1978-1992 History of Afghanistan 1996-2001

Afghanistan 1992-1996

Soviet Withdrawal and Continued Civil War . In 1989 the USSR withdrew her last troops from Afghan soil. The Najibullah regime continued to rule in Kabul, but did not control more than a few centers, connected by convoys of trucks. 7 Mujahedeen groups continued to fight the Najibullah administration, which fell in 1992.

The Rabbani Regime and Renewed Civil War . A coalition government, the Islamic Jihad Council, was formed in 2002. Burhanuddin Rabbani assumed the presidency. Factional fighting resumed soon after; the Rabbani regime controlled only part of Afghanistan; him being an ethnic Tajik did not help in a country where the population majority is Pashto.

Foreign Policy . Afghanistan under the Rabbani administration initially enjoyed the sympathies of the western world, as it was seen as the administration which overcame her Soviet-installed predecessor.

The Economy . The industry which financed the Mujahedeen during the years of resistance against Soviet occupation was poppy cultivation (export of opium), then tolerated by the west. By 1992 it had reached a scale, that the country's other industries were insignificant by comparison. Years of a communist administration and of civil war had severely affected the country's legitimate economy. The continued civil war, the destruction Kabul suffered, did not permit the legitimate economy to resurge.

Social History . Millions of Afghan refugees chose to remain in refugee camps in Pakistan. The civil war resulted in the destruction of much of Kabul, and in an estimated 50,000 dead in Kabul alone, mostly civilians.

The Taliban Enter the Scene . A new group, the Taliban, with support from within Pakistan, established herself in southern Afghanistan (Qandahar 1994), restoring law and order Taliban-style in the areas controlled by them. In 2006 they took control of Kabul, controlling over 80 % of the country by then.

Timetable History of Afghanistan, from BBC News
Articles Taliban, History of Afghanistan since 1992, Afghan Civil War (1992-1996), Islamic Jihad Council, Burhanuddin Rabbani, Abdul Rasheed Dostum, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, from Wikipedia
Opium Timeline, from Opioids
A Global History of Currencies : Afghanistan
Blood-Stained Hands : Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity, from HRW
Museum under Siege, by Nancy Hatch Dupree
DOCUMENTS Afghan Statesmen, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Historical Population Statistics : Afghanistan, from Population Statistics
REFERENCE Article : Afghanistan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1990-1991 pp.63-67, 1991-1992 pp.63-67, 1992-1993 pp.65-69, 1993-1994 pp.69-73, 1994-1995 pp.67-71, 1995-1996 pp.61-64, 1996-1997 pp.65-68 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : Americana Annual 1990 pp.86-89, 1992 pp.100-101, 1993 pp.95-96, 1994 pp.93-94 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1991 pp.428-429, 538, 1992 pp.401, 538, 1993 pp.402-403, 546, 1994 pp.402-403, 546, 1995 pp.367, 546, 1996 pp.366, 546 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 6th 2002, last revised on May 22nd 2007

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