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Pakistan Iran
First posted on June 5th 2002, last revised on June 8th 2010

In 1926 the Emirate of Afghanistan (1823-1926) was converted into the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Over the following years, Afghanistan was able to maintain its independence. When British India was released into independence and broke up in the Republic of India and Pakistan, Afghanistan laid claim to Pashtunistan (NWFP), an issue which for many years clouded Afghan-Pakistani relations.
The USSR over the years gained more and more influence in Afghanistan. In 1973 the monarchy was abolished and the republic declared. With power struggle going on within the ruling party, in 1979 Soviet forces invaded. From 1979 to 1992 the country was the battleground between Soviet forces and those of the Soviet-backed government on one side, and the Mujahedeen, aided by Pakistan and the U.S.
In 1992 the Soviet-backed government fell. The coalition government composed of a number of Mujahedeen facftions proved rather ineffective; a new political force, the Taliban, in 1994 to 1996 took control of most of the country.
The Taliban administration of Afghanistan was accused of having provided support for the terrorists responsible for 9/11; in 2001 an international coalition force ousted the Taliban from office and established a democratic political system.

Afghanistan since 2001
Afghanistan 1996-2001
Afghanistan 1992-1996
Afghanistan 1978-1992
Afghanistan 1973-1978
Afghanistan 1964-1973
Afghanistan 1945-1964
Afghanistan 1933-1945
Afghanistan 1918-1933

Historical Atlas : Western Central Asia
Historical Atlas : South Asia
List of Wars : Afghanistan

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from Index Mundi; from Intute World Guide; from Meat n Potatoes; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Afghanistan
Library of Congress Country Studies : Afghanistan
from World Wide Gazetteer
Archive Afghanistan, from US Embassy Vienna, Fact Sheets
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz; from Middle East and Jewish Studies at Columbia Univ.; from AHVL Afghanistan Information Center
List of Afghanistan-Related Topics, from Wikipedia; Category : Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Intute, search for Afghanistan; provides links to websites of relevant institutions
on History from Afghanistan dot net; from Virtual Library History; from Eurasia.Net
Category : History of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Organizations Institute for Afghan Studies
The American Institute for Afghanistan Studies
SPACH, Society for the Preservation of Afghan Cultural Heritage
Historical Dictionary Encyclopaedia Iranica
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News; from Afghan Embassy, Tokyo; from Wikipedia
Major Events relevant to Central Asian History until 1600; since 1600, from oxuscom
Accounts of History Current History of Afghanistan, from Afghanistan Online (4 chapters); from Afghanistan dot net (40 chapters, 2 links not working); from Times of Central Asia; Historical Guide to Afghanistan, by Nancy Dupree; History of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; from Global Security; from Crime and Society, A Comparative Criminology of the World (Robert Winslow); from Hindu Website, emphasizes Pre-Islamic Period
Historical P. Sykes, A History of Afghanistan, vol.1 (1940), S.W.E. Gladstone, vol.2 (1940), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods A.A. Kuhzad, Men and events : through 18th and 19th century : Afghanistan (n.d., c.1950) posted on Internet Archive
Article : Reforms of Amanullah Khan and Civil War, Kingdom of Afghanistan 1933-1978, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Civil War in Afghanistan, History of Afghanistan 1978-1992, History of Afghanistan since 1992, from Wikipedia
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Afghanistan; Governments on the WWW : Afghanistan; Article Politics of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; Category Politics in Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Democracy and Governance in Afghanistan, from Peace & Conflict; search site for other Afghanistan-related entries
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Legal System and Research, from GlobaLex (2006)
Afghanistan Profile, from International Crisis Group
Afghanistan Politics, from Global Security
Shah Mahmoud Hanifi, Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier, diss. Columbia UP n.d.
Canada-Afghanistan Relations, has brief history; History of Embassy of Finland, Kabul; History of Hungarian-Afghan Diplomatic Relations, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Hungary; Establishment/Renewal of Diplomatic Relations, from Latvia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Bilateral Relations, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Croatia; Dates of Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with the PRC, from Wikipedia; List of Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, from MOFA, Myanmar; from Permanent Mission of Myanmar to UN, Geneva; History of U.S.-Afghan Relations, from Embasy of Afghanistan, Washington D.C.; History of Afghan-Japanese Relations, from Embassy of Afghanistan, Tokyo; Afghan Embassies Worldwide
Military see here
The 1978 Revolution and the Soviet Invasion, Afghanistan Military Guide; Taliban, from Global Security
Armed Conflicts Report - Afghanistan, from Ploughshares
The Soviet War in Afghanistan : History and Harbinger of Future War ?, by M.Y. Nawroz and L.W. Grau (1996)
Kakar, M. Hassan Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad., Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Edwards, David B. Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Frontier., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Afghanistan
Article Economy of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; Category Economy of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Article Afghan Afghani, Afghan Rupee, from Wikipedia
USAID Afghanistan
Afghanistan, from Internet World Stats
Afghanistan's Opium Production in Perspective, by P.A. Chouvy, Geopium
The Opium Economy of Afghanistan, posted by UNODC
What was the Exchange Rate then ?, service provided by Economic History Services
Social History Afghan Women's History, from Afghanistan Online
Ethnography Languages of Afghanistan (47), from Ethnologue
Minoritiwa at Risk - Afghanistan, entries Hazaras, Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks
Country Report : Afghanistan, from
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Reconstructing Afghanistan : Lessons for Post-War Iraq ? from Migration Information Source
Afghanistan, from Forced Migration Online
(Internal) Migration Information Afghanistan, from City Majors
Refugees from Afghanistan, from Amnesty International
Safe Refuge for Afghan Refugees, from HumanRights Watch
History of Immigration from Afghanistan (to Australia), from Immigration Museum Victoria
History of Pashto Language, from Afghan Network
The Kirghiz of Afghanistan, from Bashiri Working Papers on Central Asia and Iran
The Wakhs, from Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
Article Languages of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; Category Languages from Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Afghanistan, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Afghanistan
Refugee Studies Centre : 'Voluntary Repatriation' and the Case of Afghanistan : A Critical Examination 2008, from Forced Migration Online
H.W. Bellew, The Races of Afghanistan (1880), posted on Internet Archive
H.W. Bellew, An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan (1891), posted on Internet Archive
G.Sc. Robertson, The Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush (1900), posted on Internet Archive
Afghanistan, pp.429-432 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Afghanistan, pp.22-45 in vol.1A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Afghanistan, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Afghanistan; Afghanistan, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Afghanistan, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
History of Regions Provinces of Afghanistan, Divisions of Afghanistan, from www.statoids.com
Article Provinces of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Articles Kafiristan, Badakhshan from Wikipedia
Local History History of Kabul, from Wikipedia; from Afghan Info
History of Kandahar, from Wikipedia
History of Herat, from Wikipedia
History of Maymana, from Wikipedia
Institutions Kabul University, from Wikipedia
The Brief History of Media Freedom in Afghanistan, from Radio Free Europe
History of Kabul Zoo, from IZEA
Afghanistan, from Airline History
Structurae : Afghanistan
Culture Online Publications on the History of Afghani Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Film, Literature, Performing Arts, from Afghanistan Cultural Profile
Biographies List of Afghans, from Wikipedia
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Afghanistan
Disaster History by Country : Afghanistan, from Relief Web
Alcohol and Drug History Society : Afghanistan
Article Afghanistan at the Olympics, Association Football in Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Crime and Society : A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Afghanistan
Afghanistan Directory, from Peace Corps Online
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Afghanistan
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Afghan Ghaznavid Dynasty, from Kessler Web
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Afghanistan, from Wikipedia, U.S. Ambassadors to Afghanistan, from NNDB; List of Canadian Ambassadors to Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; Ambassador of Russia to Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; Chinese Ambassadors to Afghanistan, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Deutschen Botschafter in Kabul (Afghanistan), from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Statistics Organization of Afghanistan
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Afghanistan, from Population Statistics
Population of Cities : Afghanistan, from City Population
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos (since 2004) ; from IFES Election Guide (since 2004)
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Afghan Serials 1931-1984, in Pashto, published by ProQuest
Search Afghanistan Digital Library for newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articless History of Afghanistan, from World History Archives
Afghanistan Article Archives, from Keepmedia; Kabul Article Archives, from Keepmedia
Modern Newspapers links from World Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Historical Photo Album of Afghanistan 1747-1992, posted by J. Faizi-Skandar
Systematic Collections
RAWA Photo Gallery, Afghanistan from 1992-2008
Harrison Forman Collection, Afghanistan Images (late 1960s)
Afghanistan Old Photos 1880s-1930s
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Afghanistan
Afghanistan, from Images of Asia
AGSL Digital Photo Archive : Asia and Middle East
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Contemporary Views of Central Asia (late 1970s-early 1980s)
Universal Collections
Items on Afghanistan
License Plate, from World License Plate
Passport, from World Passports
Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Afghanistan
Medals of Afghanistan, from OMSA
Archival Deposits Afghanistan: Sources in the India Office Records, from British Library
Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Afghanistan" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 6 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
British Intelligence Reports on Afghanistan and its frontiers, 1888-1946, published by IDC Publishers
Russian Military Intelligence on Asia - Afghanistan, published by IDC Publishers
Introduction to the Sources of the Study of the History of Afghanistan, from British Library
Search CIA Released Documents for Afghanistan
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Afghanistan, from ILO, 15 docs. since 1934
Afghanistan Constitutions (1923, 1963, 1976, 1987, 1990) from Afghanistan Online; English translations; scroll down
Afghan Legal Resource Page, from IDLO
Internet Law Library : Afghanistan
Treaties Afghanistan, pp.1-6 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Document Collections Oral Histories : Afghanistan Provincial Reconstruction Teams, from United States Institute of Peace
Wilson Center, CWIHP : Documents on the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Mapping Agencies : Afghanistan : Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Office (AGCO), Kabul
collections Afghanistan Maps, from PCL, UTexas
A Selection of Historical Maps on Afghanistan, from Library of Congress, Geography & Map Reading Room
Afghanistan Historical Maps, from David Rumsey Collection
Historical Maps of Central Asia, from Tajikistan Update, links
Maps of Afghanistan, from Embassy World, links
Maps of Afghanistan, from Afghana
Atlas of Afghanistan, from Wikimedia Commons
Afghanistan & Pakistan, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, Iranian Languages from Titus
David Rumsey Map Collection : Afghanistan Historical Maps
Category : Old Maps of Afghanistan, Maps of the History of Afghanistan, Wikimedia Commons
Afghanistan Maps, Global Security
Afghanistan, hindsight Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Parthian Empire 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Kushan Empire, 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Hephtalite Empire and Hunas, 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Asia 700 AD, Asia 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Historical and Political Map of Iran and Afghanistan, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Afghanistan, Contemporary Afghanistan 1922, Afghanistan 1930, Afghanistan 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Afghanistan
Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage
Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection, at University of Nebraska at Omaha
Archives, Libraries, Museums, from Afghanistan Cultural Profile
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Emblem, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Afghanistan from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Numismondo; from Zeno
Coin Catalog of Afghanistan, from Numismaticon; 2000 Years of Afghanistan Coins, from Joel's Coins, commercial site; Afghanistan Coins, from Collections of Coins, 20th century coins, bilingual Russian & English page (non-commercial); coins, from Zeno; search Coin Archives for Afghanistan
Stamps Rare Afghanistan Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Afghanistan Stamps 1870-1921, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Afghanistan survey of bibliographies University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, National Bibliography and Publishing in Afghanistan, 1871-2009, A guide to the history and bibliography of printed works in the languages of Afghanistan before, during and after the Soviet occupation of 1979-1989
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.127-141 in J. Hanifi, Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1976 [G]
S, Jones, Research Materials Relatng to Afghanistan
Afghanistan Bibliography, from Afghanistan Analyst
Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses on Afghanistan, from Afghanistan Analyst
Afghanistan, from The Online Books Page
Article : Bibliography of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
annual bibliographies Afghanistan Analyst Bibliography 2009, Scribd
specialist bibliographies Online Publications on the History of Afghani Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Afghanistan, from Terrorism and International Violence
Univ. of Bradford, Transformation of War Economies Project : Bibliography for Afghanistan and Central Asia
Institute for Afghan Studies, Bibliography on Taliban
The Second Anglo-Afghan War 1878-1880, Bibliography
R.L. Hadden, Adits, Caves, Karizi-Qanats, and Tunnels in Afghanistan : An Annotated Bibliography
serial publications Central and Inner Asia Studies, publications
Publications, from Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg (most in Russian)
New Asia Books : Afghanistan
general bibliographies
Afghanistan entries
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Afghanistan
Resources for Central Asian Studies in the British Library
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Central Asia
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Ceylon
Internet Archive
International Boundary Studies
on Afghanistan USAID, Afghanistan Digital Libraries
Afghanistan Digital Library (NYU)
Theses Server Afghanistan Analyst, online theses
Online Journals full text online Silk Road Journal 2003-
Transoxiana 2000-
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Search Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Afghanistan
Table of Contents online International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1996-2009
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.25-36 Article Afghanistan. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Jamil Hanifi, Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1976 [G]
Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1991
Articles : Baluchistan pp.57-59, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]

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