1924-1945 History of Mongolia 1966-1990

Mongolia 1945-1966

Political Status . The Yalta Conference (February 1945) had conformed the status of Mongolia (as a Soviet satellite). Chiang Kai Shek's Republic of China (reluctantly) recognized Mongolia's independence (1946), as did the PRC (1949). In 1946 a plebiscite was held in which the Mongolians opted for full independence.

Administration . Mongolia's strongman Choibalsan died in 1952; his successor Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal similarily was a Stalin loyalist who implemented party purges (1958-1964); he was PM from 1952 to 1974. A first general election was held in 1951 (BBoY 1952). In 1953 a partial amnesty was granted, the application of the death penalty restricted (BBoY 1954). The post of Secretary General was abolished in 1954 (BBoY 1955).

Foreign Policy . In 1948, Mongolia and North Korea established diplomatic relations. Mongolia received financial and technological aid from both the USSR and the PR China (since 1949).
In 1954, Mongolia and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) established diplomatic relations. A first attempt by Mongolia to join the UN in 1955 was vetoed by the Republic of China.
In 1956 the Soviet troops were withdrawn from Mongolia. The Mongolian government, diplomatically rather isolated, still suspected the PR China of expansionist plans; in 1961 Mongolia was admitted to the UN, in 1962 to COMECON. The admittance of Mongolia to COMECON was interpreted as the country drifting toward Moscow, away from Beijing (BBoY 1963).
When the PR China underwent the Cultural Revolution (1966), Mongolia permitted the stationing of Soviet troops on her territory.
In 1956, for the first time, U.S. reporters were granted visa for Mongolia (BBoY 1957). Mongolia established diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1960 (BBoY 1961), with India in 1961 (BBoY 1962), with the United Kingdom in 1963.

The Economy Civil air transportation began in 1946. In 1940 oil was found in Mongolia; production, by Mongolneft began in 1947.
A first Five Year Plan (1948-1952; a second followed 1953-1957 etc.) was to develop the country's economy, still largely depending on livestock breeding. Ulaanbataar was developed into an industrial center; the exploitation of the country's mineral deposits was expanded. Mongolia was linked to the USSR by railway (1949); the Trans-Mongolian Railway, connecting Ulaanbataar with Beijing, was completed in 1955 (BBoY 1956). In 1956, ownership of the Soviet-Mongolian Joint Stock Company, Mongolneft, the Ulaanbataar Railway and some smaller railways and Ulaanbataar airport were transferred into Mongolian hands (BBoY 1957, 1958). In 1958, a large percentage of the country's livestock and farmland still was privately owned; the 1959 party purges were directed against politicians accused of opposing collectivization (BBoY 1960).

Cultural History . A 1958 archeological expedition claimed to have found the birthplace of Genghiz Khan, located in Buryatia (USSR) (BBoY 1959). In 1961, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences was founded. The Mongolian National Olympic Committee was established in 1961 and recognized by the IOC in 1962. In 1964, Mongolian athletes for the first time participated in the Summer Olympics, held in Tokyo.

Timetable History of Mongolia, from BBC News
Article History of Mongolia : Cold War Politics 1945-1985, National Olympic Committee, Mongolia in the 1964 Summer Olympics, Economy of the Mongolian People's Republic, Trans-Mongolian Railway, Khorloogiin Choibalsan, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, from Wikipedia
Brief History, from Mongolian Airlines
Mongolia's Black Gold Lacks Investment, from ADVFN, has history of Mongolia's oil industry
Anniversary of Viet Nam-Mongolia diplomatic ties marked (2004), from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vietnam
REFERENCE Alan J.K. Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, London : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1946 pp.489-490, 1947 pp.509-510, 1948 p.489 [G]
Article : Mongolian People's Republic, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1949 p.429, 1950 pp.454-455, 1951 p.465, 1952 p.469, 1953 pp.466-467, 1954 p.470, 1955 pp.513-514, 1956 pp.450-451, 1957 pp.513-514, 1958 pp.450-451, 1959 pp.450-451, 1960 pp.446-447 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1961 p.452, 1962 p.452, 1963 p.568, 1964 pp.579-580, 1965 p.580, 1966 pp.585-586 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Americana Annual 1947 pp.456-457 (on events of 1946) [G]
Article : Mongolian People's Republic, in : Americana Annual 1957 p.511, 1961 p.487, 1962 p.495, 1963 p.446, 1964 p.444 [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Americana Annual 1965 p.478 (on events of 1964) [G]
Article : Mongolia, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1946 p.284, 1952 p.269, 1961 p.206 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 7th 2002, last revised on May 29th 2007

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