1985-1991 History of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan since 1991

In December 1991 Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected president; Kazakhstan declared independence. By the end of the year, the USSR disintegrated. Kazakhstan joined the CIS and was admitted member of the UN (1992), CSCE (1992). A new constitution was passed in 1993. In 1995 a military and economic cooperation pact with Russia was signed (the country had a strong ethnically Russian population element; Russian economic interests (oil, coal) were of central importance; the Russian space program uses Baikonur in Kazakhstan as launch site).
In 1997 an oil deal was signed with China, an indicator of Kazakhstan attempting to reduce her economic dependency on Russia. The capital wasmoved from Almaty to Akmola (former Tselinograd), closer to the Russian border. In 1998 the new capital was renamed Astana.

In 1991-1993, c.30,000 ethnic Kazakhs emigrated from Mongolia's Bayan-*Ouml;lgii Province, where Kazakhs form the population majority, to Kazakhstan.

The Kazakh National Olympic Committee was established in 1990, received recognition by the IOC in 1993.

Article National Olympic Committee, Bayan-Ölgii Province, from Wikipedia
Timetable History of Kazakhstan, from BBC News
Political Resources on the Net : Kazakhstan
For the Record 2000 : Kazakhstan, from UN Human Rights System
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : Kazakhstan by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics : Kazakhstan, from Population Statistics
REFERENCE Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Kazakhstan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993, pp.425-427, 1993-1994, pp.429-431, 1994-1995, pp.422-424, 1995-1996, pp.414-416 [G]
Article : Kazakhstan, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997, pp.773-776, 1997-1998, pp.782-786, 1998-1999, pp.838-842, 2000, pp.959-964, 2001, pp.936-941, 2002, pp.974-979, 2003, pp.977-982, 2004, pp.982-987, 2005, pp.988-993, 2006 pp.986-989 [G]
Entry : Travel Warnings - Kazakhstan, pp.523-525 in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : Republic of Kazakhstan, Cabinet, p.54; Background Notes, pp.750-753, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Entry : Kazakhstan, pp.612-617 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Kazakhstan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1993 pp.406, 642, 1994 pp.406-407, 641, 1995 pp.431, 642, 1996 pp.429-430, 642, Kazakstan 1997 pp.439-440, 640, Kazakhstan 2002 pp.451, 646 [G]
Article : Kazakhstan, in : Americana Annual 2006 p.222 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 3rd 2002, last revised on October 13th 2007

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