1945-1964 History of Afghanistan 1973-1978

Afghanistan 1964-1973

Administration . In 1964 PM Mohammad Daoud was ousted; the country was declared a constitutional monarchy (King Zahir Shah). Elections were held in 1965 and in 1969. The PDPA (Communist Party) had been secretly established in 1965.

Foreign Policy . Ayub Khan, president of Pakistan, visited Kabul in 1964. During the Second Indo-Pakistani War (1965) Afghanistan remained neutral. In Afghanistan there still was a strong group of proponents for the annexation of Pashtunistan, a topic which in 1964-1973 was not government priority. The president of the PR China visited in 1966, the USSR head of state in 1967, the Soviet PM in 1968, as did the PM of France. In 1971 the Conference of Foreign Ministers of Islamic Countries met in Kabul.

The Economy . The Second Five Year Development Plan (1961-1966), due to improvements in the country's infrastructure, resulted in economic growth; the mining sector expanded due to the discovery of gas fields and iron ore deposits. In 1964, the Salang highway, constructed by Soviet engineers was opened, linking Kabul and Kandahar with Turkmenistan. In 1973 Afghanistan, especially Ghor Province, suffered from famine.

Social History . The constitution of 1964 made elementary education free and mandatory, for boys and girls, and stated equality of both genders in front of the law. In 1965 for the first time a woman was appointed cabinet minister (of health).
In 1969, Kabul University temporarily was closed because of student unrest.

Timetable History of Afghanistan, from BBC News
Afghanistan Timeline 1961-1965, 1966-1970, 1971-1975, from Wikipedia
Chronological History of Afghanistan, from Afghanistan Online
Islamic Movements in Afghanistan, from Mideast & North Africa Encyclopedia
Articles Mohammed Zahir Shah, Reigns of Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah, Pashtunistan, Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal, Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi, Abdul Zahir, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Afghan Statesmen, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Historical Population Statistics : Afghanistan, from Population Statistics
Constitution of 1964, from Afghanistan Online, in English
Prime Minister of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
REFERENCE Article : Afghanistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1965 pp.104-105, 1966 p.69, 1967 p.71, 1968 p.69, 1969 pp.68-69, 1970 pp.69-70, 1971 p.69, 1972 p.61, 1973 p.59 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : Americana Annual 1967 p.32, 1968 p.29, 1969 p.40, 1970 p.46, 1971 p.69, 1972 p.71, 1973 pp.64-65 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.717-721 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 6th 2002, last revised on May 22nd 2007

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