de Honduras: notice historique, geografique et statistique (1901) in French, posted on Internet Archive
R. Reyes, Nociones de historia del Salvador: Precedidas de un resumen de historia universal (1885) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Local History Guatemala City : History, Antigua, Guatemala, Quetzaltenango, Comayagua : History, Tegucigalpab : History, San Salvador : History, Leon, Nicaragua : History, Managua : History, San Jose, Costa Rica : History, Cartago, Costa Rica : History, Bluefields : History, from Wikipedia
Christopher Minster, A Brief History of the City of Antigua, Guaemala
History of Quetzaltenango, from Casa Xelaju
Institutions
Culture
Biographies Diccionario, from AFEHC
Articles Francisco Morazan, Rafael Carrera, Manuel Jose Arce, Jose Cecilio del Valle, from Wikipedia
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Colin Forsyth, Rafael Carrera and the independence of Guatemala. Revolution ends the United Provinces of Central America (2008)

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from Central America by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Bishops Articles : Roman Catholic Diocese of Leon
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Deposit Juan Navarrete, Letters, papers and maps relative to the history of Guatemala, 1534-1846, Bancroft Library : A Guide to the Manuscript Collections 1963 p.85
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties The United Provinces of Central America, p.687 in The American diplomatic code, 1834, Gb
Central American Federation, pp.503-514 in vol.6 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Document Collections AFEHC Fuentes
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Guatimala, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Guatemala and Central America, vol.4 1844 pp.112-113, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Entry : Guatemala, p.353 in R. Brookes, A New Universal Gazetteer, 1832, Gb
Guatemala, pp.305- in vol.3 of H. Murray, The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1838, GB
Ethnographic The Inhabitants of Central America, pp.438-439 in vol.3 of Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art, 1852, GB
Ethnographical Republique de l'Amerique Centrale, pp.442-445 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues G.A. Thompson, Narrative of an official visit to Guatemala from Mexico, 1829, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho); look for Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Central American Coins, from World Coin Gallery; Search Coin Archives for Central American Republic

Bibliography General RHS Bibliography
Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies), keyword Mauritius (site in German, most titles listed in English; hundreds of entries; publications mostly since 1970)
on Central America AFEHC Bibliografia
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
International Boundary Studies, search for Costa Rica
on Central America Latindex y las Revistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica
AFEHC Articulos,
Thesis Server TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Costa Rica
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On Central America Dialogos. Revista Electronica in Spanish, on Costa Rican & Central American Historiography
Revista de Historia 2004, 2005 online
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas L. Pearcy, The History of Central America, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 972.8 P359h
Tom Barry, Central America Inside Out, Grove Press 1991
Clifford Krauss, Inside Central America, Its People, Politics and Culture, NY : Summit 1991 [G]
Jim Handy, Gift of the Devil : A History of Guatemala, South End Press, 1998, 324 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Harvey K. Meyer, Historical Dictionary of Nicaragua, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1972 [G]
Theodore S. Creedman, Historicakl Dictionary of Costa Rica, 2nd ed., Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1991 [G]
R.E. Moore, Historical Dictionary of Guatemala, Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Historical Atlas Carolyn Hall, Hector Perez Brignoli, Historical Atlas of Central America, Norman : University of Oklahoma Press 2003 [G]