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Bukhara Xinjiang
First posted on February 21st 2009, last revised on June 10th 2010

for the history of the territory since 1895 see History of Afghanistan, History of Tajikistan

Since 1823 tributary to the Khanate of Kunduz. The Anglo-Russian agreement of 1884 which delineated the southern border of the Russian Empire in 1884 split Badakhshan in half. In 1895 the Russian Empire formally annexed the Pamir Region (Gorno Badakhshan); in 1888 the Khanate of Kunduz was absorbed into Afghanistan, in the 1890es Afghanistan established control over Afghan Badakhshan. In 1893, the Durand Line established the border between Afghanistan and British India.

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Country Profiles from Current Perspective Articles Badakhshan, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province from Wikipedia
from Historical Perspective
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Badakhshan, click Timeline
Accounts of History Central Asia Current Perspective Encyclopaedia Iranica : Central Asia
Le Kharezm et les Khanats Ouzbeks, from Imago Mundi, in French; scroll down for Le Khanat de Khiva
Article : Khwarezm, from Wikipedia
Historical Perspective J. de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares vol.1 pt.1, 1756, vol.1 pt.2, 1756, vol.2, 1756, vol.3, 1757, vol.4, 1758, vol.5, 1758, in French, GB
Alexandre A. Jardot, Revolutions des peuples de l'Asie Moyenne, vol.1, vol.2, 1839, in French, GB
Badakhshan Current Perspective Article : Badakhshan : History, from Wikipedia
History, from Pamirs.org
Search Encyclopaedia Iranica for Badaksan
Historical Perspective
Central Asia Specific Periods M.A. al-Karim Bukhari, Ch.H.A. Schefer, Histoire de l'Asie centrale, Afghanistan, Boukhara, Khiva, Khoqand, depuis les dernieres annees du regne de Nadir Chah, 1153, jusqu'en 1233 de l'Hegire, 1740-1818 (1876) in French, posted on Internet Archive
Badakhshan Specific Periods
Economy & Finances Regional Rural Regeneration Strategies : Provincial Profile : Badakhshan (Afghanistan), from AISA
Zoya Pylenko, Badakhshan : more Pverty after Russian Withdrawal (2005), from Central Asia-Caucasus Institute
Markus Hauser, The UNESCO Map of the Pamirs and its Implications of Ecotourism in Tajikistan, has account of history of tourism in Gorno-Badakhshan
Social History
Ethnography The Peoples of the Pamirs, The Roshanis, The Shugnis, The Wakhs, The Yazgulamis, from The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Tajikistan - Pamiris, from UNHCR
Pamir Peoples, from World Culture Encyclopedia
H.B. Paksoy, Observations among Kirghiz Refugees from the Pamirs of Afghanistan Settled in the Turkish Republic
Languages of Tajikistan (Shugni, Wakhi, Yazgulyam); of Afghanistan (Kirghiz, Shugni, Uyghur, Wakhi), from Ethnologue
Articles Pamir Languages, Ishkashimi Language, Munji Language, Rushani Language, Shugni Language, Wakhi Language, Yazgulyam Language, Pamiri People, Wakhi People, from Wikipedia
Entries The Farsi, Eastern Language (Badakhshi), The Munji Language, The Sanglechi-Ishkashimi Language, The Shugni Language, The Wakhi Language, The Yazgulyam Language, from The Linguist
Religion Afghan Badakhshan and the Nizari Ismailis, from IIAS Newsletter
The Pamiri House, from Pamirs.org
Article Nizari, from Wikipedia
The End of Taqiyya: Reaffirming the Religious Identity of Ismailis in Shughnan, Badakhshan - Political Implications for Afghanistan, from Heritage Society
History of Regions Article Wakhan : History
Upper Tokharistan, from Central Asia in the Middle Ages
Local History Article Fayzabad, Badakhshan
Structures, Institutions
Biographies Article Mullah Shah Badakhshi, from Wikipedia
Culture & Science
Biographies Search ISBN Database for Badakhshan
Search RHS Bibliography for Badakhshan
Others Article : Durand Line, from Wikipedia
Afghanistan-U.S.S.R. Boundary, from International Boundary Studies (1983)
Afghanistan-China Boundary, from International Boundary Studies (1969)
China-U.S.S.R. Boundary, from International Boundary Studies (1978)

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Badakhshan by Ben Cahoon; from Regnal Chronologies
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Historical Photos from the Pamir Archive, from Pamirs.org
Archival Deposits British Intelligence Reports on Russia in Central Asia, published by IDC Publishers
Search Your Archives for Badakhshan (UK National Archives)
Constitutions, Laws
Treaty Collections
Document Collections
Historical Maps Map : Afghanistan, ethnic composition, from Solar Navigator; Afghanistan : Ethnolinguistic Groups, from PCL, UTexas, alternative map from PCL, UTexas
Map : Languages of Afghanistan, from Wikimedia
Afghanistan - Warlord Zones 2004, from Global Security
Afghanistan, International Security Assistance Force, Provincial Reconstruction Teams, from NATO
Map : Major Ethnic Groups in Tajikistan, from Nation Master
Map : Major Ethnic Groups in Central Asia, from PCL, UTexas
Ethnolinguistic Map of Tajikistan 1998, by Iraj Bashiri
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 700 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Turan, Pamer, Badakschan, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German
Article Badachschan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892
Article Badakshan, Pamirs, from EB 1911
Religious Article Turkestan, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Badakhshan
Geographical Article Badakhshan, from Geografisk-Statistik Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
on History
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes search Coin Archives for Badakhshan

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Badakhshan
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
on Central Asia Ismaili Heritage Society (Electronic Library and Database)
Thesis Server English Language (Abstracts of Russian Language) Dissertations from the CIS
IFESCCO - Digital Library of Dissertations, maintained at Russian State Library
Online Journals full text online Silk Road Journal
International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1996-2009
Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Turkistan Newsletter, from SOTA
Journal of Modern Turkish Studies, Ankara 2004-
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Yuri Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (HACA) Leiden : Brill 2003 (defines Central Asia as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Xinjiang)

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