History of Kazakhstan

General Governorship of the Steppe, 1882-1917

The General Governorship of the Steppe was formed in 1882 and at first included the Governorates of Akmolisk, Semipalatinsk and Semirechye; the Governorates of Uralsk and Turgay remained direcly under the Ministry of the Interior in St. Petersburg. The General Governor was Governor of Omsk and resided there.
In 1897, the Governorate of Semirechye was placed under the General Governor of Turkestan, while the Governorates of Uralsk and Turgay were placed under the General Governor of Omsk. The population of the General Governorship in 1897, prior to the territorial changes, was 2,362,603 (Brockhaus), in 1897, following the territorial changes of that year, was 2,472,931 (EB).
The Semirechye Cossack Host, created in 1867 by separation from the Siberian Cossack Host, was placed under the General Governorship of the Steppe in 1882, under the General Governorship of Turkestan in 1899.

During the Russian Civil War the General Governorate of the Steppe long was held by the Whites. Within her territory, Alash Orda (i.e. eastern Kazakhstan) was run by an autonomous government. Admiral Kolchak temporarily declared Omsk capital of Russia (1918).

Timetable History of Kazakhstan, from BBC News
Major Events Relevant to Central Asian History since 1600, timeline from oxuscom
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Kazakhstan
Article Orenburg, History, Semirechye Cossacks, Alash Orda, Alikhan Bokeikhanov, Almaty, History, Zhetysu (Semirechye Oblast), from Wikipedia
Tomohiko Uyama, The Geography of Civilizations, A Spatial Analysis of the Kazakh Intelligentsia's Activities, from the Mid Nineteenth to the Early Twentieth Century
Paul Georg Geiss, Pre-Tsarist and Tsarist Central Asia : Communal Commitment and Political Order in Change (2003), partially posted by Google Books
Virginia Martin, Law and Custom in the Steppe : The Kazakhs of the Middle Horde and Russian Colonialism in the 19th Century (2001), partially posted by Google Books
Henry Lansdell, Russian Central Asia, including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv (1885), partially posted by Google Books
Article Urkun (1916 Kirghiz Revolt), from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Coat of Arms of Semirechye Oblast, from Vector Images
Article Turkestan, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908 edition; from EB 1911
Article Akmolinsk, Balkash, Semipalatinsk (capital), Semipalatinsk (province), Semiryechensk (province), Syr-Daryinsk (province), Orenburg (city), Orenburg (Government), Turgai, General Governorship of Steppes, from EB 1911
Article Turkistan, Semipalatinsk, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1885-1892, in German
Article Russisch-Centralasien, Steppen-Generalgouvernement, Semirjetschensk, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1892-1894, in German

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on October 13th 2007, last revised on February 20th 2008

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