1947-1955 History of Baluchistan 1970-1977

Pakistani Baluchistan 1955-1970

While Baluchistan received a Cinderella treatment by the administrations of British India, and, in the years 1947 to 1955, by that of Pakistan, the abolition of the Province of Baluchistan and of the Baluchistan States Union in 1955 and the integration of both into the newly formed province of West Pakistan only worsened the situation for the Baluchis. Baluchis (i.e. inhabitants of Baluchistan, speakers of either Baluchi or Brahui) made up only 8 % of the population of West Pakistan, while Baluchistan constituted more than 40 % of the province's territory. Policies affecting Baluchistan would no longer be decided in Kalat and Quetta, but in Karachi, Rawalpindi or Islamabad.
The dissolution of the Baluchistan States Union caused demonstrations. In 1958, Khan Abdul Karim of Kalat Released from prison in 1955) was rearrested; Nowroz Khan took over the organization of resistance, which now turned violent. The Pakistani army had established a number of garrisons in Baluchistan; Nowroz Khan was arrested in 1960; Baluchi resistance, in other stretches of the country, continued until 1969. Following the resignation of Ayub Khan in 1969, his successor Yahya Khan agreed on the dissolution of West Pakistan and the establishment of a province of Balochistan.

Pakistani domestic policy was dominated by the contest between Urdu-speaking Mohajirs, Sindhi, Punjabi and Bengali for power. General Ayub Khan, Pakistan's strong man in the years 1958 to 1969, pushed for rapid development of Pakistan; while he achieved considerable results, they benefitted Punjab and Sindh while East Bengal, NWFP and Baluchistan were, by comparison, neglected. Baluchistan's traditional administrative center of Quetta would see some development. Perhaps the most remarkable investment Baluchistan saw was the construction of a pipeline connecting a gas field in Baluchistan with the urban center of Karachi.
In 1958, Oman ceded the exclave of Gwadar to Pakistan; from 1970 onward it was to form part of the province of Balochistan.

Carina Jahani, State Control and its Impact on Balochistan
History of Quetta, Gwadar, History of Balochistan, from Wikipedia
Kalat, from Indian Princely States
Battleground Baluchistan : 1958-1969 - Sher Mohd Marri's Reign, from Hindustan Times
Battleground Baluchistan : 1958 - Nowroz Khan's Reign, from Hindustan Times
Balochis of Pakistan : On the Margin of History, from Foreign Policy Centre (British); online book
REFERENCE Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on May 2nd 2007

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