1828-1848 History of Iran Persia 1883-1905

Persia 1848-1883

Administration . Iran was an absolute monarchy. Shah Nasir ad-Din ruled from 1848 to his assassination in 1896.

Foreign Policy . In 1851-1852 Persian briefly acquired Herat (Afghanistan), but was compelled to give it up by diplomatic pressure exerted by the E.I.C..
In 1856 Persia tried again; the E.I.C. regarded Herat part of Afghanistan and entered the war in order to secure Herat for Afghanistan (Anglo-Persian War). A British force occupied the Persian port city of Bushehr (Bushire) on the Gulf in 1856. Persia gave in, recognized Herat being Afghan.
In 1871, Persia and British India agreed on the Goldsmid Line, dividing Baluchistan into a smaller Persian and a larger British sphere of interest. Nasir ad-Din Shah visited Europe in 1871 and 1873.
The establishment of Russian protectorates over the Emirates of Bukhara (1868) and Khiva (1873) and the Russian acquisition of Merv were of concern; in 1881/1893 the current border separating Iran (then the Persian Empire) and Turkmenistan (then the Russian Empire) was established.

Domestic History . In 1850, Sayyid Ali Muhammad Shirazi, founder of Babism (in 1844), a predecessor of the Baha'i Religion, was executed at the Shah's order. In 1852, an attempt by two Babis to assassinate the Shah failed (EB 1911). Shirazi's successor Mirza Husayn Ali i Nuri was exiled in 1854. In 1866 the Babi split in majority Baha'i and minority Bayanis.
An attempt to establish modern army regiments trained by Austrian officers, begun in 1879, was abandoned in 1882. In 1879 Tehran police force was established (EB 1911).

The Economy . In 1851, a modern postal service was established, the first Persian postage stamps issued. In 1855 a printing shop was established in Tehran, which marks the beginning of a continuous tradition of printing in Persia. The strawberry was introduced into Persia in 1859 (EB 1911). In 1868, the right to fish in the Persian section of the Caspian Sea was leased to a Russian firm. In 1877, Persia adopted the silver standard.

Social History . In 1870-1871 Persia suffered the Great Persian Famine. In 1881 the population of Persia was estimated at 7.6 million (EB 1911).

History of Iran, from Persian Outpost
Timeline of Iranian History, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Iran
Article Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar, Anglo-Persian War, Declaration of Paris, Herat, Bushehr, Babism, Baha'i/Babi Split, Great Game, from Wikipedia
Foundation of Postal System in Iran, from Iran Philatelic Gallery
Origins of Printing in Iran, from Iran Chamber Society
History of the Baha'i World Faith, from religioustolerance.org
Baha'i History of Tehran, from REligious Studies
Baluch Nationalism, since its Birth, from Baloch Warna
Iran, from Global History of Currencies
Anglo-Iranian Relations, from Iranica
DOCUMENTS Iranian Statesmen, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Historical Population Statistics : Iran, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Article : Persia, in : EB 1911

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on May 28th 2007

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