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Punjab Emirate of Bukhara
First posted on June 11th 2010

In 1823 Dost Mohammad Khan established control over the remnants of the Durrani Empire. His capital was Kandahar. He held on to his position during the First Anglo-Afghan War 1838-1842, annexed Kunduz with Balkh in 1850, Herat in 1863. After his death in 1863 the country briefly was divided in two (Kandahar, Kabul); Sher Ali reunited both by taking Kabul in 1868.
The years 1878 to 1895 saw intense Anglo-Russian rivalry in Central Asia ("The Great Game"). British India and the Russian Empire agreed in regarding Afghanistan as a buffer state separating both. Anglo-Russian agreements delineated the mutual spheres of influence and defined Afghanistan as including all the territory separating both. Thus Afghanistan was enlarged by territory prteviously not regarded being Afghan, Kafiristan (conquered & converted to Islam after the Robertson expedition 1890-1891), Afghan Baluchistan (in consequence of the Durrand Line 1893), the Wakhan Corridor (1895, hitherto part of Badakhshan). On the other hand, the Durrand Line of 1893 defined what since 1901 formed the North West Frontier Province as part of British India.
In 1926 the Emirate of Afghanistan became the Kingdom of Afghanistan.

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Country Profiles Current Article : Barakzai Dynasty, European Influence in Afghanistan (19th C.), Emirate of Afghanistan 1823-1926, Reforms of Amanullah Khan and Civil War, from Wikipedia
Historical Ph.F. Walker, Afghanistan: a short account of Afghanistan, its history, and our dealings with it. (1885), posted on Internet Archive
A. Hamilton, Afghanistan (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz; from Middle East and Jewish Studies at Columbia Univ.; from AHVL Afghanistan Information Center
List of Afghanistan-Related Topics, from Wikipedia; Category : Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Intute, search for Afghanistan; provides links to websites of relevant institutions
on History from Afghanistan dot net; from Virtual Library History; from Eurasia.Net
Category : History of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Organizations Institute for Afghan Studies
The American Institute for Afghanistan Studies
SPACH, Society for the Preservation of Afghan Cultural Heritage
Historical Dictionary Encyclopaedia Iranica
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News; from Afghan Embassy, Tokyo; from Wikipedia
Major Events relevant to Central Asian History until 1600; since 1600, from oxuscom
Accounts of History Current History of Afghanistan, from Afghanistan Online (4 chapters); from Afghanistan dot net (40 chapters, 2 links not working); from Times of Central Asia; Historical Guide to Afghanistan, by Nancy Dupree; History of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; from Global Security
Historical P. Sykes, A History of Afghanistan, vol.1 (1940), S.W.E. Gladstone, vol.2 (1940), posted on Internet Archive
G.P. Tate, The kingdom of Afghanistan: a historical sketch (1911), posted on Internet Archive
H.W. Bellew, Afghanistan and the Afghans: Being a Brief Review of the History of the .. (1879), posted on Internet Archive
G.Br. Malleson, History of Afghanistan, to the outbreak of the war of 1878 (1878), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Ch.E. Yate, Northern Afghanistan; or, Letters from the Afghan boundary commission (1888), posted on Internet Archive
Th.F. Rodenbough, Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian Dispute (n.d., c.1885), posted on Internet Archive
F.H. Fisher, Afghanistan and the Central Asian question (1878), posted on Internet Archive
F.A. Martin, Under the absolute Amir (1907), posted on Internet Archive
A.A. Kuhzad, Men and events : through 18th and 19th century : Afghanistan (n.d., c.1950) posted on Internet Archive
Article : Durrani Empire 1747-1826, from Wikipedia
Military see here
Friedrich Engels, Afghanistan (published in 1847, on Anglo-Afghan War 1838-1842), from Marxists.org
J.W. Kaye, History of the War in Afghanistan, vol.1 (1874), vol.2 (1874), vol.3 (1874), posted on Internet Archive
V. Eyre, The Kabul insurrection of 1841-42 (1879), posted on Internet Archive
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Afghanistan
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Afghanistan (47), from Ethnologue
Minoritiwa at Risk - Afghanistan, entries Hazaras, Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks
Country Report : Afghanistan, from
U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Reconstructing Afghanistan : Lessons for Post-War Iraq ? from Migration Information Source
Afghanistan, from Forced Migration Online
(Internal) Migration Information Afghanistan, from City Majors
Refugees from Afghanistan, from Amnesty International
Safe Refuge for Afghan Refugees, from HumanRights Watch
History of Immigration from Afghanistan (to Australia), from Immigration Museum Victoria
History of Pashto Language, from Afghan Network
The Kirghiz of Afghanistan, from Bashiri Working Papers on Central Asia and Iran
The Wakhs, from Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
Article Languages of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia; Category Languages from Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Afghanistan, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Afghanistan
Refugee Studies Centre : 'Voluntary Repatriation' and the Case of Afghanistan : A Critical Examination 2008, from Forced Migration Online
H.W. Bellew, The Races Of Afghanistan (1880), posted on Internet Archive
H.W. Bellew, An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan (1891), posted on Internet Archive
G.Sc. Robertson, The Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush (1900), posted on Internet Archive
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Afghanistan, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Afghanistan; Afghanistan, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Afghanistan, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
History of Regions Provinces of Afghanistan, Divisions of Afghanistan, from www.statoids.com
Article Provinces of Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Articles Kafiristan, Badakhshan from Wikipedia
Local History History of Kabul, from Wikipedia; from Afghan Info
History of Kandahar, from Wikipedia
History of Herat, from Wikipedia
History of Maymana, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Afghanistan
Culture Online Publications on the History of Afghani Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Biographies List of Afghans, from Wikipedia
The life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, vol.1 (1900), posted on Internet Archive
M.L. Munshi, Life of the amir Dost Mohammed Khan of Kabul: with his political proceedings towards the English, Russian and Persian governments, including the victory and disasters of the British army in Afghanistan. vol.1 (1846), vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Afghanistan
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for Afghanistan, Badakhshan, Maimana, Qonduz, Sar-i-Pul
from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Afghanistan, from Wikipedia, Ambassador of Russia to Afghanistan, from Wikipedia
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Historical Photo Album of Afghanistan 1747-1992, posted by J. Faizi-Skandar
Archival Deposits Afghanistan: Sources in the India Office Records, from British Library
British Intelligence Reports on Afghanistan and its frontiers, 1888-1946, published by IDC Publishers
Russian Military Intelligence on Asia - Afghanistan, published by IDC Publishers
Introduction to the Sources of the Study of the History of Afghanistan, from British Library
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Treaties and Agreements relating to Afghanistan, 1809-1919, from South Asia Project
Treaties with the King of Persia, Runjeet Sing, the King of Cabool, the Ameers of Sinde and the Nawab of Bahawulpore, etc (1839), posted on Internet Archive
Document Collections Friedrich Engels : Afghanistan, from Marxists.org (1857)
W.H. MacNaghten, On the Persian Faction in Cabool, pp.7-11, Supplementary Paper on the Persian Faction in Cabool, pp.12-13, On the Political State of Cabool, pp.14-22, Views and Prospects of Russia and Persia towards Candahar, pp.33-36, L.R. Leech, Notice on the Affairs of Candahar in 1838 with a Sketch of the Preceding Doorannee Dynasty, pp.51-64, Geographical : A Geographical Notice of the South Side of the Valley of the Cabool River, pp.1-5 ; R. Leech, Description of the Khyber Pass and the Tribes inhabiting it, pp.6-12, Survey of the Road between Cabool and Toorkistan, p.20, Memoir to Accompany a Reconnoitering Survey of the Road from Cabool to Toorkistan, pp.21-28, Description of the Passes over the Hindoo Coosh Range of Mountains from the Koh Daman of Cabool, pp.29-43, Some Account of a Visit to the Plain of Koh-i-Damun, the Mining District of Ghorbund, and the Pass of Hindu Kush, pp.44-57, Notice on the Wool of Cabool and Bokhara, pp.105-107, List of Articles Found in the Bazaar of Cabool, and Brought to it from Bokhara, p.118, List of European and Indian Articles Brought to Cabool, pp.119-120, List of the Productions of Afghanistan Sent into India p.121, Description of Articles, Mostly Russian, Found in the Bazaar of Cabool and Brought to it by the Way of Bokhara, pp.147-154, Report on the Weights, Measures and Coins of Cabool and Bokhara, pp.155-164, in : Reports and Papers, Political, Geographical, & Commercial Submitted to Government, 1839, GB
Historical Maps Afghanistan Maps, from PCL, UTexas
A Selection of Historical Maps on Afghanistan, from Library of Congress, Geography & Map Reading Room
Afghanistan Historical Maps, from David Rumsey Collection
Historical Maps of Central Asia, from Tajikistan Update, links
Maps of Afghanistan, from Embassy World, links
Maps of Afghanistan, from Afghana
Atlas of Afghanistan, from Wikimedia Commons
Afghanistan & Pakistan, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, Iranian Languages from Titus
Afghanistan 1906, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Historical Maps of Afghanistan, from The Map Database
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Afghanistan, pp.168-171 in vol.1 of Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1823, GB
Articles Afghanistan, Badachschan, Balch, Dschelalabad, Ghasni, Herat, Kabul, Kafiristan, Kandahar, Maimana, Seistan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
from EB 1902; Articles Afghanistan; Seistan, Kafiristan, Badakhshan, Balkh, Andkhui, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Ghazni, Ghor, Herat, Pushtu, Helmund, Bamian, from EB 1911
Economic Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents (1838), posted on Internet Archive, on Cabul pp.283-285
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Afghanistan
Geographical Cabul or Afghanistan, pp.392-393, Herat p.303, in A. Balbi, An Abridgement of Universal Geography : Modern and Ancient, 1835, GB
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Afghanistan
Afghanistan, pp.189-190 in A. Stewart, A Compendium of Modern Geography , 1839, GB
Article Afghanistan, Kafiristan, Badakhshan, Balkh, Maimana, Herat Province, Kandahar Province, Kabul City, Kabul Province, Jalalabad District, Helmand, Ghor, Ghazni, from Imperial Gazetteer of India, posted by DSAL
Afghanistan p.219 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Afghanistan, pp.369-370 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ethnographical Royaume de Kaboul ou d'Afghanistan, pp.379-380 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
on History
Historical Yearbook Entries Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach, Afghanistan vol.1 1824 p.364, vol.2 1825 p.364, vol.3 1826 pp.398-399, vol.7 1830 pp.518-519, vol.8 1831 pp.526-528, vol.9 1832 pp.601-602, vol.10 1833 pp.618-619, vol.11 1834 pp.651-652, vol.12 1835 pp.751-753, vol.13 1836 pp.735-737, vol.15/16 1838/39 pp.691-693, vol.17 1840 pp.849-851, vol.19 1842 pp.871-874, vol.20 1843 pp.871-874, vol.23 1846 pp.740-741, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues The Travels and Adventures of the Turkish Admiral Sidi Ali Reis: In India, Afghanistan, Central .. (1899), posted on Internet Archive
G.Th. Vigne, A personal narrative of a vist to Ghuzni, Kabul, and Afghanistan, and of a residence at the .. (1840), posted on Internet Archive
H.C. Marsh, A ride through Islam, being a journey through Persia and Afghanistan to India via Meshed, Herat, and Kandahar (1877), posted on Internet Archive
A. le Messurier, Kandahar in 1879 (1880), posted on Internet Archive
H.W. Bellew, Journal Of A Political Mission To Afghanistan In 1857 (1862), posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Afghanistan
Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage
Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection, at University of Nebraska at Omaha
Archives, Libraries, Museums, from Afghanistan Cultural Profile
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Emblem, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Afghanistan from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Numismondo; from Zeno
Coin Catalog of Afghanistan, from Numismaticon; 2000 Years of Afghanistan Coins, from Joel's Coins, commercial site; Afghanistan Coins, from Collections of Coins, 20th century coins, bilingual Russian & English page (non-commercial); coins, from Zeno; search Coin Archives for Afghanistan
Stamps Rare Afghanistan Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Afghanistan Stamps 1870-1921, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Afghanistan Afghanistan Bibliography, from Afghanistan Analyst
Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses on Afghanistan, from Afghanistan Analyst
Online Publications on the History of Afghani Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Afghanistan, from Terrorism and International Violence
Afghanistan, from The Online Books Page
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Afghanistan
Central and Inner Asia Studies, publications
Publications, from Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg (most in Russian)
Resources for Central Asian Studies in the British Library
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Central Asia
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Ceylon
Internet Archive
International Boundary Studies
on Afghanistan
Theses Server Afghanistan Analyst, online theses
Online Journals Central Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Afghanistan Journals, from ELIN-NIAS
Silk Road Papers, from Central Asia - Caucasus Institute
Silk Road Journal
Search Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Afghanistan
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.13, pp.25-36 Article Afghanistan. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.13
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Jamil Hanifi, Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1976 [G]
Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 1991
Articles : Baluchistan pp.57-59, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data
Yearbooks Article : Afghanistan, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.313-316, 1898 pp.312-316, 1901 pp.361-366, 1905 pp.391-395, 1910 pp.567-570 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : The International Year Book 1898 p.8, 1899 pp.6-8, 1900 pp.6-8 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.7-8, 1908 pp.7-8, 1909 p.7, 1913 p.10, 1914 p.10, 1916 p.8, 1918 p.12 [G]
Article : Dost Mohamed Khan, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1863 pp.355-357 [G]
Article : Afghanistan, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.4-6, 1894 p.3 [G]

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