History of Mongolia 1924-1945

Mongolia 1911-1924

Political Status . The Chinese Revolution of 1911 brought the fall of the Qing (Ching) Dynasty. (Outer) Mongolia proclaimed political independence (Bogd Khan assumed the title of Emperor); the political autonomy of Outer Mongolia was recognized by both Russia and China (1913). Czarist Russia regarded Mongolia as within her sphere of influence.
In 1917 the Russian Revolution broke out, and the Russian Empire experienced the Russian Civil War; Red and White forces competed over influence in (outer) Mongolia. In 1919, (outer) Mongolia was temporarily occupied by the forces of a Chinese warlord; in 1921 by the forces of Russian White warlord Ungern von Sternberg (called in by Bogd Khan). Mongolia was declared an independent monarchy, with Ungern-Sternberg serving as dictator. He faced armed resistance led by Damdin Sükhbaatar.
In March 1921 a Communist Mongolian government was established in Russian exile; Tannu Tuva seceded.
In 1921, the Red Army together with the Mongolian Army (founded that year) expelled the Whites. In a 1924 the USSR (founded at the end of 1922) and China agreed on the status of Mongolia as (formally) being part of China.

Administration . In March 1921 a Communist Mongolian government was established in Russian exile (Kyakhta). In Irkutsk (Russia), the Mongolian People's Party was founded; and in 1921, after the expulsion of the Whites, a Mongolian People's Government was installed. Ikh Kuree (Urga, since 1924 Ulaanbataar) was chosen as capital.

The Economy . Until 1921, Chinese currency was used in Mongolia. In 1915 Mongolia introduced its own currency, the Tugruk. Issuance of banknotes began in 1921. In 1918 Mongolia adopted the metric system.

Timetable History of Mongolia, from BBC News
Article Ulaanbataar, Damdin Sukhbaatar, Bogd Khan, Roman Baron Ungern von Sternberg, MPRP, Buddhism in Mongolia, Gandan Monastery, Jebstundamba, History of Mongolia, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Mongolian Statesmen, from World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon
REFERENCE Alan J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : New International Year Book 1916 p.444, 1918 p.419, 1919 p.437, 1920 p.449, 1921 p.466, 1923 pp.478-479 [G]
Article : China : Mongolia, in : Statesman's Year Book 1918 pp.764-769, 1919 pp.761-767 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 7th 2002, last revised on September 14th 2008

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